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Alba Cecilia Ruiz-Gaitán, Emilia Cantón, Marcelo Ernesto Fernández-Rivero, Paula Ramírez, Javier Pemán
Candida auris is an emerging pathogen causing candidaemia outbreaks in several countries for which azole, amphotericin-B, and echinocandin resistance has been reported. We have determined the eight agents' antifungal susceptibilities of 73 C. auris Spanish isolates (56 bloodstreams and 17 urine), using three methods. First, Isolates were identified by ITS sequencing and then, MICs of fluconazole, isavuconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, anidulafungin, micafungin, and amphotericin-B were determined by EUCAST and SensititreYeastOne® (SYO) (only bloodstream isolates), and Liofilchem® MIC Test Strip (all isolates)...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
William A Rutala, Hajime Kanamori, Maria F Gergen, Emily E Sickbert-Bennett, David J Weber
Candida auris is an emerging fungal pathogen that is often resistant to major classes of antifungal drugs. It is considered a serious global health threat because it can cause severe infections with frequent mortality in more than a dozen countries. It can survive on healthcare environmental surfaces for at least 7 days and can cause outbreaks in healthcare facilities. Clearly, infection prevention strategies, such as surface disinfection, will be essential to controlling Candida transmission. Unfortunately, data on the activity of antiseptics and disinfectants used in healthcare to inactivate this pathogen are limited...
February 15, 2019: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Peral José, Francisco Alvarez-Lerma, Emilio Maseda, Pedro Olaechea, Javier Pemán, Cruz Soriano, Rafael Zaragoza
A narrative review from a multidisciplinary task force of experts in critical care medicine and clinical mycology was carried out. The multi drug-resistant species Candida auris has emerged simultaneously on several continents, causing hospital outbreaks, especially in critically ill patients. Although there are not enough data to support the routine use of continuous antibiotic prophylaxis in patients subjected to extracorporeal membrane oxygenator, a clear increase of invasive fungal infection (IFI) has been described with the use of this device...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Chemotherapy
Rory M Welsh, D Joseph Sexton, Kaitlin Forsberg, Snigdha Vallabhaneni, Anastasia Litvintseva
The emerging yeast Candida auris can be highly drug resistant, cause invasive infections, and large outbreaks. C. auris went from an unknown pathogen a decade ago to being reported in over thirty countries on six continents. C. auris consists of four discrete clades, based on where the first isolates of the clade were reported: South Asian (Clade I), East Asian (Clade II), African (Clade III), and South American (Clade IV). These have unique genetic and biochemical characteristics, which are important to understand and inform the global response to C...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Theun de Groot, Anuradha Chowdhary, Jacques F Meis, Andreas Voss
BACKGROUND: Candida auris is a globally emerging yeast, causing severe infections in patients with underlying diseases. This yeast is responsible for several outbreaks within healthcare facilities, where it can be found on hospital surfaces and patient care devices. Spread from these fomites may be prevented by improving the decontamination of hospital surfaces. UV-C decontamination may constitute an effective adjunct to routine room cleaning. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to investigate the effect of different UV-C exposure times and distance in killing C...
February 12, 2019: Mycoses
Jeffrey M Rybak, Laura A Doorley, Andrew T Nishimoto, Katherine S Barker, Glen E Palmer, P David Rogers
Candida auris has rapidly emerged as a healthcare-associated and multidrug-resistant pathogen of global concern. In this work, we examined the relative expression of the four C. auris genes with the highest degree of homology to C. albicans CDR1 and MDR1 among three triazole-resistant clinical isolates, as compared to the triazole-susceptible genome reference clinical isolate. We subsequently utilized a novel Cas9-mediated system for genetic manipulations to delete C. auris CDR1 and MDR1 in both a triazole-resistant clinical isolate and the susceptible reference strain, and observed MIC for all clinically available triazoles decreased as much as 128-fold in the CDR1 deletion strains...
February 4, 2019: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Bruna Klein, Fabio Rodrigo Thewes, Anese Rogério de Oliveira, Auri Brackmann, Juliano Smanioto Barin, Alexandre José Cichoski, Roger Wagner
A method to extract apple peel wax was developed using the dispersive solvent extraction technique and applied to four apple cultivars (Royal Gala, Pink Lady®, Red Delicious, and Granny Smith). Different variables of the method were optimized, namely type and volume of extraction and dispersive solvents, ionic strength, and use of ultrasound. Extracts were evaluated as gravimetric yield of wax and composition as determined by gas chromatography. Optimized conditions provided yields higher than 95%. In a repeatability assay, the relative standard deviation for the extracted wax content was <3%...
February 2019: Food Research International
Kaitlin Forsberg, Kate Woodworth, Maroya Walters, Elizabeth L Berkow, Brendan Jackson, Tom Chiller, Snigdha Vallabhaneni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 4, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Sang Hu Kim, Kali R Iyer, Lakhansing Pardeshi, José F Muñoz, Nicole Robbins, Christina A Cuomo, Koon Ho Wong, Leah E Cowen
Candida auris is an emerging fungal pathogen and a serious global health threat as the majority of clinical isolates display elevated resistance to currently available antifungal drugs. Despite the increased prevalence of C. auris infections, the mechanisms governing drug resistance remain largely elusive. In diverse fungi, the evolution of drug resistance is enabled by the essential molecular chaperone Hsp90, which stabilizes key regulators of cellular responses to drug-induced stress. Hsp90 also orchestrates temperature-dependent morphogenesis in Candida albicans , a key virulence trait...
January 29, 2019: MBio
Mohammad H Semreen, Sameh S M Soliman, Balsam Q Saeed, Abdullah Alqarihi, Priya Uppuluri, Ashraf S Ibrahim
Candida auris , a newly-emerging Candida species, is a serious global health threat due to its multi-drug resistant pattern, difficulty to diagnose, and the high mortality associated with its invasive and bloodstream infections. Unlike C. albicans, and C. dubliniensis which can form true hyphae, C. auris grows as yeast or pseudohyphae and is capable of developing biofilms. The reasons for the inability of C. auris to form true hyphae are currently unknown. Metabolites secreted by microorganisms, including Candida , are known as important factors in controlling morphogenesis and pathogenesis...
January 22, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Alois Fürstner, Lee R Collins, Sebastian Auris, Richard Goddard
Cyclopropanation reactions of styrene derivatives with donor/acceptor carbenes formed in situ are significantly more enantioselective when catalyzed by the heterobimetallic bismuth-rhodium complex 5a endowed with N-phthalimido tert-leucine paddlewheel ligands rather than by its homobimetallic dirhodium analogue 1a. This virtue is likely the result of two synergizing factors: the conical shape of 5a translates into a narrower calyx-like chiral binding site about the catalytically active Rh center; the Bi atom, although fully solvent exposed, does not decompose aryl diazoacetates and is hence incapable of promoting a racemic background reaction...
January 23, 2019: Angewandte Chemie
Julie Ferreira de Carvalho, Jérémy Lucas, Gwenaëlle Deniot, Cyril Falentin, Olivier Filangi, Marie Gilet, Fabrice Legeai, Maryse Lode, Jérôme Morice, Gwenn Trotoux, Jean-Marc Aury, Valérie Barbe, Jean Keller, Rod Snowdon, Zhesi He, France Denoeud, Patrick Wincker, Ian Bancroft, Anne-Marie Chèvre, Mathieu Rousseau-Gueutin
Several plastid macromolecular protein complexes are encoded by both nuclear and plastid genes. Therefore, cytonuclear interactions are held in place to prevent genomic conflicts that may lead to incompatibilities. Allopolyploidy resulting from hybridization and genome doubling of two divergent species, can disrupt these fine-tuned interactions, as newly formed allopolyploid species confront biparental nuclear chromosomes with uniparentally inherited plastid genome. To avoid any deleterious effects of unequal genome inheritance, preferential transcription of the plastid donor over the other one has been hypothesized to occur in allopolyploids...
January 3, 2019: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
E G Dominguez, R Zarnowski, H L Choy, M Zhao, H Sanchez, Jeniel E Nett, D R Andes
Candida auris has emerged as an outbreak pathogen associated with high mortality. Biofilm formation and linked drug resistance are common among Candida species. Drug sequestration by the biofilm matrix accounts for much of the antifungal tolerance. In this study, we examine the biofilm matrix composition and function for a diverse set of C. auris isolates. We show that matrix sequesters nearly 70% of the available triazole antifungal. Like the biofilms formed by other Candida spp., we find that the matrix of C...
January 2, 2019: MSphere
Jana Juráňová, Juliette Aury-Landas, Karim Boumediene, Catherine Baugé, David Biedermann, Jitka Ulrichová, Jana Franková
In this study, we compared selected silymarin components, such as quercetin (QE), 2,3-dehydrosilybin (DHS) and silybin (SB), with the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin (IND) in terms of their wound healing potential. In view of the fact that pathological cutaneous wound healing is associated with persistent inflammation, we studied their anti-inflammatory activity against inflammation induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We investigated the regulation of crucial pro-inflammatory transcription factors-nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1)-as well as the expression of downstream inflammatory targets by Western blotting, real-time PCR (RT-PCR), electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in vitro using primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF)...
December 30, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Mahdi Abastabar, Iman Haghani, Fatemeh Ahangarkani, Mohammad Sadegh Rezai, Mojtaba Taghizadeh Armaki, Somayeh Roodgari, Keyvan Kiakojuri, Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi, Jacques F Meis, Hamid Badali
Candida auris is a multidrug-resistant yeast emerging in immunocompromised and in otherwise healthy individuals. Due to difficulties in microbiological identification of C. auris because of the lack of available laboratory technology in developing countries, the number of patients affected is most likely underestimated. We report the first case of C. auris otitis which now adds Iran as the fifth country around the Persian Gulf, in addition to Kuwait, Oman, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. Candida auris is an unknown pathogen in routine laboratories in Iran because most Candida isolates are probably misdiagnosed...
February 2019: Mycoses
K Alobaid, Z Khan
Candida blood steam infection is a life-threatening disease that seems to be under estimated. Understanding epidemiology of such disease is crucial for improved diagnosis, optimized treatment, and better outcome. Through this retrospective study, we aimed to determine the incidence of candidemia in a secondary care hospital, and to describe the epidemiology and outcome of candidemia among adult patients. The incidence of candidemia for all age groups was 0.24, 0.16 and 0.15 cases/1000 patient-days in 2014, 2015 and 2016 respectively...
December 18, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Katarzyna Ledwoch, Jean-Yves Maillard
Candida auris is an emerging pathogen that needs to be controlled effectively due to its association with a high mortality rate. The presence of biofilms on dry surfaces has been shown to be widespread in healthcare settings. We produced a C. auris dry surface biofilm (DSB) on stainless steel surfaces following sequential hydration and desiccation cycles for 12 days. The ASTM2967-15 was used to measure the reduction in viability of 12 commercially wipe-based disinfectants and sodium hypochlorite (1000 ppm) against C...
December 21, 2018: Materials
Sevtap Arikan-Akdagli, Mahmoud Ghannoum, Jacques F Meis
Antifungal resistance is a topic of concern, particularly for specific fungal species and drugs. Among these are the multidrug-resistant Candida auris and azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus . While the knowledge on molecular mechanisms of resistance is now accumulating, further data are also available for the clinical implications and the extent of correlation of in vitro resistance to clinical outcomes. This review article summarizes the epidemiology of C. auris infections, animal models focusing on the activity of novel antifungal compounds in C...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Christopher H Heath, John R Dyer, Stanley Pang, Geoffrey W Coombs, Dianne J Gardam
In Australia in 2015, Candida auris sternal osteomyelitis was diagnosed in a 65-year-old man with a history of intensive care treatment in Kenya in 2012 and without a history of cardiac surgery. The isolate was South Africa clade III. Clinicians should note that C. auris can cause low-grade disease years after colonization.
January 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
José F Muñoz, Lalitha Gade, Nancy A Chow, Vladimir N Loparev, Phalasy Juieng, Elizabeth L Berkow, Rhys A Farrer, Anastasia P Litvintseva, Christina A Cuomo
Candida auris is an emergent multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen causing increasing reports of outbreaks. While distantly related to C. albicans and C. glabrata, C. auris is closely related to rarely observed and often multidrug-resistant species from the C. haemulonii clade. Here, we analyze near complete genome assemblies for the four C. auris clades and three related species, and map intra- and inter-species rearrangements across the seven chromosomes. Using RNA-Seq-guided gene predictions, we find that most mating and meiosis genes are conserved and that clades contain either the MTLa or MTLα mating loci...
December 17, 2018: Nature Communications
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