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animal nutrition and feed science

Seon-Ho Kim, Lovelia L Mamuad, Yeon-Jae Choi, Haguyn G Sung, Kwang-Keun Cho, Sang Suk Lee
Animal science nutrition studies are increasingly focusing on finding solutions to reduce methane (CH4) emissions. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of reductive acetogenic bacteria [acetogen probiotics (AP)] and lauric acid (LA) on in vivo rumen fermentation and microbial populations in Hanwoo steers. Four cannulated Hanwoo steers (392 ± 14 kg) were analyzed in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and were placed in hood-type chambers. They were fed similar amounts of concentrate and rice straw within and experimental design as follows: control (Con; 40 g DM basal feed, nonaddition of AP or LA), T1 = LA (40 g DM basal feed mixed with 40 g LA), T2 = AP (40 g DM basal feed, fermented with AP), and T3 = LA + AP (40 g DM basal feed, fermented with AP and mixed with 40 g LA)...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Á Kenéz, C Koch, M Korst, J Kesser, K Eder, H Sauerwein, K Huber
Adequate nutrition of calves is a fundamental requirement for efficient production in later life. Suboptimal nutrition before weaning could have detrimental long-term effects on metabolic health and could thereby decrease production efficiency. In this study, the metabolomic profiles of German Holstein calves reared on whole milk ad libitum (n = 10), milk replacer ad libitum (n = 9), and milk replacer in restricted amounts (n = 9) were compared. Furthermore, this profiling approach was extended to the first lactation in the same animals for characterizing the long-term effect of quantitative and qualitative dietary manipulations affecting calves during development in a period that is sensitive to metabolic imprinting...
September 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Georgia Kritikos, Nicole Weidner, James L Atkinson, Julie Bayle, Ingrid van Hoek, Adronie Verbrugghe
OBJECTIVE To quantify vitamin D3 (VitD3 ) concentrations in commercial dog foods and compare those concentrations with Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) recommendations and manufacturer-reported concentrations. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE 82 commercial dog foods. PROCEDURES Samples of commercially available dog foods were obtained from owners of healthy dogs in the Guelph, ON, Canada, area and owners of dogs that were patients at the Ontario Veterinary College Health Sciences Centre's Mona Campbell Centre for Animal Cancer...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Isabella Pali-Schöll, Regina Binder, Yves Moens, Friedrich Polesny, Susana Monsó
While seeking novel food sources to feed the increasing population of the globe, several alternatives have been discussed, including algae, fungi or in vitro meat. The increasingly propagated usage of farmed insects for human nutrition raises issues regarding food safety, consumer information and animal protection. In line with law, insects like any other animals must not be reared or manipulated in a way that inflicts unnecessary pain, distress or harm on them. Currently, there is a great need for research in the area of insect welfare, especially regarding species-specific needs, health, farming systems and humane methods of killing...
April 25, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
L F Böswald, E Kienzle, B Dobenecker
There is evidence that nutritional phosphorus (P) excess may be a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in humans and pets (Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal (2014), 5, 104; The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, (2013), 98, 6; Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, (2017); The source of phosphorus influences serum PTH, apparent digestibility and blood levels of calcium and phosphorus in dogs fed high phosphorus diets with balanced Ca/P ratio. Proc. Waltham International Nutritional Sciences Symposium, USA; Clinical aspects of natural and added phosphorus in foods, 2017, Springer Science+Business, Media)...
April 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Mary Beth Hall, David R Mertens
Our knowledge of the role of carbohydrates in dairy cattle nutrition has advanced substantially in the 100 years of the publication of the Journal of Dairy Science. In this review, we trace the history of scientific investigation and discovery from crude fiber, nitrogen-free extract, and "unidentified factors" to our present analytical schemes and understanding of ruminal and whole-animal utilization and effects of dietary carbohydrates. Historically, advances in research and new feeding standards occurred in parallel with and fostered by new methods of analysis...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
S Millet, M Aluwé, A Van den Broeke, F Leen, J De Boever, S De Campeneere
During growth, pigs convert plant protein into animal protein. The major part of the ingested protein is excreted via manure, with potential nitrogen (N) losses to the environment. To limit N losses and increase sustainability of pork production, the efficiency of protein conversion should be maximized. The aim of this paper is to critically evaluate diet and management strategies linked with N efficiency. Besides nutrition, we discuss three management strategies observed in science and in practice to be linked with improved N efficiency: genetic selection, castration and slaughter weight...
May 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
R R White, Y Roman-Garcia, J L Firkins, M J VandeHaar, L E Armentano, W P Weiss, T McGill, R Garnett, M D Hanigan
Evaluation of ration balancing systems such as the National Research Council (NRC) Nutrient Requirements series is important for improving predictions of animal nutrient requirements and advancing feeding strategies. This work used a literature data set (n = 550) to evaluate predictions of total-tract digested neutral detergent fiber (NDF), fatty acid (FA), crude protein (CP), and nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) estimated by the NRC (2001) dairy model. Mean biases suggested that the NRC (2001) lactating cow model overestimated true FA and CP digestibility by 26 and 7%, respectively, and under-predicted NDF digestibility by 16%...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Rafael Opazo, Karen Fuenzalida, Francisca Plaza-Parrochia, Jaime Romero
The zebrafish larval stage is a critical moment due to high mortality rates associated with inadequate supplies of nutritional requirements. Larval feeding has important challenges associated with such factors as small mouth gape (≈100 μm), the low activity of digestive enzymes, and the intake of live food. A common zebrafish live food at the onset of exogenous feeding is rotifers, mainly Brachionus plicatilis. These rotifers should be fed with other microorganisms such as microalgae or yeast, mostly from the Saccharomyces genus...
April 2017: Zebrafish
Giulia Micallef, Phillip Cash, Jorge M O Fernandes, Binoy Rajan, John W Tinsley, Ralph Bickerdike, Samuel A M Martin, Alan S Bowman
In order to improve fish health and reduce use of chemotherapeutants in aquaculture production, the immunomodulatory effect of various nutritional ingredients has been explored. In salmon, there is evidence that functional feeds can reduce the abundance of sea lice. This study aimed to determine if there were consistent changes in the skin mucus proteome that could serve as a biomarker for dietary yeast cell wall extract. The effect of dietary yeast cell wall extract on the skin mucus proteome of Atlantic salmon was examined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis...
2017: PloS One
Angelo Pietrobelli, Massimo Agosti, Gianvincenzo Zuccotti
Growth and development are key characteristics of childhood and sensitive markers of health and adequate nutrition. The first 1000 days of life-conception through 24 months of age-represent a fundamental period for development and thus the prevention of childhood obesity and its adverse consequences is mandatory. There are many growth drivers during this complex phase of life, such as nutrition, genetic and epigenetic factors, and hormonal regulation. The challenge thus involves maximizing the potential for normal growth without increasing the risk of associated disorders...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
V Bernhardt, C Schomerus, M A Verhoff, J Amendt
Over the last decades, studies on juvenile development of forensically important Diptera were performed by using non-human tissues (e.g., beef liver) as a nutrition medium. Such developmental data are used as a reference in determining the age of juvenile necrophagous insects sampled from a human body and thereby to estimate the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). Despite the acceptance of these studies in the forensic community, some might ask whether such data appropriately reflect the growth of blow flies on human tissue...
May 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Gregory D M Potter, Janet E Cade, Peter J Grant, Laura J Hardie
The human circadian system anticipates and adapts to daily environmental changes to optimise behaviour according to time of day and temporally partitions incompatible physiological processes. At the helm of this system is a master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus. The SCN are primarily synchronised to the 24-h day by the light/dark cycle; however, feeding/fasting cycles are the primary time cues for clocks in peripheral tissues. Aligning feeding/fasting cycles with clock-regulated metabolic changes optimises metabolism, and studies of other animals suggest that feeding at inappropriate times disrupts circadian system organisation, and thereby contributes to adverse metabolic consequences and chronic disease development...
August 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Grażyna Anna Ciepiela, Agnieszka Godlewska, Jolanta Jankowska
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the biostimulant Kelpak and different nitrogen rates on cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents as well as non-structural carbohydrates in orchard grass and Braun's festulolium. The experiment was a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. It was set up at the experimental facility of the University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Siedlce, in late April 2009. The following factors were examined: biostimulant with the trade name Kelpak SL applied at 2 dm(3) ha(-1) and a control-no biostimulant; nitrogen application rates 50 and 150 kg ha(-1) and a control (0 kg ha(-1)); pure stands of grass species grown in monoculture--orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata), cv...
February 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Özgür Albayrak, Josephine Kliewer, Manuel Föcker, Jochen Antel, Johannes Hebebrand
This article looks at food addiction as a subject situated between psychiatry, neurobiology, nutritional science, internal medicine, food industry, and public health. Essentially, the question is whether or not individual nutritional components can induce physical dependence, similar to the well-known effects of drugs such as alcohol and cocaine, or whether food addiction is rather a behavioral addiction. The literature describes many overlaps as well as differences of substance-based and non-substance-based addiction in both clinical and neurobiological terms...
May 2015: Zeitschrift Für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie
D L Meeker, J L Meisinger
The rendering industry collects and safely processes approximately 25 million t of animal byproducts each year in the United States. Rendering plants process a variety of raw materials from food animal production, principally offal from slaughterhouses, but include whole animals that die on farms or in transit and other materials such as bone, feathers, and blood. By recycling these byproducts into various protein, fat, and mineral products, including meat and bone meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, blood meal, and various types of animal fats and greases, the sustainability of food animal production is greatly enhanced...
March 2015: Journal of Animal Science
P Deng, K S Swanson
Companion animals play an important role in our lives and are now considered to be and treated as family members in a majority of households in the United States. Because of the high number of pets that now exist, an increasingly stronger pet-human bond, and the importance placed on health and longevity, the pet food industry has realized steady growth over the last few decades. Despite past successes and opportunities that exist in the future, there are also challenges that must be considered. This review will present a brief overview of the current pet food industry and address some of the key issues moving forward...
March 2015: Journal of Animal Science
T A McAllister, S J Meale, E Valle, L L Guan, M Zhou, W J Kelly, G Henderson, G T Attwood, P H Janssen
Globally, methane (CH4) emissions account for 40% to 45% of greenhouse gas emissions from ruminant livestock, with over 90% of these emissions arising from enteric fermentation. Reduction of carbon dioxide to CH4 is critical for efficient ruminal fermentation because it prevents the accumulation of reducing equivalents in the rumen. Methanogens exist in a symbiotic relationship with rumen protozoa and fungi and within biofilms associated with feed and the rumen wall. Genomics and transcriptomics are playing an increasingly important role in defining the ecology of ruminal methanogenesis and identifying avenues for its mitigation...
April 2015: Journal of Animal Science
Y Retnani, T M Wardiny Dan, Taryati
The objective of this study was to apply effect of Morinda citrifolia L. citrifolia L. leaf extract as antibacterial of Salmonella typhimurium on mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ), egg production and Hen day, hatchability of layer quail. This research was conducted at Laboratory of microbiology and laboratory of poultry nutrition, faculty of animal science, bogor agricultural university and slamet quail farms cilangkap, sukabumi, west java, Indonesia on March-July 2012. Two hundred and forty heads of quail were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (sixty heads of quail/treatment)...
April 2014: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
M S Lilburn, S Loeffler
While there are many accepted "facts" within the field of poultry science that are in truth still open for discussion, there is little debate with respect to the tremendous genetic progress that has been made with commercial broilers and turkeys (Havenstein et al., 2003, 2007). When one considers the changes in carcass development in poultry meat strains, these genetic "improvements" have not always been accompanied by correlated changes in other physiological systems and this can predispose some birds to developmental anomalies (i...
July 2015: Poultry Science
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