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Drosophila transport

Zheng Wu, Ji-Long Liu
CTP synthase (CTPsyn) is a metabolic enzyme essential for the de novo synthesis of CTP the nucleotide. CTPsyn can be compartmented into filamentous structures named cytoophidia. Cytoophidia are conserved in a wide range of species and are highly abundant in Drosophila ovaries. Here we report that cytoophidia elongate upon nutrient deprivation, CTPsyn overexpression or heat shock in Drosophila ovaries. We also show that the curvature of cytoophidia changes during apoptosis. Moreover, cytoophidia can be transported from nurse cells to the oocyte via ring canals...
February 12, 2019: Experimental Cell Research
Nicholas G Campbell, Aparna Shekar, Jenny I Aguilar, Dungeng Peng, Vikas Navratna, Dongxue Yang, Alexander N Morley, Amanda M Duran, Greta Galli, Brian O'Grady, Ramnarayan Ramachandran, James S Sutcliffe, Harald H Sitte, Kevin Erreger, Jens Meiler, Thomas Stockner, Leon M Bellan, Heinrich J G Matthies, Eric Gouaux, Hassane S Mchaourab, Aurelio Galli
The human dopamine (DA) transporter (hDAT) mediates clearance of DA. Genetic variants in hDAT have been associated with DA dysfunction, a complication associated with several brain disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we investigated the structural and behavioral bases of an ASD-associated in-frame deletion in hDAT at N336 (∆N336). We uncovered that the deletion promoted a previously unobserved conformation of the intracellular gate of the transporter, likely representing the rate-limiting step of the transport process...
February 12, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Shireen-A Davies, Pablo Cabrero, Richard Marley, Guillermo Martinez Corrales, Saurav Ghimire, Anthony J Dornan, Julian A T Dow
The insect renal (Malpighian) tubule has long been a model system for the study of fluid secretion and its neurohormonal control, as well as studies on ion transport mechanisms. To extend these studies beyond the boundaries of classical physiology, a molecular genetic approach together with the 'omics technologies is required. To achieve this in any vertebrate transporting epithelium remains a daunting task, as the genetic tools available are still relatively unsophisticated. Drosophila melanogaster, however, is an outstanding model organism for molecular genetics...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Timothy Hansen, Claire Thant, Joseph A White, Rupkatha Banerjee, Bhasirie Thuamsang, Shermali Gunawardena
High levels of oxidative stress is detected in neurons affected by many neurodegenerative diseases, including huntington's disease. Many of these diseases also show neuronal cell death and axonal transport defects. While nuclear inclusions/accumulations likely cause cell death, we previously showed that cytoplasmic axonal accumulations can also contribute to neuronal death. However, the cellular mechanisms responsible for activating cell death is unclear. One possibility is that perturbations in normal axonal transport alter the function of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (AKT)-pathway, a signal transduction pathway that promotes survival/growth in response to extracellular signals...
February 6, 2019: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Matthew C Castellana, Andrea Castellar Montes, Jon E Sprague, Tarek M Mahfouz
The human dopamine transporter (hDAT) plays many vital functions within the central nervous system and is thus targeted by many pharmaceutical agents. Dopamine-related therapies are in current development for individuals with dopamine-related disorders including depression, Parkinson's disease, and psychostimulant addictions such as cocaine abuse. Yet, most efforts to develop new dopamine therapies are within costly structure activity relationship studies. Through structure based drug design techniques, the binding site of hDAT can be utilized to develop novel selective and potent dopamine therapies at reduced costs...
February 5, 2019: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Ju Hyeon Kim, Joseph A Moreau, Jake M Zina, Lalita Mazgaeen, Kyong Sup Yoon, Barry R Pittendrigh, J Marshall Clark
4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been re-recommended by the World Health Organization for malaria mosquito control. Previous DDT use has resulted in resistance, and with continued use resistance will likely increase in terms of level and extent. Drosophila melanogaster is a model dipteran with a well annotated genome allowing both forward and reverse genetic manipulation, numerous studies done on insecticide resistance mechanisms, and is related to malaria mosquitoes allowing for extrapolation...
October 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Trieu Le, Son C Le, Huanghe Yang
Transmembrane protein 16 (TMEM16) family members play numerous important physiological roles, ranging from controlling membrane excitability and secretion to mediating blood coagulation and viral infection. These diverse functions are largely due to their distinct biophysical properties. Mammalian TMEM16A and TMEM16B are Ca2+ -activated Cl- channels (CaCCs), whereas mammalian TMEM16F, fungal afTMEM16 and nhTMEM16 are moonlighting (multifunctional) proteins with both Ca2+ -activated phospholipid scramblase (CaPLSase) and Ca2+ -activated, non-selective ion channel (CAN) activities...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Shelbi L Russell, Nassim Lemseffer, William T Sullivan
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007216.].
January 2019: PLoS Pathogens
Jiehong Kong, Yajing Qiu, Yuan Li, Hongjian Zhang, Weipeng Wang
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is common in patients and has been linked to transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and overexpression of drug efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), although molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying TGF-β1-induced MDR in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. We found that TGF-β1 upregulated HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) expression in HCC cells. When drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic 4 (SMAD4) was silenced, HOTAIR expression was accordingly reduced...
January 30, 2019: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Anthony Galenza, Edan Foley
Multicellular organisms inhabit an environment that includes a mix of essential nutrients and large numbers of potentially harmful microbes. Germline-encoded receptors scan the environment for microbe associated molecular patterns, and, upon engagement, activate powerful defenses to protect the host from infection. At the same time, digestive enzymes and transporter molecules sieve through ingested material for building blocks and energy sources necessary for survival, growth, and reproduction. We tend to view immune responses as a potent array of destructive forces that overwhelm potentially harmful agents...
January 23, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Julie Jouette, Antoine Guichet, Sandra B Claret
The scaffold protein PAR3 and the kinase PAR1 are essential proteins that control cell polarity. Their precise opposite localisations define plasma membrane domains with specific functions. PAR3 and PAR1 are mutually inhibited by direct or indirect phosphorylations, but their fates once phosphorylated are poorly known. Through precise spatiotemporal quantification of PAR3 localisation in the Drosophila oocyte, we identify several mechanisms responsible for its anterior cortex accumulation and its posterior exclusion...
January 23, 2019: ELife
Kassiani Skouloudaki, Dimitrios K Papadopoulos, Pavel Tomancak, Elisabeth Knust
Most organs of multicellular organisms are built from epithelial tubes. To exert their functions, tubes rely on apico-basal polarity, on junctions, which form a barrier to separate the inside from the outside, and on a proper lumen, required for gas or liquid transport. Here we identify apnoia (apn), a novel Drosophila gene required for tracheal tube elongation and lumen stability at larval stages. Larvae lacking Apn show abnormal tracheal inflation and twisted airway tubes, but no obvious defects in early steps of tracheal maturation...
January 2019: PLoS Genetics
Duan Tan, Hai Hu, Xiaoling Tong, Minjin Han, Weidong Zuo, Fangyin Dai, Cheng Lu
Myosins are a large family of actin filament-based motor proteins with a broad range of functions such as intracellular membrane trafficking, endocytosis, exocytosis, organellar transport, growth cone motility, cytokinesis, and cell locomotion. They are found in many organisms from fungi to humans. The myosin gene family in Bombyx mori is poorly studied, even though the molecular functions of these genes in vertebrates and insects, such as Drosophila, are well known. We identified 16 myosin genes from B. mori and identified the myosin genes in 12 vertebrates, eight insects, three nematodes, and seven protozoa...
January 3, 2019: Gene
Sandra Arancibia, Matias Marambio, Jorge M Campusano, Angélica Fierro
Octopamine, a trace amine in mammals, is a major neurotransmitter linked to important biological processes in insects. Interestingly, one of the molecular entities responsible for octopamine availability, the octopamine transporter (OAT), has not been identified in certain insect species. For instance, no OAT has been reported in the fly Drosophila melanogaster (Dm), and the molecule involved in octopamine reuptake in Drosophila is not known. Here, we used molecular modeling methodologies to obtain three-dimensional insights for the dopamine transporter (DAT) and OAT in a common agricultural pest insect, Trichoplusia ni (Tni)...
January 3, 2019: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Tran Duy Binh, Tuan L A Pham, Tran Thanh Men, Thao T P Dang, Kaeko Kamei
Lipid storage droplet-2 (LSD-2) of Drosophila melanogaster is a member of the lipid storage droplet membrane surface-binding protein family. LSD-2 is detected in many specific tissues: germline precursor cells, fat body, and is associated with lipid metabolism, lipid storage, and regulation of lipid droplet transport. However, the roles of this gene in development remain unclear. To investigate these functions, we performed tissue-specific knockdown of Lsd-2 in Drosophila using the combination of GAL4/UAS system and RNAi...
December 27, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yang Wu, Wanqi Hu, James K Biedler, Xiao-Guang Chen, Zhijian Jake Tu
BACKGROUND: The Asian malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi, is a major urban malaria vector in the Middle East and on the Indian subcontinent. Early zygotic transcription, which marks the maternal-to-zygotic transition, has not been systematically studied in An. stephensi or any other Anopheles mosquitoes. Improved understanding of early embryonic gene expression in An. stephensi will facilitate genetic and evolutionary studies and help with the development of novel control strategies for this important disease vector...
December 24, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
A Gregory Matera, Amanda C Raimer, Casey A Schmidt, Jo A Kelly, Gaith N Droby, David Baillat, Sara Ten Have, Angus I Lamond, Eric J Wagner, Kelsey M Gray
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is caused by homozygous mutations in the human survival motor neuron 1 ( SMN1 ) gene. SMN protein has a well-characterized role in the biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), core components of the spliceosome. SMN is part of an oligomeric complex with core binding partners, collectively called Gemins. Biochemical and cell biological studies demonstrate that certain Gemins are required for proper snRNP assembly and transport. However, the precise functions of most Gemins are unknown...
December 21, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Di Wu, Litao Wu, Huanping An, Hongcun Bao, Pengfei Guo, Bei Zhang, Huimei Zheng, Fan Zhang, Wanzhong Ge, Yu Cai, Yongmei Xi, Xiaohang Yang
By the end of neurogenesis in Drosophila pupal brain neuroblasts (NBs), nuclear Prospero (Pros) triggers cell cycle exit and terminates NB lifespan. Here, we reveal that in larval brain NBs, an intrinsic mechanism facilitates import and export of Pros across the nuclear envelope via a Ran-mediated nucleocytoplasmic transport system. In rangap mutants, the export of Pros from the nucleus to cytoplasm is impaired and the nucleocytoplasmic transport of Pros becomes one-way traffic, causing an early accumulation of Pros in the nuclei of the larval central brain NBs...
December 13, 2018: Aging Cell
Elena V Fedorova, Natalja V Dorogova, Elena U Bolobolova, Svetlana A Fedorova, Dmitry A Karagodin, Anna A Ogienko, Asja S Khruscheva, Elina M Baricheva
Investigation of Drosophila oogenesis provides the opportunity to understand conservative genetic mechanisms underlying fertile female gamete development. In this work, we showed that the Drosophila DNA-binding protein GAGA factor (GAF) had a multifunctional role in oogenesis and it is involved in the regulation of this process genetic program. We studied the influence on Drosophila oogenesis of a number of mutations in the 5' region of the Trl gene that encodes GAF. We found that our originally generated Trl mutations lead to a decrease in transcriptional gene activity and levels of GAF expression in both germline and follicular cells...
December 10, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Daniel R Swale, Aaron D Gross, Quentin R R Coquerel, Jeffrey R Bloomquist
The majority of the currently available insecticides target the nervous system and genetic mutations of invertebrate neural proteins oftentimes yield deleterious consequences, yet the current methods for recording nervous system activity of an individual animal is costly and laborious. This suction electrode preparation of the third-instar larval central nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster, is a tractable system for testing the physiological effects of neuroactive agents, determining the physiological role of various neural pathways to CNS activity, as well as the influence of genetic mutations to neural function...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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