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Diabetes And Cardio

Clifford J Bailey
Sodium/glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, which lower blood glucose by increasing renal glucose elimination have been shown to reduce the risk of adverse cardiovascular (CV) and renal events in type 2 diabetes. This has been ascribed in part to haemodynamic changes, body weight reduction and several possible effects on myocardial, endothelial and tubulo-glomerular functions as well as reduced glucotoxicity. This review evaluates evidence that an effect of SGLT2 inhibitors to lower uric acid may also contribute to reduced cardio-renal risk...
February 14, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Angelo Maria Patti, Dragana Nikolic, Antonio Magan-Fernandez, Rosaria Vincenza Giglio, Giuseppa Castellino, Roberta Chianetta, Roberto Citarrella, Egle Corrado, Francesca Provenzano, Vincenzo Provenzano, Giuseppe Montalto, Ali A Rizvi, Manfredi Rizzo
AIM: To evaluate the effect of exenatide long acting release (LAR) on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Sixty subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus were treated with exenatide LAR as add-on to stable doses of metformin for 8 months in an open label study. Anthropometric variables, lipid profile and glycemic parameters were assessed by routine analysis. Carotid IMT by Doppler ultrasound and endothelial function by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery were also assessed...
February 10, 2019: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Fahim Abbasi, Paul Jw Tern, Gerald M Reaven
AIM: The aim of this study was to gain insight into the pathophysiological significance of elevated plasma glucose concentrations (mmol/L) 60 min post oral glucose load in apparently healthy individuals. METHODS: Comparison of resistance to insulin action and associated cardio-metabolic risk factors in 490 apparently healthy persons, subdivided into those with a plasma glucose concentration 60 min following a 75-g oral glucose challenge of <8.6 versus ⩾8...
February 13, 2019: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
G Kanigur Sultuybek, T Soydas, G Yenmis
Aging can be defined as the progressive failure of repair and maintenance systems with a consequent accumulation of cellular damage in nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids. These various types of damage promote aging by driving cellular senescence and apoptosis. NF-kB (nuclear factor-kappa B) pathway is one of the key mediators of aging and this pathway is activated by genotoxic, oxidative and inflammatory stress, and regulates expression of cytokines, growth factors, and genes that regulate apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and inflammation...
February 12, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Dimitris Sarris, Zoe Sampani, Anna Rapti, Seraphim Papanikolaou
Crude glycerol (Glol), used as substrate for screening eleven natural Yarrowia lipolytica strains in shake-flask experiments. Aim of this study was to assess the ability of the screened strains to produce biomass (dry cell weight; X), lipid (L), citric acid (Cit), mannitol (Man), arabitol (Ara) and erythritol (Ery), compounds presenting pharmaceutical and biotechnological interest, in glycerol-based nitrogen-limited media, in which initial glycerol concentration had been adjusted to 40 g/L. Citric acid may find use in biomedical engineering (i...
February 11, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Gabriela H Telo, Felipe V Cureau, Moyses Szklo, Katia V Bloch, Beatriz D Schaan
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in adolescents represents a clinical challenge related to lifestyle and obesity; however, only a few data are available in developing countries. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the prevalence of T2DM and prediabetes among Brazilian adolescents, as well as to describe the cardio-metabolic profile according to the diagnosis. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional school-based multicenter study including youth aged 12-17 years from cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants in Brazil (n=37,854 students)...
February 9, 2019: Pediatric Diabetes
Leah Gilbert, Justine Gross, Stefano Lanzi, Dan Yedu Quansah, Jardena Puder, Antje Horsch
BACKGROUND: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is associated with future cardio-metabolic risks for the mother and her child. In addition, one-third of women with recent GDM develop postpartum depression. Given these adverse impacts of GDM on the health of the mother and her offspring, it is important to intervene on modifiable factors, such as diet, physical activity, and psychosocial well-being. This integrative review therefore explored evidence on how these modifiable factors interact in women with GDM and their offspring, and how effective combined interventions are on reducing adverse impacts of GDM...
February 7, 2019: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Ratna Farida Soenarto, Arif Mansjoer, Nurmiati Amir, Maipe Aprianti, Aries Perdana
Background: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is commonly observed following cardiac surgery. The utilization of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with many possible mechanisms to cause POCD. However, there is no evidence confirming that CPB alone is the cause of POCD. Objectives: The current study aimed at evaluating several factors suspected to cause POCD following cardiac surgery in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. Methods: The current prospective cohort study was conducted on 54 patients who were candidates for cardiac surgery...
December 2018: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Abdullah M Al Zahrani, Adnan Al Shaikh
Objective: To determine the glycemic control and cardio-metabolic complications of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) attending a tertiary care diabetes clinic in Saudi Arabia. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of children and adolescents with T1DM attending King Abdulaziz Medical City-Jeddah from 2010 to 2013. We assessed their glycemic control and diabetes management. Vitamin D status was compared with glycemic control and gender differences...
2019: Clinical Medicine Insights. Endocrinology and Diabetes
Mirinae Kim, Rae-Young Kim, Joo-Young Kim, Young-Hoon Park
This study was conducted to assess whether systemic arterial stiffness, indicated by cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), is related to changes in the microvasculature of the retina and choroid in diabetes mellitus (DM). This study included 113 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of type-2 DM. Among them, 18 patients did not have diabetic retinopathy (DR), 71 had non-proliferative DR (NPDR), and 24 had proliferative DR (PDR). The mean CAVI was 7.58 ± 1.41 in no DR, 8.72 ± 1.47 in NPDR, and 8.43 ± 1...
February 4, 2019: Scientific Reports
Erica C Jansen, Dalia Stern, Karen E Peterson, Martin Lajous, Ruy López-Ridaura
Objectives To evaluate whether age at menarche and time to menstrual regularity were related to cardio-metabolic risk factors in Mexican women. Methods The study population comprised 54,921 women from the 2008-2010 wave of the Mexican Teacher's Cohort. A modified Poisson approach was used; exposures were age at menarche and time to menstrual regularity (< 1 year vs. ≥1 year), and outcomes were prevalent obesity, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. Results Mean (SD) age of women was 42...
January 30, 2019: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Luis Silva, Torsten Plösch, Fernando Toledo, Marijke M Faas, Luis Sobrevia
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a detrimental condition for human pregnancy associated with endothelial dysfunction and endothelial inflammation in the fetoplacental vasculature and leads to increased cardio-metabolic risk in the offspring. In the fetoplacental vasculature, GDM is associated with altered adenosine metabolism. Adenosine is an important vasoactive molecule and is an intermediary and final product of transmethylation reactions in the cell. Adenosine kinase is the major regulator of adenosine levels...
January 27, 2019: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Daniella Lent-Schochet, Matthew McLaughlin, Neeraj Ramakrishnan, Ishwarlal Jialal
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is as a cluster of cardio-metabolic factors that greatly increase the risk of chronic diseases such as type II diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In the United States, obesity, physical inactivity, aging, and genetics (to a minor extent) have arisen as risk factors for developing MetS. Although 35% of American adults suffer from MetS, its pathogenesis largely remains unknown. Worse, there is a lack of screening and optimum therapy for this disease. Researchers have consequently turned towards metabolomics to identify biomarkers to better understand MetS...
January 15, 2019: World Journal of Diabetes
Richard Patterson, Elizabeth Webb, Thomas Hone, Christopher Millett, Anthony A Laverty
Public transport provides an opportunity to incorporate physical activity into journeys, but potential health impacts have not been systematically examined. Literature searches were carried out up to December 2017 using Medline, Embase, Transport Database, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Google. We identified longitudinal studies which examined associations between public transport and cardio-metabolic health including: adiposity, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. We assessed study quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for cohort studies and performed meta-analyses where possible...
January 25, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
Piero Ruggenenti, Giuseppe Remuzzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: American Journal of Nephrology
Emilie H Zobel, Bernt Johan von Scholten, Bryan Goldman, Frederik Persson, Tine W Hansen, Peter Rossing
Liraglutide has pleiotropic effects favouring cardiovascular and renal risks. We investigated individual responses to liraglutide in six cardio-renal risk factors to examine whether responses in one risk factor are associated with changes in other risk factors (cross-dependency). Secondary analysis of the LIRA-RENAL trial (n=279) in type 2 diabetes. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c ), body weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were measured at baseline and after 26 weeks of liraglutide/placebo treatment: 'Good responders' had a change within the best quartile...
January 20, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Sree Krishna Venuthurupalli, Helen Healy, Robert Fassett, Anne Cameron, Zaimin Wang, Wendy Elizabeth Hoy
BACKGROUND: Chronic Kidney Disease, Queensland (CKD.QLD) is a multidisciplinary, collaborative research platform for CKD in Queensland. All public renal services contribute towards the CKD Registry, including Toowoomba Hospital which is a referral hospital for Darling Downs Health (DDH) serving largely regional population in Queensland. We aim to present the profile of the CKD cohort recruited to CKD.QLD Registry from Toowoomba Hospital, the first comprehensive report on pre-dialysis population from regional Australia METHODS: Study subjects were patients in the DDH service who consented to be included in the CKD...
January 20, 2019: Nephrology
Nobuhiro Tahara, Ruchia Kojima, Risa Yoshida, Munehisa Bekki, Yoichi Sugiyama, Atsuko Tahara, Shoko Maeda, Akihiro Honda, Sachiyo Igata, Tomohisa Nakamura, Jiahui Sun, Takanori Matsui, Yoshihiro Fukumoto, Toshiro Matsui, Sho-Ichi Yamagishi
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, being involved in endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, ADMA levels have been shown to predict future cardiovascular events in patients with coronary risk factors, such as diabetes and hypertension. We have previously found that glyceraldehyde-derived advanced glycation end products (glycer-AGEs) stimulate ADMA generation in vitro and the levels are associated with ADMA, endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation in humans...
January 19, 2019: Rejuvenation Research
Daiji Nagayama, Yasuhiro Watanabe, Atsuhito Saiki, Kohji Shirai, Ichiro Tatsuno
This study aimed to investigate the association of cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), an arterial stiffness parameter, with four blood pressure (BP) indices, systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), pulse pressure (PP) and mean BP (MBP), in real-world population including untreated hypertension. We analyzed the cross-sectional data from 23,257 Japanese subjects (12,729 men and 10,528 women, aged 47.1 years) without a past history of cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, diabetes or dyslipidemia. Gender differences in four BP indices were slight, but significant for SBP, DBP and MBP...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Human Hypertension
Xiuyue Huo, Tao Zhang, Qingfeng Meng, Chunxiao Li, Beian You
BACKGROUND Diabetes is a risk factor for coronary atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Resveratrol (RESV) is a natural compound with anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cardio protective effects of RESV in a diabetic rat model with coronary heart disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS Diabetic rat model with coronary heart disease was constructed by feeding high-fat and high-calorie diet, followed by injection of streptozotocin. The diabetic rats received RESV or DMSO as treatment...
January 18, 2019: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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