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tuberculosis in bronchiectasis

Yu Shen, Qiu-Xia Qu, Meng-Ni Jin, Cheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Recently, lymphoid follicle-confined and circulating CD8+ T-cells expressing the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CXCR5) were described, which was involved in anti-virus immune response. However, the dynamics and role of circulating CXCR5-expressing CD8+ T-cells during bacterial infection is unknown. So, we asked whether CXCR5+ CD8+ T cells were also generated during bacterial infections in lower respiratory tract. METHODS: The clinical data of 65 pneumonia patients were analyzed...
March 12, 2019: Respiratory Research
Sadia Shakoor, Fatima Mir, Rumina Hasan
Background: Children evaluated for tuberculosis (TB) are often diagnosed with miscellaneous conditions that mimic TB. Knowledge of differentials informs policy on service provision through liaison with referral centers offering definitive diagnosis and treatment for common alternative disorders. Methods: We reviewed medical records of children who were offered diagnostic testing for TB (culture or Xpert MTB/RIF) at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan to identify common alternative diagnoses among children who are evaluated for TB...
January 2019: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Zhigang Fu, Yonghui Liang, Wengjiang Zhao, Jie Tian, Fei Cai, Xiaolin Zhang
PURPOSE: Bronchial hemoptysis induced by intercostal pulmonary venous shunt (IPVS) is clinically rare. Pulmonary lesions on pleural surface may facilitate opening of vascular network. This retrospective study investigated safety and efficacy of embolization agents with small-particle embolization treating patients with massive hemoptysis due to IPVS. METHODS: Patients with massive hemoptysis (n = 207) underwent computed tomography angiography of bronchial artery...
March 9, 2019: La Radiologia Medica
Sergo A Vashakidze, Jordan A Kempker, Nino A Jakobia, Shota G Gogishvili, Ketino A Nikolaishvili, Leila M Goginashvili, Matthew J Magee, Russell R Kempker
BACKGROUND: Post-treatment morbidity among subjects withdrug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is unclear. METHODS: A cross-sectionalstudyof cavitary DR-TB subjects with an outcome of cure from Tbilisi, Georgia. Participants had a chest x-ray (CXR), St. George Respiratory Quality (SGRQ) survey and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) performed. We examined correlations between SGRQ and PFT results andfactors associated with pulmonary impairment. RESULTS: Among 58 subjects, median age 31 years, 40% used tobacco, 59% had prior TB, and 47% underwent adjunctive surgical resection...
March 4, 2019: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Terence Ho, Ruth P Cusack, Nagendra Chaudhary, Imran Satia, Om P Kurmi
Globally, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth major cause of mortality and morbidity and projected to rise to third within a decade as our efforts to prevent, identify, diagnose and treat patients at a global population level have been insufficient. The European Respiratory Society and American Thoracic Society, along with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) strategy document, have highlighted key pathological risk factors and suggested clinical treatment strategies in order to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with COPD...
March 2019: Breathe
Andrew Bush, R Andres Floto
Bronchiectasis has historically been considered to be irreversible dilatation of the airways, but with modern imaging techniques it has been proposed that 'irreversible' be dropped from the definition. The upper limit of normal for the ratio of airway to arterial development increases with age, and a developmental perspective is essential. Bronchiectasis (and persistent bacterial bronchitis, PBB) is a descriptive term and not a diagnosis, and should be the start not the end of the patient's diagnostic journey...
February 25, 2019: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Manu Chopra, D Bhattacharyya, M S Barthwal, G D S Madan, B Chakrabarthy, I M Pandey, Meenakshi Chopra
BACKGROUND: Cough of more than two weeks has become sine quo non with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in a developing country like India. The causes may be different in patients reporting to respiratory OPD vis a vis general OPD. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of PTB and causes of cough other than PTB among respiratory OPD attendees with cough of more than two weeks duration. METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out over two years in respiratory OPD of a tertiary care chest center of Indian armed forces...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
M V Aslam, K Owusu-Edusei, S M Marks, G R B Asay, R Miramontes, M Kolasa, C A Winston, P M Dietz
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the number and cost of hospitalizations with a diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) disease in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed the 2014 National In-Patient Sample using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9) codes to identify hospitalizations with a principal (TB-PD) or any secondary discharge (TB-SD) TB diagnosis. We used a generalized linear model with log link and gamma distribution to estimate the cost per TB-PD and TB-SD episode adjusted for patient demographics, insurer, clinical elements, and hospital characteristics...
December 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Fuat Sayir, Ilhan Ocakcioglu, Abidin Şehitoğulları, Ufuk Çobanoğlu
OBJECTIVE: Destroyed lung is whole lung destruction secondary to chronic or recurrent lung infections. This clinical condition can result in irreversible changes in the lung parenchyma. In this study, we aimed to evaluate patients undergoing pneumonectomy with a diagnosis of lung destruction in terms of surgical technique, post-operative morbidity and mortality, and long-term outcomes. METHODS: A total of 32 patients that underwent pneumonectomy due to a destroyed lung between 2005 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed...
January 2, 2019: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Kalaiyarasan, Anil Kumar Jain, Manmohan Puri, Devika Tayal, Ritu Singhal, Rohit Sarin
BACKGROUND: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is characterized by an allergic inflammatory response to colonization by Aspergillus species, most commonly Aspergillus fumigatus. AIM: To study the prevalence of ABPA in asthmatic patients presenting to our institute. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All consecutive asthma patients attending our allergy clinic Out Patient Department (OPD) over a period of 20 months were tested with skin prick test (SPT) for Aspergillus antigens and those who were found positive were further evaluated for ABPA using Greenberger's criteria...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Chen Li, Shuang Liu, Xin Sui, Jian Wang, Wei Song, Wenshuai Xu, Kai-Feng Xu, Xinlun Tian, Wen Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) pulmonary abnormalities in patients with synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome. METHODS: Pulmonary HRCT images were reconstructed from whole-spine computed tomography (CT) images of 67 patients with SAPHO syndrome. HRCT images of 58 healthy controls were also obtained and reviewed. Patients with pneumonia and tuberculosis were excluded. Demographic and clinical data such as gender, age, onset age, disease duration, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) were collected from the SAPHO syndrome patients...
2018: PloS One
Kohei Horiuchi, Takanori Asakura, Naoki Hasegawa, Fumitake Saito
BACKGROUND: Coexistence of aspergilloma and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) has rarely been reported. Although the treatment for ABPA includes administration of corticosteroids and antifungal agents, little is known about the treatment for coexisting aspergilloma and ABPA. Furthermore, the impact of surgical resection for aspergilloma on ABPA is not fully understood. Here, we present an interesting case of recurrent ABPA with long-term follow-up after surgical resection of aspergilloma...
December 4, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Kerry-Ann F O'Grady, Allan W Cripps, Keith Grimwood
Bronchiectasis has received increased attention recently, including an emphasis on preventing infective exacerbations that are associated with disease progression and lung function decline. While there are several bacteria and viruses associated with bronchiectasis, licensed vaccines are only currently available for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae protein D as a conjugate in a pneumococcal vaccine), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bordetella pertussis and influenza virus. The evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of these vaccines in both preventing and managing bronchiectasis in children and adults is limited with the focus of most research being on other chronic lung disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, asthma and cystic fibrosis...
November 26, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Atul Mishra, Ankit Mathur, Kamal Pathak, C D S Katoch, Anurag Khera
Background: Hemoptysis is one of the most alarming condition to both the patients suffering from it and the treating physicians. It is caused due to varied etiologies. One of the emergent and at times life-saving treatment option is by minimally invasive interventional radiological technique of Bronchial Atery Embolization (BAE). The authors aimed to carry out a retrospective analysis of short term efficacy and safety of all patients treated by this technique at a tertiary care thoracic centre...
October 2018: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Cari Stek, Brian Allwood, Naomi F Walker, Robert J Wilkinson, Lutgarde Lynen, Graeme Meintjes
Impaired lung function is common in people with a history of tuberculosis. Host-directed therapy added to tuberculosis treatment may reduce lung damage and result in improved lung function. An understanding of the pathogenesis of pulmonary damage in TB is fundamental to successfully predicting which interventions could be beneficial. In this review, we describe the different features of TB immunopathology that lead to impaired lung function, namely cavities, bronchiectasis, and fibrosis. We discuss the immunological processes that cause lung damage, focusing on studies performed in humans, and using chest radiograph abnormalities as a marker for pulmonary damage...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jee Youn Oh, Young Seok Lee, Kyung Hoon Min, Gyu Young Hur, Sung Yong Lee, Kyung Ho Kang, Chin Kook Rhee, Seoung Ju Park, Jae Jeong Shim
Background: Patients with tuberculosis-destroyed lungs (TDLs), with airflow limitation, have clinical characteristics similar to those of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Acute exacerbation is an important factor in the management of TDL. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with acute exacerbations in patients with stable TDL with airflow limitation. Methods: We evaluated the clinical characteristics, such as lung function, image findings, and serum laboratory findings, including C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and interleukin (IL)-6, in patients with TDL with chronic airflow limitation (n=94)...
September 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Divyesh P Engineer, Vivek B Kute, Himanshu V Patel, Pankaj R Shah
The kidney is the most common organ involved in systemic amyloidosis. We aimed to study etiology and clinicopathological profile of renal amyloidosis. This was a retrospective study of 40 consecutive adult patients with biopsy-proven renal amyloidosis evaluated over a period of two years. Emphasis was given to describing the clinical presentation, renal function, proteinuria, type of amyloidosis, and its etiology. Mean age of the study cohort was 44 ± 15 years (with a male-to-female ratio of 3:1). Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis was the most common type of amyloidosis observed in 72...
September 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Eleanor L Axson, Navdeep Bual, Chloe I Bloom, Jennifer K Quint
Prior research has identified risk factors associated with developing non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease (NTMD); we identified risk factors and secondary care utilisation of NTMD patients in the UK. This was a matched case-control study using electronic healthcare records from Clinical Practice Research Datalink from 2006 to 2016. NTMD was defined using prescription data and Read codes, based on international guidelines. Risk factors for NTMD were investigated using conditional logistic regression within a representative general population...
October 27, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Maria Gabriella Matera, Paola Rogliani, Josuel Ora, Mario Cazzola
Antibiotics are frequently prescribed to children in the community and in nosocomial settings, mainly because of lower respiratory tract infections(LRTIs), which include influenza, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and tuberculosis, in addition to bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis lung disease. It is important to note, however, that more than 50% of these prescriptions are unnecessary or inappropriate. Areas covered: The current choice of antimicrobial therapy for etiological agents of LRTIs is examined and discussed considering each type of LRTI...
October 25, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Violaine Dubois, Laura Laencina, Anouchka Bories, Vincent Le Moigne, Alexandre Pawlik, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Fabienne Girard-Misguich
What differentiates Mycobacterium abscessus from other saprophytic mycobacteria is the ability to resist phagocytosis by human macrophages and the ability to multiply inside such cells. These virulence traits render M. abscessus pathogenic, especially in vulnerable hosts with underlying structural lung disease, such as cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis or tuberculosis. How patients become infected with M. abscessus remains unclear. Unlike many mycobacteria, M. abscessus is not found in the environment but might reside inside amoebae, environmental phagocytes that represent a potential reservoir for M...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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