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insulin sensitive

Yueyue Lei, Leilei Gong, Fanggen Tan, Yixiao Liu, Shuangshuang Li, Houwang Shen, Min Zhu, Weiwei Cai, Fei Xu, Bao Hou, Yuetao Zhou, Hongxiu Han, Liying Qiu, Haijian Sun
Destructive glucose and lipid metabolism in the liver is a crucial characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), eventually leading to insulin resistance and subsequent hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Vaccarin is an active flavonoid glycoside associated with various biological functions, but its effects on glucose and lipid metabolic disorder in T2DM are still unclear. In this study, glucosamine (GlcN) and free fatty acids (FFAs, oleate/palmitate, 2:1 ratio) were applied to mimic insulin resistance and lipid deposition in HepG2 cells, respectively...
February 16, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Yash Chhabra, Caroline N Nelson, Monika Plescher, Johanna L Barclay, Aaron G Smith, Sof Andrikopoulos, Salvatore Mangiafico, David J Waxman, Andrew J Brooks, Michael J Waters
Growth hormone (GH) has an important function as an insulin antagonist with elevated insulin sensitivity evident in humans and mice lacking a functional GH receptor (GHR). We sought the molecular basis for this sensitivity by utilizing a panel of mice possessing specific deletions of GHR signaling pathways. Metabolic clamps and glucose homeostasis tests were undertaken in these obese adult C57BL/6 male mice, which indicated impaired hepatic gluconeogenesis. Insulin sensitivity and glucose disappearance rate were enhanced in muscle and adipose of mice lacking the ability to activate the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)5 via the GHR ( Ghr-391 -/- ) as for GHR-null ( GHR-/- ) mice...
February 19, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Kristen E Syring, Travis J Cyphert, Thomas C Beck, Charles R Flynn, Nicholas A Mignemi, Owen P McGuinness
Bile acids are involved in the emulsification and absorption of dietary fats as well as acting as signaling molecules. Recently, bile acid signaling through farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G Protein-Coupled Bile Acid Receptor (TGR5) has been reported to elicit changes in not only bile acid synthesis but also metabolic processes including altering gluconeogenic gene expression and energy expenditure. A role for bile acids in glucose metabolism is also supported by a correlation between changes in the metabolic state of patients (i...
February 19, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Xiaohong Liu, Xin Zeng, Xuanming Chen, Ruixi Luo, Linzhao Li, Chengshi Wang, Jingping Liu, Jingqiu Cheng, Yanrong Lu, Younan Chen
PURPOSE: It is demonstrated that unsaturated fatty acids can counteract saturated fatty acids-induced lipotoxicity, but the molecular mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of monounsaturated oleic acid (OA) against saturated palmitic acid (PA)-induced cytotoxicity in rat β cells as well as islets, and mechanistically focused on its regulation on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. METHODS: Rat insulinoma cell line INS-1E cells and primary islets were treated with PA with or without OA for 24 h to determine the cell viability, apoptosis, and ER stress...
February 18, 2019: Endocrine
Jing Yu, Yifan Lv, Fengliang Wang, Xiaocen Kong, Wenjuan Di, Juan Liu, Yunlu Sheng, Shan Lv, Guoxian Ding
Objective: Long-term dysregulation of energy balance is the key component of the obesity epidemic. Given the harm of central obesity and the discovery that beige cells appear within white adipose tissue (WAT), enhancing the energy-expending or "browning" ability of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has become of therapeutic interest. In this study, we focused on the regulating role of microRNA (miRNA)-27b-3p in mice epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) browning. Methods: High-fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice model was constructed...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Di Xiao, Hao Kou, Shuxia Gui, Zhenyu Ji, Yu Guo, Yin Wu, Hui Wang
Intrauterine growth restricted offspring suffer from abnormal glucose homeostasis and β cell dysfunction. In this study, we observed the dynamic changes of glucose metabolic phenotype, pancreatic morphology, and insulin synthesis in prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) male offspring rats, and to explore the potential intrauterine programming mechanism of the glucocorticoid-insulin-like growth factor 1 (GC-IGF1) axis. Ethanol (4 g/kg·d) was administered through oral gavage during gestational day (GD) 9-20. Serum glucose and insulin levels, pancreatic β cell mass, and expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), IGF1 and insulin were determined on GD20, postnatal week (PW) 6, PW12 with/without chronic stress (CS), and PW24, respectively...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Jonathan D Douros, Jingjing Niu, Sophia M Sdao, Trillian Gregg, Kelsey H Fisher-Wellman, Manish S Bharadwaj, Anthony Molina, Ramamani Arumugam, Mackenzie D Martin, Enrico Petretto, Matthew J Merrins, Mark A Herman, Jenny Tong, Jonathan E Campbell, David D'Alessio
Bariatric surgeries including vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) ameliorate obesity and diabetes. Weight-loss and accompanying increases to insulin sensitivity contribute to improved glycemia after surgery, however, studies in humans also suggest weight-independent actions of bariatric procedures to lower blood glucose, possibly by improving insulin secretion. To evaluate this hypothesis, we compared VSG operated mice with pair-fed, sham-surgical controls (PF-Sham) 2 weeks after surgery. This paradigm yielded similar post-operative body weight and insulin sensitivity between VSG and calorically restricted PF-Sham animals...
February 19, 2019: JCI Insight
Even Fjære, Lene Secher Myrmel, Ditte Olsen Lützhøft, Hanne Andersen, Jacob Bak Holm, Pia Kiilerich, Rita Hannisdal, Bjørn Liaset, Karsten Kristiansen, Lise Madsen
Low-fat diets and exercise are generally assumed to ameliorate obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, but the importance of exercise vs. dietary changes is debated. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) diet to induce obesity and then either maintained on the HF/HS or shifted to low-fat (LF) diets containing either salmon or entrecote. For each diet, half of the animals exercised voluntarily for 8 weeks. We determined body composition, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and hepatic triacylglycerol levels...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Olga Gruzdeva, Daria Borodkina, Evgenya Uchasova, Yulia Dyleva, Olga Barbarash
Leptin and its receptors have been identified as key regulators of body weight and energy homeostasis. A decrease in tissue sensitivity to leptin leads to the development of obesity and metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Mechanisms underlying the development of leptin resistance include mutations in the genes encoding leptin and its receptors, as well as proteins involved in self-regulation of leptin synthesis and blood-brain barrier permeability. Leptin resistance encompasses a complex pathophysiological phenomenon with a number of potential research lines...
2019: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Ah Reum Khang, Hye Won Lee, Dongwon Yi, Yang Ho Kang, Seok Man Son
Purpose: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide, and it is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aimed to estimate the prevalence of NAFLD defined by the fatty liver index (FLI), in order to investigate the association between FLI and metabolic disorders and to determine the cutoff value of FLI to screen for MetS. Subjects and methods: This study utilized a national representative sample of Korean adults (the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys) which was conducted in 2010-2011...
2019: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Oscar D Sánchez, Eduardo Ruiz-Velázquez, Alma Y Alanís, Griselda Quiroz, Luis Torres-Treviño
The effect of meal on blood glucose concentration is a key issue in diabetes mellitus because its estimation could be very useful in therapy decisions. In the case of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), the therapy based on automatic insulin delivery requires a closed-loop control system to maintain euglycaemia even in the postprandial state. Thus, the mathematical modelling of glucose metabolism is relevant to predict the metabolic state of a patient. Moreover, the eating habits are characteristic of each person, so it is of interest that the mathematical models of meal intake allow to personalise the glycaemic state of the patient using therapy historical data, that is, daily measurements of glucose and records of carbohydrate intake and insulin supply...
February 2019: IET Systems Biology
Eisuke Kato
Plant materials have been widely studied for their preventive and therapeutic effects for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. The effect of a plant material arises from its constituents, and the study of these bioactive compounds is important to achieve a deeper understanding of its effect at the molecular level. In particular, the study of the effects of such bioactive compounds on various biological processes, from digestion to cellular responses, is required to fully understand the overall effects of plant materials in these health contexts...
February 17, 2019: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Martin Mowitz, Anne Herman, Marie Baeck, Marléne Isaksson, Annarita Antelmi, Nils Hamnerius, Ann Pontén, Magnus Bruze
BACKGROUND: Isobornyl acrylate (IBOA) has recently been identified as one sensitizer in the FreeStyle Libre glucose sensor. Analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have indicated the presence of N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAA) in the sensor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven patients were referred for patch testing after developing skin reactions when using FreeStyle Libre. All patients were patch-tested with IBOA and DMAA. Two patients were tested with adhesive patches which had been removed from the sensors "as is" and two patients were tested with acetone extracts of materials from the sensor...
February 18, 2019: Contact Dermatitis
Henar Ortega-Senovilla, Manuel de Oya, Carmen Garcés
BACKGROUND: The regulation of adipose tissue metabolism in early childhood obesity is not well understood. Insulin levels are higher and insulin resistance seems to be present in prepubertal children with obesity but, differing from their behavior in adults with obesity, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations are not increased. Retinol-binding protein (RBP)-4 concentration is associated with obesity and insulin resistance conditions, but the means of this relationship remain unclear, and few studies have taken retinol values into account to evaluate it...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2019: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Marzieh Salehi, Amalia Gastaldelli, David A D'Alessio
OBJECTIVE: Postprandial hyperinsulinaemia after Roux-en Y gastric bypass (GB) has been attributed to rapid nutrient flux from the gut, and an enhanced incretin effect. However, it is unclear whether surgery changes islet cell responsiveness to regulatory factors. This study tested the hypothesis that β-cell sensitivity to glucagon like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) is attenuated after GB. DESIGN: Ten non-diabetic subjects with GB, and 9 body mass index (BMI)-matched and age-matched non-surgical controls (CN) with normal glucose tolerance had blood glucose clamped at ~7...
February 16, 2019: Gut
Neetu Mishra, Gauri Damle, Yogita Dhas, Joyita Banerjee
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency contributes to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We investigated the association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] with IR and β-cell function in middle-aged participants. METHODS: We enrolled 90 controls and 90 T2DM patients of both genders aged 30-50 y. Serum 25(OH)D, fasting plasma insulin (FPI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, and lipid profile were measured by standard methods...
February 14, 2019: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Ching-Lung Cheung, Kathryn C B Tan, Philip C M Au, Gloria H Y Li, Bernard M Y Cheung
BACKGROUND: Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a key regulator of body weight in animals by regulating food intake. Its receptor, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor receptor alpha-like (GFRAL), was identified recently. Pre-clinical studies showed that it is a promising therapeutic target for cardiometabolic diseases and anorexia/cachexia. Although many pharmaceutical companies are developing drugs targeting GFRAL, whether the findings from animal studies can be extrapolated to man is unknown...
February 13, 2019: EBioMedicine
Tetsuro Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Kajio
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess strategies of insulin-providing (IP) or insulin-sensitizing (IS) therapy for glycemic control in nonobese diabetic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) with possibly higher cardiovascular risk and lower insulin secretion than obese diabetic patients with CAD. METHODS: We used data from the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial to calculate hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for outcome events in patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD using Cox proportional hazard models...
February 7, 2019: International Journal of Cardiology
Parvaneh Seiri, Abbas Abi, Mohammad Soukhtanloo
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily. PPARs are categorized into three subtypes, PPARα, β/δ, and γ, encoded by different genes, expressed in diverse tissues and participate in various biological functions and can be activated by their metabolic derivatives in the body or dietary fatty acids. The PPAR-γ also takes parts in the regulation of energy balance, lipoprotein metabolism, insulin sensitivity, oxidative stress, and inflammatory signaling. It has been implicated in the pathology of numerous diseases including obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cancers...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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