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hidden population

Arild Kjell Aambø
Modern medicine's investment in the disembodied, objective 'science' of biomedicine, where patients are transformed from suffering subjects to objects of investigation, calls for heightened ethical awareness. Around the world, ethical codes of conduct emphasise beneficence and non-maleficence. Lately, we have also seen a quest for autonomy and equitable healthcare for diverse populations. However, these tenets alone do not effectively address the problems which regularly occur in transcultural consultations...
February 18, 2019: Medical Humanities
Jacob M Remington, Martin McCullagh, Bern Kohler
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of 2-aminopurine (2Ap)-labeled DNA dinucleoside monophosphates (DNMPs) were performed to investigate the hypothesis that base stacking dynamics occur on time scales sufficiently rapid to influence the emission signals measured in time-resolved fluorescence experiments. Analysis of multiple microsecond-length trajectories shows that the DNMPs sample all four co-planar stacking motifs. In addition, three metastable unstacked conformations are detected. A hidden Markov state model (HMSM) was applied to the simulations to estimate transition rates between the stacked and unstacked states...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
W Chris Oosthuizen, Roger Pradel, Marthán N Bester, P J Nico de Bruyn
Increased environmental stochasticity due to climate change will intensify temporal variance in the life-history traits, and especially breeding probabilities, of long-lived iteroparous species. These changes may decrease individual fitness and population viability and is therefore important to monitor. In wild animal populations with imperfect individual detection, breeding probabilities are best estimated using capture-recapture methods. However, in many vertebrate species (e.g., amphibians, turtles, seabirds), nonbreeders are unobservable because they are not tied to a territory or breeding location...
January 2019: Ecology and Evolution
Nina Luisa Santostasi, Paolo Ciucci, Romolo Caniglia, Elena Fabbri, Luigi Molinari, Willy Reggioni, Olivier Gimenez
Estimating the relative abundance (prevalence) of different population segments is a key step in addressing fundamental research questions in ecology, evolution, and conservation. The raw percentage of individuals in the sample (naive prevalence) is generally used for this purpose, but it is likely to be subject to two main sources of bias. First, the detectability of individuals is ignored; second, classification errors may occur due to some inherent limits of the diagnostic methods. We developed a hidden Markov (also known as multievent) capture-recapture model to estimate prevalence in free-ranging populations accounting for imperfect detectability and uncertainty in individual's classification...
January 2019: Ecology and Evolution
M Gogia, C Lawlor, N Shengelia, K Stvilia, H F Raymond
BACKGROUND: The HIV epidemic in Georgia is increasing. Data shows that compared to previous years, Georgia has increasingly more HIV-infected individuals than previous assessments. Select client groups remain hard to reach by harm reduction programs. The need for innovative strategies to involve these individuals is imperative. METHODS: The following study examines demographics and risk factors of participants, previously known and not known to harm reduction services, for HIV and other infectious disease in towns across Georgia in 2015 and compares risk among different groups, while also assessing the rationale for implementing Peer-Driven Interventions in Georgian Harm Reduction activities...
February 12, 2019: Harm Reduction Journal
Katharina F Sonnen, Christoph A Merten
Microfluidics has become a precision tool in modern biology. It enables omics data to be obtained from individual cells, as compared to averaged signals from cell populations, and it allows manipulation of biological specimens in entirely new ways. Cells and organisms can be perturbed at extraordinary spatiotemporal resolution, revealing mechanistic insights that would otherwise remain hidden. In this perspective article, we discuss the current and future impact of microfluidic technology in the field of developmental biology...
February 11, 2019: Developmental Cell
P Besbeas, B J T Morgan
Integrated population modelling is widely used in statistical ecology. It allows data from population time series and independent surveys to be analysed simultaneously. In classical analysis the time-series likelihood component can be conveniently approximated using Kalman filter methodology. However, the natural way to model systems which have a discrete state space is to use hidden Markov models (HMMs). The proposed method avoids the Kalman filter approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. Subject to possible numerical sensitivity analysis, it is exact, flexible, and allows the use of standard techniques of classical inference...
February 12, 2019: Biometrics
Adebanjo Ayobamidele Badejo
Poverty eradication and global food security are among the targets of world leaders, most especially combating the scourge of hidden hunger. Provitamin A carotenoids cannot be synthesized de novo by human and so it must be taken as part of the diet. The deficiency of which is causing almost 6000 sights to be lost daily in most developing countries because of the monotonous starchy diets lacking substantial amount of carotenoid. Conventional breeding as well as genetic engineering have been used to increase the level of carotenoid in many staples including rice, potato, maize and cassava...
December 2018: Journal, Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology
Samantha Kristin Dung, Andrea López, Ezequiel Lopez Barragan, Rochelle-Jan Reyes, Ricky Thu, Edgar Castellanos, Francisca Catalan, Emilia Huerta-Sánchez, Rori V Rohlfs
While productivity in academia is measured through authorship, not all scientific contributors have been recognized as authors. We consider nonauthor "acknowledged programmers" (APs), who developed, ran, and sometimes analyzed the results of computer programs. We identified APs in Theoretical Population Biology articles published between 1970 and 1990, finding that APs were disproportionately women ( P = 4.0 × 10-10 ). We note recurrent APs who contributed to several highly-cited manuscripts. The occurrence of APs decreased over time, corresponding to the masculinization of computer programming and the shift of programming responsibilities to individuals credited as authors...
February 2019: Genetics
Shaik Afshan Jabeen, Padmaja Gaddamanugu, Ajith Cherian, Kandadai Mridula Mridula, Dasari Uday Kumar, Angamuttu Kanikannan Meena
Objectives To study the clinical profile and outcome in patients with epilepsy who developed psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) associated with levetiracetam (LEV) use.   Methods In this prospective observational study, conducted over 1 year, 13 patients with epilepsy and PNES, documented by video electroencephalogram (VEEG) while on LEV, were included. Those with past history of psychiatric illnesses were excluded. VEEG, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, neuropsychological and psychiatric evaluation were performed...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
Mikołaj Kaczmarski, Piotr Tryjanowski, Anna Maria Kubicka
Background: The main aim of the study was to analyse the influence of fleshy fruits (plums) on the post-metamorphic growth and feeding behaviour of the green toad Bufotes viridis . We tested the following two hypotheses: (1) juveniles of the green toad are characterised by faster growth in conditions involving fallen plums Prunus cerasifera due to the associated presence of more varied food such as invertebrates; (2) green toads exhibit more active feeding behaviour in the presence of fleshy fruits...
2019: PeerJ
April M Ballard, Trey Cardwell, April M Young
BACKGROUND: Internet is becoming an increasingly common tool for survey research, particularly among "hidden" or vulnerable populations, such as men who have sex with men (MSM). Web-based research has many advantages for participants and researchers, but fraud can present a significant threat to data integrity. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate fraud detection strategies in a Web-based survey of young MSM and describe new protocols to improve fraud detection in Web-based survey research...
February 4, 2019: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Delishia M Pittman, Paramjit Kaur, Lisa T Eyler
OBJECTIVE: Black emerging adult women (ages 18-25 years) are among the fastest growing demographics of HIV infection, second only to men who have sex with men. Black women account for nine of 10 new HIV cases, whereas 84% of these cases are reported to be from heterosexual contact with infected male partners. Heterosexual Black college women (BCW) have been nearly ignored in the HIV literature despite having shared (e.g., risky alcohol use, multiple and concurrent sex partnerships, and inconsistent condom use) and unique (e...
January 2019: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
Clare White, Simon I R Noble, Max Watson, Flavia Swan, Victoria L Allgar, Eoin Napier, Annmarie Nelson, Jayne McAuley, Jennifer Doherty, Bernadette Lee, Miriam J Johnson
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of deep venous thrombosis in patients with advanced cancer is unconfirmed and it is unknown whether current international thromboprophylaxis guidance is applicable to this population. We aimed to determine prevalence and predictors of femoral deep vein thrombosis in patients admitted to specialist palliative care units (SPCUs). METHODS: We did this prospective longitudinal observational study in five SPCUs in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland (four hospices and one palliative care unit)...
February 2019: Lancet Haematology
Stefanie J Krauth, Julie Balen, Geoffrey N Gobert, Poppy H L Lamberton
Ever since the first known written report of schistosomiasis in the mid-19th century, researchers have aimed to increase knowledge of the parasites, their hosts, and the mechanisms contributing to infection and disease. This knowledge generation has been paramount for the development of improved intervention strategies. Yet, despite a broad knowledge base of direct risk factors for schistosomiasis, there remains a paucity of information related to more complex, interconnected, and often hidden drivers of transmission that hamper intervention successes and sustainability...
January 29, 2019: Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
Camilo Ernesto Valderrama Cuadros, Lisa Stroux, Nasim Katebi, Elianna Paljug, Rachel Hall-Clifford, Peter Rohloff, Faezeh Marzbanrad, Gari D Clifford
Open research on fetal heart rate (FHR) estimation is relatively rare, and evidence for the utility of metrics derived from Doppler ultrasound devices has historically remained hidden in the proprietary documentation of commercial entities, thereby inhibiting its assessment and improvement. Nevertheless, recent studies have attempted to improve FHR estimation; however, these methods were developed and tested using datasets composed of few subjects and are therefore unlikely to be generalizable on a population level...
January 30, 2019: Physiological Measurement
Allan Mata-Quirós, Adriana Arciniegas-Leal, Wilbert Phillips-Mora, Lyndel W Meinhardt, Lambert Motilal, Sue Mischke, Dapeng Zhang
The international cacao collection in CATIE, Costa Rica contains nearly 1200 accessions of cacao, mainly from the center of genetic diversity of this species. Among these accessions, the United Fruit clones (UF clones) were developed by the United Fruit Company in Costa Rica, and they represent one of the earliest groups of improved cacao germplasm in the world. Some of these UF clones have been used as key progenitors for breeding resistance/tolerance to Frosty Pod and Black Pod diseases in the Americas. Accurate information on the identity and background of these clones is important for their effective use in breeding...
December 2018: Breeding Science
Hoang Lan Vu, Kelvin Tsun Wai Ng, Damien Bolingbroke
Efficient and effective solid waste management requires sufficient ability to predict the operational capacity of a system correctly. Waste prediction models have been widely studied and these models are always being challenged to perform more accurately. Unlike waste prediction models for mixed wastes, variables for yard waste are time sensitive and the effects of lag must be explicitly considered. This study is the first to specifically look at lag times relating to variables that attempt to predict municipal yard waste generation using machine learning approaches...
February 1, 2019: Waste Management
Mona S Calvo, Richard A Sherman, Jaime Uribarri
Careful dietary management that reduces high phosphate intake is recommended to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and prevent complications of CKD and may help reduce chronic disease risks such as incident CKD associated with high phosphate intake in the healthy general population. For patients treated with maintenance dialysis, control of serum phosphorus levels is considered a marker of good care and requires a coordinated plan that limits dietary phosphate intake, uses oral phosphate binders, and provides an adequate dialysis prescription...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Siwen Zhang, Yi Zhang, Natalie E Stenzoski, Junjie Zou, Ivan Peran, Scott A McCallum, Daniel P Raleigh, Catherine A Royer
The observation of two-state unfolding for many small single-domain proteins by denaturants has led to speculation that protein sequences may have evolved to limit the population of partially folded states that could be detrimental to fitness. How such strong cooperativity arises from a multitude of individual interactions is not well understood. Here, we investigate the stability and folding cooperativity of the C-terminal domain of the ribosomal protein L9 in the pressure-temperature plane using site-specific NMR...
January 8, 2019: Biophysical Journal
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