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Julia G Mannheim, Martin Mamach, Sybille Reder, Alexander Traxl, Natalie Mucha, Jonathan A Disselhorst, Markus Mittelhäuser, Claudia Kuntner, James T Thackeray, Sibylle Ziegler, Thomas Wanek, Jens P Bankstahl, Bernd J Pichler
The standardization of preclinical imaging is a key factor to ensure the reliability, reproducibility, validity and translatability of preclinical data. However, preclinical standardization has been slowly progressing in recent years and has mainly been performed within a single institution, whereas little has been done in regards to multi-center standardization between facilities. This study aims to investigate the comparability among preclinical imaging facilities in terms of PET data acquisition and analysis...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Aljohara S Almeneessier, Abdulrahman A BaHammam, Awad H Olaish, Seithikurippu R Pandi-Perumal, Md Dilshad Manzar, Ahmed S BaHammam
PURPOSE: We hypothesized that diurnal intermittent fasting would not increase slow frequency EEG waves, which reflect increased sleepiness. Therefore, this study aimed at performing a quantitative EEG analysis of young healthy volunteers with and without diurnal intermittent fasting while controlling for potential confounders. METHODS: Eight young healthy volunteers (mean age: 24.4 ± 3.7 years) reported to the laboratory during the following five occasions: (1) adaptation, (2) 4 weeks before Ramadan while performing diurnal intermittent fasting (fasting from dawn to sunset) for 1 week (fasting outside Ramadan), (3) 1 week before Ramadan (nonfasting baseline), (4) during the second week of Ramadan while fasting (Ramadan), and (5) 2 weeks after Ramadan (recovery)...
March 4, 2019: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Megan L Jones, Irina A Buhimschi, Guomao Zhao, Anna Bartholomew, Jordan Smith-Timms, Kara M Rood, Catalin S Buhimschi
AIMS: To investigate if oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) associates with changes in maternal symptoms (ie, flushing, sweating), blood nonenzymatic advanced glycation end products (AGE), acute-phase reactive inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress. METHODS: Prospective case-control study of patients screened for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). One hundred nonfasting, second-trimester consecutive pregnant women allocated to either 50 g OGTT or water. Five women who had a 3-hour fasting 100 g OGTT also enrolled...
February 27, 2019: Reproductive Sciences
Giuliano Generoso, Carolina C P S Janovsky, Marcio S Bittencourt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we intend to show the heterogenicity of the triglyceride group, including the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and its subparticles, apolipoproteins, and its role in atherogenesis through epidemiological and genetic studies, observing the association of these various components and subclasses with subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Also, we reevaluated the moment of blood collection for the triglyceride measurement and its repercussion in atherosclerosis...
April 2019: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Wenying Zhou, Dan Chen, Hong Jiang, Quanyuan Shan, Xiaoer Zhang, Xiaoyan Xie, Luyao Zhou
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fasting time on the ultrasound identification and exclusion of biliary atresia in jaundiced infants through the use of the gallbladder classification scheme and to test the value of the gallbladder classification scheme in the diagnosis of biliary atresia in inexperienced individuals. METHODS: A total of 188 jaundiced infants were enrolled in this study. All patients received detailed abdominal sonograms...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Maria Woringer, Kanika I Dharmayat, Geva Greenfield, Alex Bottle, Kausik K Ray
BACKGROUND: Adoption of healthy lifestyle and compliance with cholesterol-lowering medication reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The use of digital tools and mobile technology may be important for sustaining positive behavioral change. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of administering the Cholesterol CarePlan Web app developed by the American Heart Association aimed at improving lifestyle and medication adherence among patients prescribed cholesterol-lowering medication...
January 24, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Fred K Tabung, Katharina Nimptsch, Edward L Giovannucci
Background: The dietary insulin index (II) directly quantifies dietary effects on postprandial insulin secretion, whereas the empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH), based on fasting C-peptide concentrations, is primarily reflective of insulin resistance. How these scores are related to nonfasting C-peptide in cohort studies has not been examined. Objective: We investigated the extent to which EDIH and II scores predict plasma C-peptide concentrations, in cross-sectional analyses by postprandial duration at blood collection from 1 to ≥15 h...
December 22, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Ravi V Shah, Shih-Jen Hwang, Ashish Yeri, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Alexander R Pico, Chen Yao, Venkatesh Murthy, Jennifer Ho, Olga Vitseva, Danielle Demarco, Sajani Shah, Mark D Iafrati, Daniel Levy, Jane E Freedman
Objective- Mechanisms of early and late improvements in cardiovascular risk after bariatric surgery and applicability to larger, at-risk populations remain unclear. We aimed to identify proteins altered after bariatric surgery and their relations to metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. Approach and Results- We identified 19 proteins altered in 32 nonfasting plasma samples from a study of patients undergoing bariatric surgery who were evaluated preoperatively (visit 1) versus both early (visit 2; ≈3 months) and late (visit 3; ≈12 months) postoperative follow-up using predefined protein panels (Olink)...
November 8, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Anne Langsted, Børge G Nordestgaard
Before 2009 essentially all societies, guidelines, and statements required fasting before measuring a lipid profile for cardiovascular risk prediction. This was mainly due to the increase seen in triglycerides during a fat tolerance test. However, individuals eat much less fat during a normal day and nonfasting triglycerides have been shown to be superior to fasting in predicting cardiovascular risk. Lipids and lipoproteins only change minimally in response to normal food intake: in four large prospective studies, maximal mean changes were +0...
February 2019: Pathology
Rozita Naseri, Hamid Reza Mozaffari, Mazaher Ramezani, Masoud Sadeghi
Background: Saliva is a fluid with the complex compound which can be used as diagnostic markers for type 2 diabetes (T2D). This meta-analysis evaluated salivary glucose, immunoglobulin A (IgA), total protein, and amylase levels in adult T2D compared with the controls as well as the correlation of salivary glucose levels with serum glucose and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) levels in both groups. Materials and Methods: Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases were searched up to July 2017...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Farshid Kompani, Ehsan Valavi, Parisa Amuri, Neda Mohtasham
OBJECTIVE: Considering the predictive role of the relatively low urinary citrate for stone formation, especially in hypercalciuric patients, this study is aimed at comparing urine calcium to citrate (Ca/Cit) ratio in 3 groups of children, including patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria with and without renal stone as well as the healthy children. METHODS: This study was carried out on 96 children (2 to 12 years old) referred to a pediatric nephrology clinic in the city of Ahvaz, Southwest Iran...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Suresh K Agarwal, Bo Tong, Orlando F Bueno, Rajeev M Menon, Ahmed Hamed Salem
INTRODUCTION: Venetoclax, a substrate of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), is approved for the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who have received at least one prior therapy. This study evaluated the effect of azithromycin, a commonly used antibiotic in cancer patients and a P-gp inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of venetoclax. METHODS: In this single-center, open-label, nonfasting, two-period study, 12 healthy female subjects received a single 100 mg dose of venetoclax on day 1 of period 1 and day 3 of period 2...
September 27, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Amy Zawacki, Ann Dodge, Jens Eickhoff, Wendy Sun, Erin Marriott, J Carter Ralphe, Amy L Peterson
OBJECTIVE: To identify non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL-C thresholds for pediatric nonfasting lipid screens that are more predictive of the need for lipid-lowering pharmacotherapy and estimate numbers of potentially avoidable fasting lipid panels. STUDY DESIGN: In this retrospective review of children and youths aged 8-21 years presenting for preventive cardiology care, initial lipid results, recommendations for pharmacotherapy, and presence of additional cardiovascular risk factors were noted...
November 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Paul Muntner, Paul K Whelton, Mark Woodward, Robert M Carey
OBJECTIVE: To determine the concordance in the prevalence of hypertension and pharmacological antihypertensive treatment recommendations for U.S. adults with diabetes using definitions from the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) blood pressure (BP) guideline and the 2017 American Diabetes Association (ADA) diabetes and hypertension position statement. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed data for U.S. adults with diabetes in the U...
November 2018: Diabetes Care
Mariana Machado Matos, Renan Arthur Bosio-Guimarães, Ana Júlia Schmidt Niederauer, Katia Isabel Fercondini Pastre, Ronilson A Moreno, Simone Grigoletto Schramm, Paulo Alexandre Rebelo Galvinas, Gustavo D Mendes, Gilberto De Nucci
Capecitabine is a prodrug and is selectively activated by tumor cells to its cytotoxic moiety, 5-fluorouracil, by thymidine phosphorylase, which is generally expressed at high levels in tumors. Clinical and pharmacokinetic studies of capecitabine have been performed in patients with cancer. This study aims to evaluate the bioequivalence of two capecitabine formulations (150-mg tablet) using healthy male subjects under nonfasting conditions. The study was conducted as an open, randomized, three-period, semi-replicated design with three sequences (RRT, RTR, TRR) with a 1-week washout interval...
October 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Anthony P Morise, Jennifer Tennant, Sari D Holmes, Danyel H Tacker
Background: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors have demonstrated significant effects on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and nonhigh density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. To date, there have been limited reports on the effect of PCSK9 inhibitors on remnant cholesterol. Objectives: Assess the effect of PCSK9 inhibitors on nonfasting remnant cholesterol in a real world population. Identify whether pretreatment triglyceride levels are associated with PCSK9 inhibition success as indicated by changes in remnant cholesterol levels...
2018: Journal of Lipids
Jenny Hadrévi, Ingibjörg H Jonsdottir, Per-Anders Jansson, Jan W Eriksson, Anna Sjörs
Exhaustion disorder (ED) is a stress-related disorder that often implies a great burden on the individual patient as well as on society. Previous studies have shown that ED is associated with metabolic deviations, such as lowered fasting glucose. Several mechanisms have been discussed as a plausible explanation of the lack of energy described by these patients. Metabolic processes and reduced ability to mobilize energy have been suggested as important factors. This study investigated metabolomics in 20 patients diagnosed with ED and compared them with 21 healthy controls...
August 7, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Shizuya Yamashita, Hidenori Arai, Koutaro Yokote, Eiichi Araki, Hideki Suganami, Shun Ishibashi
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk is negatively correlated with cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) from macrophages to high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and positively correlated with fasting and nonfasting triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs). Pemafibrate, a novel selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α modulator, robustly decreases the fasting TRL level, increases the HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) level, and improves the atherogenic lipoprotein subclass profile, with an adverse event rate comparable to that of placebo treatment in previous clinical studies...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Adeeb Khalifeh, Rebecca Eckler, Laura Felder, Gabriele Saccone, Claudia Caissutti, Vincenzo Berghella
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) using the one-step as compared with the two-step approach. STUDY DESIGN: This was a parallel group nonblinded randomized trial conducted at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital (TJUH) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from June 2016 to December 2016. The primary outcome was GDM incidence in the one-step compared to the two-approach. Pregnant women without a history of pregestational diabetes were offered screening for GDM at gestational age 24-28 weeks...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Tae Jin Song, Min Kyung Chu, Jong Hee Sohn, Hong Yup Ahn, Sun Hwa Lee, Soo Jin Cho
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The risk of vitamin D deficiency varies with the season. The frequency of vitamin D deficiency in migraine patients and its association with migraine are unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated first-visit migraine patients between January 2016 and May 2017, and investigated the demographics, season, migraine subtypes, frequency, severity, and impact of migraine, psychological and sleep variables, climate factors, and vitamin D levels...
July 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurology
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