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Skin and gastrointestinal diseases

Zhao Chen, Yanfeng Cao, Yanling Zhang, Yanjiang Qiao
Pungent traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) play a vital role in the clinical treatment of hepatobiliary disease, gastrointestinal diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, skin diseases and so on. Pungent TCMs have a vastness of pungent flavored (with pungent taste or smell) compounds. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of pungent flavored compounds in treating cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and liver diseases, five pungent TCMs with the action of blood-activating and stasis-resolving (BASR) were selected...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Emire Seyahi
Behçet syndrome (BS) is a multi-systemic complex disorder with unknown etiology and a unique geographic distribution. It could not be possible to include it into specific classification schemes and it is certainly not a uniform disease. Several cluster and association studies revealed that it has been composed of multiple phenotypes ascribing the principal problem such as skin-mucosa, joint, eye, vascular, neurological and gastrointestinal involvement. Each phenotype has its own characteristic demographic and clinical features as such their management strategies and prognosis differ substantially...
February 11, 2019: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Yujia Zhang, Nan Zhang, Hui Song, He Li, Jin Wen, Xiaochuan Tan, Wensheng Zheng
Gout is a kind of joint disease characterized by the accumulation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in the joint and its surrounding tissue, causing persistent hyperuricemia. Colchicine is the first choice of treatment for acute gout attacks. Due to strong toxicity of colchicines oral tablets, there are high fluctuations of blood drug concentration and serious irritation of gastrointestinal tract, and hence a transdermal preparation can help to slow down the blood drug concentration, reduce the frequency of drug taking, and improve the patients' compliance of the drug...
December 2019: Drug Delivery
Svetlana Skurtveit, Blanka Nechanská, Marte Handal, Milada Mahic, Viktor Mravčík, Roman Gabrhelík
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Our understanding of the long-term safety of prenatal exposure to Opioid Maintenance Treatment (OMT) is insufficient. We compared childhood morbidity (0-3 years) between OMT-exposed and relevant comparison groups. DESIGN: Nation-wide, registry-based cohort study. Registries on reproductive health, addiction treatment, hospitalization, and death were linked using identification numbers. SETTING: The Czech Republic (2000-14)...
February 6, 2019: Addiction
Taisuke Nakayama, Mayuko Nakayama, Takashi Harada, Shingo Isshiki, Hideki Sasaki, Hiroshi Ishitoya
Neurofibromatosis type 1, also called von Recklinghausen's disease, is a hereditary congenital disorder that affects tissues of neuroectodermal or mesodermal origin. This disease has various manifestations, including pigmented skin lesions, cutaneous neurofibromas, skeletal abnormalities, and tumors of the central/peripheral nervous and gastrointestinal systems, and vascular abnormalities. Because of vasculopathy, part of the vessel wall may be replaced by neurofibromatosis tissue. Involvement of the internal thoracic artery is, however, extremely rare...
2019: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
Ling-Yan Ma, Gen-Liang Liu, Dong-Xu Wang, Mei-Mei Zhang, Wen-Yi Kou, Tao Feng
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder. To date, the diagnosis of PD relies mainly on clinical manifestations whereas neuropathological confirmation of the brain is only possible with postmortem studies. Neuronal loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) associated with Lewy bodies/neurites is the pathological hallmark feature of PD. The major component of Lewy pathology (LP) is misfolded alpha-synuclein (α-SYN). There is evidence that the distribution of LP is not only limited to the brain but extending to peripheral tissues, including gastrointestinal tract, salivary glands, olfactory mucosa, skin, retina, adrenal gland and heart...
February 4, 2019: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Loretta J Nastoupil, Matthew A Lunning, Julie M Vose, Marshall T Schreeder, Tanya Siddiqi, Christopher R Flowers, Jonathon B Cohen, Jan A Burger, William G Wierda, Susan O'Brien, Peter Sportelli, Hari P Miskin, Michelle A Purdom, Michael S Weiss, Nathan H Fowler
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic approaches for B-cell malignancies continue to evolve, especially with regard to combination approaches. We assessed the safety and efficacy of the triplet ublituximab, umbralisib, and ibrutinib in patients with advanced B-cell malignancies. METHODS: We did an open-label, phase 1 study with dose-escalation and dose-expansion phases, at five centres in the USA. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with histologically confirmed lymphocytic leukaemia or relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, had measurable disease, adequate organ function, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 2 or less...
February 2019: Lancet Haematology
Da Meng, Richard D Carvajal
Metastatic melanoma is a heterogenous disease that has served as a model for the development of both targeted therapy and immunotherapy. KIT-mutated melanoma represents a rare subset, most commonly arising from acral, mucosal, and chronically sun-damaged skin. Additionally, KIT alterations are enriched in the triple wild-type subtype of cutaneous melanoma. Activating alterations of KIT-a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase important for cell development, growth, and differentiation-have been shown to be critical to oncogenesis across many tumor subtypes...
February 1, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
Michael Hendryx, Sarah D Yonts, Yueyao Li, Juhua Luo
BACKGROUND: Mountaintop removal mining has been associated with multiple types of disease outcomes for populations living nearby. The current study tested whether latent classes identifying people with symptoms from multiple organ systems were associated with residence in mountaintop mining communities. METHODS: We used data from three cross-sectional household community surveys conducted in three Appalachian states (N = 2756). The surveys contained information on 29 recent illness symptoms grouped into eight organ systems (respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, skin, eye-ear-nose-throat, neurological, and other...
March 20, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Jason F Wang, Laura E Melnick, Lauren A Penn, Nooshin K Brinster, Vikash S OzaMD
Cutaneous Crohn disease (CCD) is a rare dermatologic manifestation of Crohn disease and is defined as noncaseating, granulomatous skin lesions noncontiguous with the gastrointestinal tract. It most commonly affects the skin of the legs, although genital CCD is the most common presentation in children. Diagnosis of CCD is made by a combination of clinical and histopathological findings. Therapeutic options include topical, intralesional, and systemic corticosteroids as well as topical and systemic immunosuppressants and immunomodulators...
August 15, 2018: Dermatology Online Journal
Lucas A Heldt Manica, Philip R Cohen
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE) is a gram-positive, beta-hemolytic, large-colony-forming bacteria belonging to group C and G streptococci. It can be isolated in the normal flora of human skin, nasopharyngeal cavity, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal tracts. However, SDSE has been the cause of perianal bacterial infections associated with sexual practices. A 67-year-old man developed a penile bacterial infection secondary to SDSE. The infection presented as a painful erythematous patch on his penile distal shaft...
August 15, 2018: Dermatology Online Journal
Flávio Mileo Bacelar Guerreiro, Celso Tavares Sodré, Lorena Brandão Pavan, Paulo Feijó Barroso, Daniele Carvalho Quintella, Tullia Cuzzi, Marcia Ramos-E-Silva
Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic infestation caused by the helminth Strongyloides stercoralis. It is essentially gastrointestinal and in general asymptomatic but can sometimes present with skin signs. Immunocompromised patients can develop the disseminated form of the disease due to the parasite's opportunistic behavior, as in cases of coinfection by the human T-lymphotropic type 1 virus (HTLV-1). This article presents a case of a patient infected with HTLV-I and Strongyloides stercoralis who developed the disseminated form...
December 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
Akaninyene Otu, Felix Bongomin, Chris Kosmidis, David W Denning
Triazole antifungals are useful in the treatment of Aspergillus disease and these drugs have side effects which clinicians should be aware of. Posaconazole is an orally administered second-generation triazole antifungal agent which inhibits lanosterol 14-alpha-demethylase, an enzyme that converts lanosterol to ergosterol, a vital component of the fungal cell membrane. Posaconazole has a favorable side effect profile, is safe and well tolerated when compared to the earlier generation of triazole antifungals...
October 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Malene Plejdrup Hansen, Anna M Scott, Amanda McCullough, Sarah Thorning, Jeffrey K Aronson, Elaine M Beller, Paul P Glasziou, Tammy C Hoffmann, Justin Clark, Chris B Del Mar
BACKGROUND: Macrolide antibiotics (macrolides) are among the most commonly prescribed antibiotics worldwide and are used for a wide range of infections. However, macrolides also expose people to the risk of adverse events. The current understanding of adverse events is mostly derived from observational studies, which are subject to bias because it is hard to distinguish events caused by antibiotics from events caused by the diseases being treated. Because adverse events are treatment-specific, rather than disease-specific, it is possible to increase the number of adverse events available for analysis by combining randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of the same treatment across different diseases...
January 18, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Christine Firth, Lucinda A Harris, Maxwell L Smith, Leslie F Thomas
Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS) is a very rare disorder with less than 500 reported cases. It is characterized by extensive gastrointestinal polyposis and ectodermal anomalies including alopecia, cutaneous hyperpigmentation, and onychodystrophy. Only 3 cases of associated kidney disease (membranous nephropathy [MN]) have been reported. A 71-year-old male with CCS was referred for further evaluation of proteinuria. The patient initially presented with abdominal discomfort, weight loss, dysgeusia, skin hyperpigmentation, alopecia, and dystrophic nails...
September 2018: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
Yan Jia, Hao Fu, Na Li, Qian Kang, Jianqiu Sheng
To explore the clinical features, pathological features, gene test results, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome(PJS).
 Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of 46 hospitalized cases of PJS during 2007 and 2017.
 Results: All 46 patients had mucocutaneous melanin pigmentation and multiple gastrointestinal polyposis. The pigmentation was first noticed often within 5 years old, and 14 cases had family history. The clinical manifestations mainly included black spots, abdominal pain, hematochezia, and anemia...
December 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Sita Sharan Patel, Ashish Acharya, R S Ray, Ritesh Agrawal, Ramsaneh Raghuwanshi, Priyal Jain
Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound present in rhizome of Curcuma longa belonging to the family zingiberaceae. Growing experimental evidence revealed that curcumin exhibit multitarget biological implications signifying its crucial role in health and disease. The current review highlights the recent progress and mechanisms underlying the wide range of pharmacological effects of curcumin against numerous diseases like neuronal, cardiovascular, metabolic, kidney, endocrine, skin, respiratory, infectious, gastrointestinal diseases and cancer...
January 11, 2019: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Barbara H Johnson, Aliki Taylor, Gilwan Kim, Jennifer Drahos, Jiao Yang, Mona Akbari, Nirav N Shah
Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is the leading cause of non-relapse mortality among patients who receive allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). In its acute form (aGvHD), GvHD involves the skin, liver, and gastrointestinal (GI) tract; however, it is GI involvement which is most strongly associated with poor prognosis. This retrospective cohort study used US healthcare claims data (2008-2015) to identify patients who developed GI aGvHD after allo-HCT as curative treatment for hematological malignancy and compared them to patients who did not develop aGvHD on outcomes related to survival, infections, healthcare resource utilization (HRU) and costs...
January 6, 2019: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Jamie N Justice, Anoop M Nambiar, Tamar Tchkonia, Nathan K LeBrasseur, Rodolfo Pascual, Shahrukh K Hashmi, Larissa Prata, Michal M Masternak, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Nicolas Musi, James L Kirkland
BACKGROUND: Cellular senescence is a key mechanism that drives age-related diseases, but has yet to be targeted therapeutically in humans. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, fatal cellular senescence-associated disease. Selectively ablating senescent cells using dasatinib plus quercetin (DQ) alleviates IPF-related dysfunction in bleomycin-administered mice. METHODS: A two-center, open-label study of intermittent DQ (D:100 mg/day, Q:1250 mg/day, three-days/week over three-weeks) was conducted in participants with IPF (n = 14) to evaluate feasibility of implementing a senolytic intervention...
January 4, 2019: EBioMedicine
Karuppusamy Arunachalam, Amilcar Sabino Damazo, Eduarda Pavan, Darley Maria Oliveira, Fabiana de Freitas Figueiredo, Marco Tulio Marra Machado, Sikiru Olaitan Balogun, Ilsamar Mendes Soares, Robson Dos Santos Barbosa, Tarso da Costa Alvim, Sérgio Donizeti Ascêncio, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira Martins
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cochlospermum regium (Bixaceae) is a native shrub of Brazil and its xylopodium (infusion/decoction) is being used for the treatment of gastritis, ulcers, arthritis, intestinal infections, gynaecological infections, skin diseases, among others. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the gastroprotective/antiulcer activity and the mechanism of action of hydroethanolic extract of C. regium xylopodium (HECr), using in vitro and in vivo models. Additionally, phytochemical constituents were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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