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Puneet Jain, Paul T Finger
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical characteristics, multimodality imaging findings, and clinical course of iris varices. Methods: Retrospective, noncomparative, observational case series of 28 eyes of 26 patients with iris varices, diagnosed between 2007 and 2017, has been used. Results: The mean (±SD) age was 58.3 ± 12.5 years (median 57.5, range 37-81). Patients were 57.7% male and 27% hypertensive. Varices were bilateral in two patients...
March 2019: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Laura A Mancuso, Brad Nadelstein, Andrew Berdoulay, Ronald A Spatola
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the postoperative effect of intracameral tPA (alteplase; Activase®, Genentech, San Francisco, CA), administered at immediate conclusion of phacoemulsification, on anterior chamber fibrin formation in dogs. PROCEDURES: Forty-one dogs (82 eyes) undergoing bilateral phacoemulsification received 25 μg/0.1 mL intracameral tPA in one eye and 0.1 mL unmedicated aqueous vehicle in the contralateral eye immediately after corneal incision closure...
February 18, 2019: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Alisa T Thavikulwat, Dingcai Cao, Thasarat S Vajaranant, Jennifer I Lim
PURPOSE: To determine the rate of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning in patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies. Design; Prospective cohort study METHODS: Sixty-seven patients averaging 35.8±11.5 years old at enrollment with electrophoretically-confirmed sickle cell hemoglobinopathies followed by the University of Illinois at Chicago retina clinic for ≥1 year were included. Exclusion criteria included a history of diabetes, uncontrolled hypertension, glaucoma, ocular opacities, other retinopathies, and previous retinal procedures...
February 13, 2019: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Shih-Chun Chao, Shang-Jung Yang, Hung-Chi Chen, Chi-Chin Sun, Chin-Hsin Liu, Chia-Yi Lee
Purpose: To evaluate early macular circulation in open-angle glaucoma (OAG), normal-tension glaucoma (NTG), ocular hypertension (OHT), and healthy subjects via optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted. Medical records were reviewed, and the patients who received OCTA examinations were divided into the OAG, NTG, OHT, and normal groups. The ophthalmic data including best-corrected visual acuity, spherical equivalent, intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, central foveal thickness, visual field deviation, retinal nerve fiber layers thickness, and ganglion cell complex thickness were obtained from medical documents...
2019: Journal of Ophthalmology
Wessam H Abd-Elsalam, Nermeen A ElKasabgy
Mucoadhesive olaminosomes are novel nanocarriers designed to control agomelatine release and enhance its bioavailability. Olaminosomes were prepared using oleic acid, oleylamine and sorbitan monooleate adopting thin film hydration technique. Chitosan HCl was added to impart the mucoadhesive properties to the olaminosomes. Mucoadhesive olaminosomes were characterized for their particle size, in-vitro drug release and irritation potentiality in rabbit eyes. The reduction in intraocular pressure (IOP) through 8 hours in male New Zealand Albino rabbits was measured after administration of the selected formulations...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Weilin Chan, Janey L Wiggs, Lucia Sobrin
PURPOSE: To provide evidence that corticosteroid-induced ocular hypertension has a genetic component. DESIGN: Evidence-based Perspective. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive literature search for studies exploring genetic influences on intraocular pressure responses to corticosteroid treatment. RESULTS: Studies demonstrating increased risk of corticosteroid-induced ocular hypertension among first-degree relatives of affected individuals support a genetic contribution to the disease...
February 11, 2019: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Jenny Carter
PRACTICAL RELEVANCE: Systemic hypertension is common in older cats and can result in damage to organs with a rich arteriolar supply such as the eyes, kidneys, myocardium and brain. Hypertensive disease in these organs is known as target organ damage (TOD). Disease in the eye resulting from hypertension is the most easily identifiable form of TOD and can often be the reason the cat is presented to the veterinarian. Routine blood pressure measurement and fundic examination allows cats with hypertensive ocular lesions to be detected early in the course of the disease, when the lesions have the best chance of responding to treatment...
January 2019: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Cherng-Ru Hsu, Yi-Hsun Chen, Chih-Peng Liu, Chih-Hung Chen, Kuo-Kuei Huang, Jui-Wen Huang, Meng-Nan Lin, Chih-Lung Lin, Wan-Ru Chen, Yi-Ling Hsu, Tze-Chung Lee, Shuen-Hsiang Chou, Chia-Mu Tu, Chrong-Shiong Hwang, Yu Chuan Huang, Da-Wen Lu
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the IOP-lowering effects of the ITRI-E-212, a new Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor. ITRI-E-212 improved fluid outflow through the trabecular meshwork and reduced IOP with transient and mild conjunctival hyperemia. ITRI-E-212 can potentially be developed into new antiglaucoma agents. Methods: ITRI-E-212 was selected from more than 200 amino-isoquinoline structures because of its adequate solubility and drug-loading percentage in eye drops...
February 1, 2019: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Adrian Julian Marcus, Igor Iezhitsa, Renu Agarwal, Pavel Vassiliev, Alexander Spasov, Olga Zhukovskaya, Vera Anisimova, Nafeeza Mohd Ismail
Ocular hypertension is believed to be involved in the etiology of primary open-angle glaucoma. Although many pharmaceutical agents have been shown to be effective for the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), a significant opportunity to improve glaucoma treatments remains. Thus, the aims of the present study were: (1) to evaluate the IOP-lowering effect of four compounds RU-551, RU-555, RU-839 (pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole), and RU-615 (imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazole) on steroid-induced ocular hypertension in rats after single drop and chronic applications; and (2) to test in silico and in vitro conventional rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitory activity of the selected compound...
February 1, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Michala de Linde Henriksen, Christine Lim, Julia L Sharp
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of topical 0.005% latanoprost (L) vs combined 0.005% latanoprost and 1% atropine (LA) on control of postoperative ocular hypertension (POH), development of posterior synechiae formation, pupil size, and blindness after phacoemulsification surgery in dogs. ANIMAL STUDIED: Dogs with postoperative ocular hypertension were included in the study: L-group, latanoprost (eight dogs, 14 eyes) and LA-group, latanoprost and atropine (nine dogs, 15 eyes)...
February 4, 2019: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Yi-Hua Chen, Ya-Han Li, Yu-Jr Lin, Yen-Po Chen, Nan-Kai Wang, An-Ning Chao, Laura Liu, Wei-Chi Wu, Chi-Chun Lai, Tun-Lu Chen, Kuan-Jen Chen
Endogenous K. pneumoniae endophthalmitis (EKE) has a higher incidence among East Asians, and the most common infectious source of EKE is pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). We investigate the risk factors for poor visual outcomes in patients with PLA-related EKE. The retrospective medical records of 104 patients (120 eyes) diagnosed with PLA-related EKE between 1996 and 2015. In univariate logistic regression analysis, the risk factors for poor visual outcomes were initial visual acuity (VA) worse than counting fingers (CF) (p < 0...
January 31, 2019: Scientific Reports
Bláithín Ní Bhuachalla, Christine A McGarrigle, Neil O'Leary, Kwadwo Owusu Akuffo, Tunde Peto, Stephen Beatty, Rose Anne Kenny
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is established to cause vascular end-organ damage. Other forms of dysregulated blood pressure (BP) behaviour, such as orthostatic hypotension have also been associated with cardiovascular (CV) events. The eye is potentially vulnerable to dysregulated systemic BP if ocular circulation autoregulation is impaired. We investigated whether phenotypes of abnormal BP stabilisation after orthostasis, an autonomic stressor, had a relationship with contrast sensitivity (CS), an outcome measure of subtle psychophysical visual function...
January 21, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Marc Dinkin, Athos Patsalides, Monica Ertel
Diseases of the cerebral venous system frequently lead to neuro-ophthalmic complications. Cortical venous sinus thrombosis and dural arteriovenous fistulas may be complicated by elevation of intracranial pressure, with secondary papilledema or abducens palsies. There is increasing recognition that stenosis at the transverse sinus-sigmoid sinus junction plays a role in the pathophysiology of idiopathic intracranial hypertension and offers a new avenue of treatment in patients who fail medical therapy. Diseases of the cavernous sinus manifest with their own set of neuro-ophthalmic symptoms, reflecting the presence of all 3 ocular motor nerves and the oculosympathetic fibers within its walls, along with its role as the primary drainage pool of the globe and orbit...
January 23, 2019: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Pete A Williams, Catherine E Braine, Krishnakumar Kizhatil, Nicole E Foxworth, Nicholas G Tolman, Jeffrey M Harder, Rebecca A Scott, Gregory L Sousa, Alyssa Panitch, Gareth R Howell, Simon W M John
BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is characterized by the progressive dysfunction and loss of retinal ganglion cells. Recent work in animal models suggests that a critical neuroinflammatory event damages retinal ganglion cell axons in the optic nerve head during ocular hypertensive injury. We previously demonstrated that monocyte-like cells enter the optic nerve head in an ocular hypertensive mouse model of glaucoma (DBA/2 J), but their roles, if any, in mediating axon damage remain unclear. METHODS: To understand the function of these infiltrating monocyte-like cells, we used RNA-sequencing to profile their transcriptomes...
January 22, 2019: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Yu Hyeon Yi, Young Hye Cho, Yun Jin Kim, Sang Yeoup Lee, Jeong Gyu Lee, Eun Hee Kong, Byung Mann Cho, Young Jin Tak, Hye Rim Hwang, Seung Hun Lee, Eun Ju Park
Background: High intraocular pressure (IOP) is well established as the most significant risk factor for both the development and progression of primary open-angle glaucoma. Elevated IOP is more frequently seen in the presence of metabolic disturbances that are associated with the components of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between ocular hypertension and MetS. Patients and methods: We examined the relationship between ocular hypertension and MetS in 17,160 Korean adults without glaucoma aged >19 years (7,368 men and 9,792 women) who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
2019: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
A Arranz-Romera, B M Davis, I Bravo-Osuna, S Esteban-Pérez, I T Molina-Martínez, E Shamsher, N Ravindran, L Guo, M F Cordeiro, R Herrero-Vanrell
Glaucoma is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder and one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness globally and for which intraocular pressure is the only modifiable risk factor. Although neuroprotective therapies have been suggested to have therapeutic potential, drug delivery for the treatment of ocular disorders such as glaucoma remains an unmet clinical need, further complicated by poor patient compliance with topically applied treatments. In the present study we describe the development of multi-loaded PLGA-microspheres (MSs) incorporating three recognised neuroprotective agents (dexamethasone (DX), melatonin (MEL) and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)) in a single formulation (DMQ-MSs) to create a novel sustained-release intraocular drug delivery system (IODDS) for the treatment of glaucoma...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Paul Castillo, Katie Voigt, Charlene Crockett, John Timothy Stout, Robert Krance, Swati Naik
Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT)-associated (TA) thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is an acquired disorder and a potentially life-threatening complication after allogeneic HSCT. TA-TMA causes endothelial damage and results in micro-thrombi in capillaries and arterioles. Early detection and treatment of complications associated with TA-TMA might improve outcomes. Purtscher-like retinopathy (PLR) is associated with micro-thrombi that occlude the retinal arteries and cause retinal injury. PLR has been associated with multiple entities, including HUS and TTP, but has not previously been described in the setting of TA-TMA...
January 20, 2019: Pediatric Transplantation
Malik Y Kahook, Janet B Serle, Francis S Mah, Terry Kim, Michael B Raizman, Theresa Heah, Nancy Ramirez-Davis, Casey C Kopczynski, Dale W Usner, Gary D Novack
PURPOSE: Evaluate netarsudil 0.02% ophthalmic solution in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and ocular hypertension (OHT). Design; Double-masked, randomized, multi-center, parallel-group, non-inferiority clinical study. METHODS: After a washout of all pre-study ocular hypotensive medications, 756 eligible patients with elevated IOP were randomized to receive netarsudil 0.02%, q.d. (251), netarsudil 0.02%, b.i.d. (254) or timolol 0.5% b.i.d. (251) for 12 months, as well as a non-interventional Corneal Observation Study (COS) for patients manifesting cornea verticillata...
January 14, 2019: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Guorong Li, Chanyoung Lee, Vibhuti Agrahari, Ke Wang, Iris Navarro, Joseph M Sherwood, Karen Crews, Sina Farsiu, Pedro Gonzalez, Cheng-Wen Lin, Ashim K Mitra, C Ross Ethier, W Daniel Stamer
Ocular corticosteroids are commonly used clinically. Unfortunately, their administration frequently leads to ocular hypertension, i.e., elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), which, in turn, can progress to a form of glaucoma known as steroid-induced glaucoma. The pathophysiology of this condition is poorly understood yet shares similarities with the most common form of glaucoma. Using nanotechnology, we created a mouse model of corticosteroid-induced ocular hypertension. This model functionally and morphologically resembles human ocular hypertension, having titratable, robust, and sustained IOPs caused by increased resistance to aqueous humor outflow...
January 16, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kerem Can Yilmaz, Sirel Sur Gungor, Orcun Ciftci, Ahmet Akman, Haldun Muderrisoglu
BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is commonly defined as high intra ocular pressure (≥21 mmHg) with optic neuropathy characterised by progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells which is associated with characteristic structural damage to the optic nerve and visual field loss. There are several studies investigating relation between primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and both systemic hypertension and especially night hypotension. Our aim was to compare 24-h ambulatory blood pressure variability of patients with glaucoma followed-up in the eye outpatient clinic with that of patients free of glaucoma...
January 16, 2019: Acta Cardiologica
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