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D Lyu, M J Huang, Y Chen, J Ren, Y T Zheng, J J Hu, H Yang
Objective: To access the influence of voice disorders on children's voice-related quality of life through the parental version of pediatric voice handicap index (pVHI). Methods: From April 2017 to March 2018, a total of 192 children with voice disorders (dysphonic group) and 111 children without voice disorders (control group) were enrolled in this work. Parents of children in both groups were asked for fill out the questionnaire containing the parental version of pVHI and the data of non-normal distribution were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test...
February 7, 2019: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
T X Diao, Q H Han, H J Shan, X Q Wu, Y J Lin, Q Li, G H Wang, Y Y Jing, X Ma, M Shen, L S Yu, L Han, Y X Wang
Objective: To investigate the correlation between age-related hearing loss and cognitive impairment. Methods: 201 elderly patients, who were admitted to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of Peking University People's Hospital from March 1, 2017 to March 31, 2017, were evaluated with hearing screening and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale. Among them, 101 were female and 100 were male, aged 60-90 years old. Taking the cognitive level as the dependent variable, and taking the age, sex, education, occupation, marital status, residence, and average hearing loss (average hearing threshold of 500, 1 000, 2 000, and 4 000 Hz), as well as the length of conscious hearing loss as the independent variables, the single factor analysis and multivariate linear regression analysis were used to screen the main factors affecting the cognitive level of the elderly...
February 7, 2019: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
N Sai, W J Han, M M Wang, X Qin, T Zhang, W D Shen, J Liu, P Dai, S M Yang, D Y Han
Objective: To elucidate the clinical behavior, causes of misdiagnosis, surgical management, and outcomes of facial nerve schwannomas (FNS). Methods: A retrospective review in Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2015 was carried out and evaluated 110 patients with FNS, including 50 males and 60 females, aged 16-67 years old. The appropriate surgical strategy was selected based on each patient's clinical manifestations, facial nerve function, and imaging characteristics...
February 7, 2019: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Jing-Ye Wu, Qiang Yuan, Ya-Jun Liu, Yu-Qing Sun, Yong Zhang, Wei Tian
OBJECTIVES: Percutaneous transfacet screw fixation (pTSF) is a minimally invasive posterior fixation technique supplementing oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) for lumbar spinal disorders. Accurate screw insertion is difficult to achieve and technically demanding under 2-D fluoroscopy. Recently developed robot-assisted spinal surgery demonstrated a high level of accuracy of pedicle screw insertion and a low complication rate. No published study has reported this combination technique...
February 18, 2019: Orthopaedic Surgery
William Gibson, Benedict M Wand, Catherine Meads, Mark J Catley, Neil E O'Connell
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain, considered to be pain lasting more than three months, is a common and often difficult to treat condition that can significantly impact upon function and quality of life. Treatment typically includes pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is an adjunct non-pharmacological treatment commonly recommended by clinicians and often used by people with pain. OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of evidence from Cochrane Reviews of the effectiveness of TENS to reduce pain in adults with chronic pain (excluding headache or migraine)...
February 19, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Andrew Carkeet, Yu-Chong Anderson Chang, Te-Yuan Chang, Po-Yen Mike Chen, Ming Gu, Vincent Lin, Jia Hao Ng
PURPOSE: The effects of image doubling on logarithmic progression chart visual acuity were investigated by simulating diplopia on a computer monitor. METHODS: Ten participants (6M, 4F) aged 21-28 years (mean 22.4 ± 2.3) were assessed viewing with their left eye while wearing their best correction. Stimuli were eight rows of five Sloan letters, from 0.4 to -0.3 logMAR (6/15 to 6/3) arranged in logarithmic progression format, generated on an HD monitor. Stimuli were generated with different magnitudes of doubling, different directions of doubling, and different intensity ratios between the ghost image and main images...
March 2019: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Jane Macnaughton, Keziah Latham, Marta Vianya-Estopa
PURPOSE: To evaluate outcome measures of the Participation and Activity Inventory (PAI) in a sample of adults with acquired visual impairment entering vision rehabilitation. Both Priority Scores, indicating level of rehabilitative need, and Person Measures, indicating goal difficulty, were considered. METHODS: Participants were newly registered adults with visual impairment within Leicestershire, United Kingdom. The importance and difficulty of 48 goals of the PAI were assessed, as were demographic factors, clinical visual function (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, reading function) and psychosocial function (adjustment to visual loss, depression, anxiety and fear of falling)...
March 2019: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Helena Posch, Katharina Erb-Eigner
Today, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the diagnostic tool of choice for eye and orbital pathologies. In this article, the MR image characteristics of relevant pathologies are illustrated with case-based examples in the context of clinical findings. Vascular pathologies (such as capillary and cavernous hemangioma), inflammatory diseases (such as endocrine orbitopathy), and neoplasms (such as lymphoma, uveal melanoma, retinoblastoma, and ocular/orbital metastasis) are described. Additionally, the role of MRI in the acute clinical setting and in trauma are discussed...
February 18, 2019: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Jiapeng Lu, Yuan Lu, Hao Yang, Wuhan Bilige, Yetong Li, Wade Schulz, Frederick A Masoudi, Harlan M Krumholz
Background: As cardiovascular risk increases in China, interest in strategies to mitigate it is growing. However, national information about the prevalence and treatment of high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is limited. Objective: To assess the prevalence and treatment of high CVD risk as well as variations in risk across population subgroups. Design: National project of CVD screening and management. Setting: 141 county-level regions in all 31 provinces of China...
February 19, 2019: Annals of Internal Medicine
Itay Zamir, Elisabeth Stoltz Sjöström, Anna-Karin Edstedt Bonamy, Lilly-Ann Mohlkert, Mikael Norman, Magnus Domellöf
BACKGROUND: Adverse developmental programming by early-life exposures might account for higher blood pressure (BP) in children born extremely preterm. We assessed associations between nutrition, growth and hyperglycemia early in infancy, and BP at 6.5 years of age in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Data regarding perinatal exposures including nutrition, growth and glycemia status were collected from the Extremely Preterm Infants in Sweden Study (EXPRESS), a population-based cohort including infants born <27 gestational weeks during 2004-2007...
February 18, 2019: Pediatric Research
Ivan Vladimirov Iotzov, Lucas C Parra
Speech signals have a remarkable ability to entrain brain activity to the rapid fluctuations of speech sounds. For instance, one can readily measure a correlation of the sound amplitude with the evoked responses of the electroencephalogram (EEG), and the strength of this correlation is indicative of whether the listener is attending to the speech. In this study we asked whether this stimulus-response correlation is also predictive of speech intelligibility. We hypothesized that when a listener fails to understand the speech in adverse hearing conditions, attention wanes and stimulus-response correlation also drops...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Neural Engineering
Alen Marijam, Jan Olbrecht, Alev Ozakay, Volkan Eken, Kinga Meszaros
BACKGROUND: The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) is used for universal infant vaccination in Turkey. OBJECTIVES: To assess the cost effectiveness of replacing PCV13 with pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV). METHODS: A Markov cohort model with monthly cycles following 1 cohort of infants over a 10-year time horizon was used. Local input parameters were obtained from published sources and expert consultation whenever possible...
February 15, 2019: Value in Health Regional Issues
Isabel Paiva, Rosa Marques, Marta Santos, Mário Reis, Maria Isabel Prudêncio, João Carlos Waerenborgh, Maria Isabel Dias, Dulce Russo, Guilherme Cardoso, Bruno J C Vieira, Edgar Carvalho, Carlos Rosa, Daniela Lobarinhas, Catarina Diamantino, Rui Pinto
Old mine tailings from Northern and Central Portugal were studied in order to perform a radiological and chemical characterization. The evaluation of massic activity of natural radionuclides and concentrations in tailings of polymetallic and Ra/U mines was performed by gamma spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. Iron speciation was carried out by Mössbauer spectroscopy. In polymetallic tailings with physical ore processing (Cumieira and Verdes - exploited for Sn, Nb-Ta) higher contents of Th, 228 Ra and 226 Ra in the coarser materials occur, probably due to their presence in host rock and ore fragments...
February 11, 2019: Chemosphere
Yuanbo Li, Cary T Chiou, Hui Li, Jerald L Schnoor
There has been an on-going pursuit for relations between the levels of chemicals in plants/crops and the source levels in soil or water in order to address impacts of toxic substances on human health and ecological quality. In this research, we applied the quasi-equilibrium partition model to analyze the relations for nonionic organic contaminants between plant/crop roots and external soil/water media. The model relates the in-situ root concentration factors of chemicals from external water into plant/crop roots (RCF(water) ) with the system physicochemical parameters and the chemical quasi-equilibrium states with plant/crop roots (αpt, ≤1)...
February 15, 2019: Environment International
Mélanie Douziech, Rik Oldenkamp, Rosalie van Zelm, Henry King, A Jan Hendriks, Anne-Sophie Ficheux, Mark A J Huijbregts
The use of down-the-drain products and the resultant release of chemicals may lead to pressures on the freshwater environment. Ecotoxicological impact assessment is a commonly used approach to assess chemical products but is still influenced by several uncertainty and variability sources. As a result, the robustness and reliability of such assessments can be questioned. A comprehensive and systematic assessment of these sources is, therefore, needed to increase their utility and credibility. In this study, we present a method to systematically analyse the uncertainty and variability of the potential ecotoxicological impact (PEI) of chemicals using a portfolio of 54 shampoo products...
February 15, 2019: Environment International
Ju Wang, Wei Wu, Hui Li, Lulu Cao, Meiqin Wu, Junxia Liu, Zhenyan Gao, Cancan Zhou, Jianghong Liu, Chonghuai Yan
BACKGROUND: The extent to which low-level, in utero mercury exposure affects child neurobehavioral development during early childhood has been inconclusive. In addition, the effects of sex and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on these relationships remain unclear and controversial. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the associations between prenatal low-level mercury exposure and child neurobehavioral development during the neonatal and toddler periods and to examine the potential confounding or interactive effects of sex and DHA status on these relationships...
February 15, 2019: Environment International
Agneta Åkesson, Carolina Donat-Vargas, Marika Berglund, Anders Glynn, Alicja Wolk, Maria Kippler
BACKGROUND: Beneficial effects of fish consumption on heart failure (HF) may be modified by contaminants in fish. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are of particular concern as they have been associated with well-established risk factors of HF, but current data are limited. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the association between dietary PCB exposure and risk of HF, accounting for dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 fish fatty acids. DESIGN: We used the prospective population-based research structure SIMPLER (previously the Swedish Mammography Cohort and Cohort of Swedish Men) comprising 32,952 women and 36,546 men, free from cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes at baseline in 1997...
February 15, 2019: Environment International
Alexander B Siy, Victoria R Rendell, Emily R Winslow
BACKGROUND: Although the surgical case series is a useful study design for surgical disciplines, elements of its presentation have not been standardized with a widely accepted reporting guideline. Hence, case series may not include all components necessary for surgeons to best interpret their results. We aimed to determine core elements of case series through qualitative analysis of discussions after presentations at national meetings. METHODS: Case series with accompanying discussions in three high-impact journals from 2010 to 2015 were analyzed with conventional content analysis...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Surgical Research
Paula Trujillo, Nelleke C van Wouwe, Ya-Chen Lin, Adam J Stark, Kalen J Petersen, Hakmook Kang, David H Zald, Manus J Donahue, Daniel O Claassen
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by dysfunction in frontal cortical and striatal networks that regulate action control. We investigated the pharmacological effect of dopamine agonist replacement therapy on frontal cortical activity and motor inhibition. Using Arterial Spin Labeling MRI, we examined 26 PD patients in the off- and on-dopamine agonist medication states to assess the effect of dopamine agonists on frontal cortical regional cerebral blood flow. Motor inhibition was measured by the Simon task in both medication states...
January 29, 2019: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Min Nian, Qing-Qing Li, Michael Bloom, Zhengmin Min Qian, Kevin M Syberg, Michael G Vaughn, Si-Quan Wang, Qi Wei, Mohammed Zeeshan, Namratha Gurram, Chu Chu, Jia Wang, Yan-Peng Tian, Li-Wen Hu, Kang-Kang Liu, Bo-Yi Yang, Ru-Qing Liu, Dan Feng, Xiao-Wen Zeng, Guang-Hui Dong
Exposure to chemicals may affect liver enzyme to increase the risk of liver diseases. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are one kind of persistent organic pollutants with hepatotoxic effect in organism. However, data is scarce to characterize the hepatotoxic effects of specific structural PFAA isomers in general population. To address this data gap, we evaluated the association between serum PFAAs concentration and liver function biomarkers in the Isomers of C8 Health Project in China. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to measure 18 serum PFAAs, except for linear and branched isomers of PFOA/PFOS, nine perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and two perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) were also included, in 1605 adult residents of Shenyang, China...
February 11, 2019: Environmental Research
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