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Karin H Simons, Alwin de Jong, J Wouter Jukema, Margreet R de Vries, Ramon Arens, Paul H A Quax
The role of inflammation in cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now widely accepted. Immune cells, including T cells, are influenced by inflammatory signals and contribute to the onset and progression of CVD. T cell activation is modulated by T cell co-stimulation and co-inhibition pathways. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting T cell inhibition pathways have revolutionized cancer treatment and improved survival in patients with cancer. However, ICIs might induce cardiovascular toxicity via T cell re-invigoration...
February 15, 2019: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Haris Sheikh, Mahrukh Siddiqui, Syed Mohammad Mazhar Uddin, Aatera Haq, Uzair Yaqoob
Eosinophilic myocarditis (EM) is a rare form of myocarditis. As there is extreme diversity in its manifestations, the true incidence is difficult to assess and no proper epidemiological criteria are present. It generally presents with a wide array of clinical manifestations. Clinical presentation tends to differ in cases and not all the patients show the same signs and symptoms. The etiology of EM often remains obscure but potential causes have been identified which may include hypersensitivity to drugs, exposure to certain viruses and parasites, and hyper-eosinophilic syndromes...
December 3, 2018: Curēus
Vahid Kazemi, Marlena C Fernandez, Kenneth Zide
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) can produce painful, cutaneous lesions in human beings. Reactivation of this neurotropic virus leads to herpes zoster or shingles: a painful, unilateral, vesicular eruption in a restricted dermatomal distribution. Rarely, reactivation of this virus can lead to cardiac complications, such as myocarditis and even conduction abnormalities. In this case report, we present a patient with a cardiac complication post VZV reactivation and address an unusual question and concern resulting from latent VZV presentation in adults...
December 3, 2018: Curēus
Christoph Gräni, Loïc Bière, Christian Eichhorn, Kyoichi Kaneko, Vikram Agarwal, Ayaz Aghayev, Michael Steigner, Ron Blankstein, Michael Jerosch-Herold, Raymond Y Kwong
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) has become a key investigative tool in patients with suspected myocarditis. However, the prognostic implications of T1 mapping, including extracellular volume (ECV) calculation, is less clear. Patients with suspected myocarditis who underwent CMR evaluation, including T1 mapping at our institution were included. CMR findings including late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), native T1 mapping, and ECV calculation were associated with first major adverse cardiac events (MACE)...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Alexis Bouin, Paul-Antoine Gretteau, Michel Wehbe, Fanny Renois, Yohan N'Guyen, Nicolas Leveque, Michelle N Vu, Steven Tracy, Nora M Chapman, Patrick Bruneval, Paul Fornes, Bert L Semler, Laurent Andreoletti
BACKGROUND: Group B enteroviruses are common causes of acute myocarditis which can be a precursor of chronic myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), leading causes of heart transplantation. To date, the specific viral functions involved in the development of DCM remain unclear. METHODS: Total RNA from cardiac tissue of patients suffering from DCM was extracted, and sequences corresponding to the 5' termini of enterovirus RNAs were identified. Following NexGen RNA sequencing, viral cDNA clones mimicking the enterovirus RNA sequences found in patient tissues were generated in vitro, and their replication and impact on host cell functions were assessed on primary human cardiac cells in culture...
February 13, 2019: Circulation
Neeraj Awasthy, Riya Garg, Apoorav Goel, Mona Bhatia, S Radhakrishnan
Tuberculat myocarditis is an extremely rare entity with few published reports. We report a 13 year old male who presented with ventriculat tachycardia. On evaluation he was observed to have MRI features and workup consistent with nodular variant of tubercular myocarditis. Child had fatal outcome on follow up.
January 2019: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
Takehito Sasaki, Kohki Nakamura, Shigeto Naito
A 28-year-old female presented with fulminant lymphocytic myocarditis. She developed cardiogenic shock, frequent sustained ventricular tachycardia, and fibrillation (VT and VF). The left ventricular ejection fraction improved from 5% to 40% after medical therapy, but the right ventricular systolic dysfunction and enlargement persisted. In addition, sustained VTs, requiring direct current cardioversion, occurred during oral administration of amiodarone following intravenous amiodarone, even after percutaneous stellate ganglion block...
February 8, 2019: International Heart Journal
Xin Huang, Yufei Sun, Guanhua Su, Yu Li, Xinxin Shuai
The efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in the treatment of acute myocarditis remains controversial. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of IVIG in children and adults with acute myocarditis.We searched PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Medline, the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and the website. Eligible studies were clinical trials of patients with acute myocarditis who received IVIG therapy. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the outcomes...
February 8, 2019: International Heart Journal
Yuping Yang, Zijun Jiang, Dong Zhuge
Emodin is a natural product extracted from Rheum palmatum. There are few recent studies on emodin in the treatment of myocarditis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of emodin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory injury in cardiomyocytes. H9c2 cells were treated with 10 μM of LPS and different concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 μM) of emodin. The expression of miR-223 was changed by transient transfection. Thereafter, cell viability, apoptosis, the expression of CyclinD1 and Jnk-associated proteins, and the release of pro-inflammatory factors were assessed by cell Counting Kit-8, flow cytometry analysis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay respectively...
February 8, 2019: International Heart Journal
Andrea Frustaci, Fabrizio Armando Ferilli, Cristina Chimenti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Ramush Bejiqi, Ragip Retkoceri, Arlinda Maloku, Aferdita Mustafa, Hana Bejiqi, Rinor Bejiqi
Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the myocardium with a broad spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from mild symptoms to severe heart failure. The course of patients with myocarditis is heterogeneous, varying from partial or full clinical recovery in a few days to advanced low cardiac output syndrome requiring mechanical circulatory support or heart transplantation. Myocarditis is a very heterogeneous disease, especially in the pediatric age group as worldwide disease myocarditis has been defined by the World Health Organization/International Society and Federation of Cardiology as an inflammatory disease of the heart muscle diagnosed by established histological, immunologic, and immunohistological criteria...
January 15, 2019: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Ying Xu, Qin Gu
BACKGROUND: The Swan-Ganz catheter is a reliable method used to monitor hemodynamics in intensive care units. Pump-controlled retrograde trial off is a new weaning test for veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in recent years. The objective of this report is to describe a case in which pulmonary artery flotation catheter hemodynamic monitoring in combination with pump-controlled retrograde trial off was sufficient for veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation weaning...
February 8, 2019: Perfusion
Diana-Maria Bunu, Cristian-Eugen Timofte, Manuela Ciocoiu, Mariana Floria, Claudia-Cristina Tarniceriu, Oana-Bogdana Barboi, Daniela-Maria Tanase
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers to a group of chronic inflammatory diseases that targets mainly the gastrointestinal tract. The clinical presentation of IBD includes both gastrointestinal manifestations and extraintestinal manifestations (EIM). The reported cardiovascular manifestations in IBD patients include pericarditis, myocarditis, venous and arterial thromboembolism, arrhythmias, atrioventricular block, heart failure, endocarditis, valvulopathies, and Takayasu arteritis. The aim of this article is to review the available literature about the possible pathogenic mechanisms and determine preventive measures capable of reducing the incidence and severity of the cardiovascular manifestations...
2019: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Lindsey E Bazzone, Michael King, Christopher R MacKay, Pyae P Kyawe, Paul Meraner, Daniel Lindstrom, Joselyn Rojas-Quintero, Caroline A Owen, Jennifer P Wang, Abraham L Brass, Evelyn A Kurt-Jones, Robert W Finberg
Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a picornavirus that produces lytic infections in murine and human cells. Employing a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screen to find host factors required for EMCV infection, we identified a role for ADAM9 in EMCV infection. CRISPR-mediated deletion of ADAM9 in multiple human cell lines rendered the cells highly resistant to EMCV infection and cell death. Primary fibroblasts from ADAM9 KO mice were also strongly resistant to EMCV infection and cell death. In contrast, ADAM9 KO and WT cells were equally susceptible to infection with other viruses, including the picornavirus Coxsackie virus B...
February 5, 2019: MBio
Nir Grabie, Andrew H Lichtman, Robert Padera
T lymphocyte-mediated immune responses in the heart are potentially dangerous because they can interfere with the electromechanical function. Furthermore, the myocardium has limited regenerative capacity to repair damage caused by effector T cells. Myocardial T cell responses are normally suppressed by multiple mechanisms of central and peripheral tolerance. T cell inhibitory molecules, so called immune checkpoints, limit the activation and effector function of heart-antigen reactive T cells that escape deletion during development in the thymus...
February 5, 2019: Cardiovascular Research
Concetta Di Nora, Daniela Miani, Sandro Sponga, Ugolino Livi
: Heart transplantation is a life-saving therapy for some patients admitted for acute myocarditis. However, controversial exists about the major risk of rejection following heart transplantation in specific types of myocarditis. Because of relatively few data on the post heart transplant outcomes, we report the long-term follow-up of a 39-year-old patient with a previous history of ulcerative colitis, which rapidly worsened heart failure until an emergency heart transplant in 2004.The clinical course was complicated by many episodes of rejection; lastly, after the development of severe cardiac allograft vasculopathy, re-heart transplantation was needed...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Vera Stroikova, Andrea Fischer, Mariella Bockstahler, Anna-Maria Müller, Hugo A Katus, Ziya Kaya
BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is a hormone that together with its receptors modulates a number of metabolic processes including gluconeogenesis and lipid catabolism. It belongs to the C1QTNF (complement C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein) family, which has a variety of members with high amino acid sequence homology and overlapping functions. Concentration of adiponectin in blood is inversely correlated with body fat percentage and cardiac risk factors like blood pressure and CRP (C-reactive protein) level...
February 1, 2019: Cytokine
Jiun-Ruey Hu, Roberta Florido, Evan J Lipson, Jarushka Naidoo, Reza Ardehali, Carlo G Tocchetti, Robert Padera, Douglas B Johnson, Javid Moslehi
Cardiovascular toxicities associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been reported in case series but have been underappreciated due to difficulties in diagnosis and non-specific clinical manifestations. ICIs are antibodies that block negative regulators of the T cell immune response, including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein-4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), and PD-1 ligand (PD-L1). While ICIs have introduced a significant mortality benefit in several cancer types, the augmented immune response has led to a range of immune-related toxicities, including cardiovascular toxicity...
February 2, 2019: Cardiovascular Research
Rudolf A de Boer, Gilles De Keulenaer, Johann Bauersachs, Dirk Brutsaert, John G Cleland, Javier Diez, Xiao-Jun Du, Paul Ford, Frank R Heinzel, Kenneth E Lipson, Theresa McDonagh, Natalia Lopez-Andres, Ida G Lunde, Alexander R Lyon, Piero Pollesello, Sanjay K Prasad, Carlo G Tocchetti, Manuel Mayr, Joost P G Sluijter, Thomas Thum, Carsten Tschöpe, Faiez Zannad, Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann, Frank Ruschitzka, Gerasimos Filippatos, Merry L Lindsey, Christoph Maack, Stephane Heymans
Fibrosis is a pivotal player in heart failure development and progression. Measurements of (markers of) fibrosis in tissue and blood may help to diagnose and risk stratify patients with heart failure, and its treatment may be effective in preventing heart failure and its progression. A lack of pathophysiological insights and uniform definitions has hampered the research in fibrosis and heart failure. The Translational Research Committee of the Heart Failure Association discussed several aspects of fibrosis in their workshop...
February 4, 2019: European Journal of Heart Failure
Juliana F Germano, Savannah Sawaged, Hannaneh Saadaeijahromi, Allen M Andres, Ralph Feuer, Roberta A Gottlieb, Jon Sin
Coxsackievirus B is a significant human pathogen and is a leading cause of myocarditis. We and others have observed that certain enteroviruses including coxsackievirus B cause infected cells to shed extracellular vesicles containing infectious virus. Recent reports have shown that vesicle-bound virus can infect more efficiently than free virus. Though microRNAs are differentially regulated in cells following infection, few have been associated with the vesicles shed from infected cells. Here we report exclusive trafficking of specific microRNAs into viral vesicles compared to vesicles from non-infected cells...
January 30, 2019: Virology
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