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infectious and non-infectious

Hugo Ramiro Poma, Arti Kundu, Stefan Wuertz, Verónica Beatriz Rajal
Recreational waters are a source of many diseases caused by human viral pathogens, including norovirus genogroup II (NoV GII) and enterovirus (EV). Water samples from the Arenales river in Salta, Argentina, were concentrated by ultrafiltration and analyzed for the concentrations of NoV GII and EV by quantitative PCR. Out of 65 samples, 61 and 59 were non-detects (below the Sample Limit of Detection limit, SLOD) for EV and NoV GII, respectively. We hypothesized that a finite number of environmental samples would lead to different conclusions regarding human health risks based on how data were treated and fitted to existing distribution functions...
February 4, 2019: Water Research
Liliane Simpson-Lourêdo, Cecília M F Silva, Elena Hacker, Nadjla F Souza, Milena M Santana, Camila A Antunes, Prescilla E Nagao, Raphael Hirata, Andreas Burkovski, Maria Helena S Villas Bôas, Ana Luíza Mattos-Guaraldi
Diphtheria by Corynebacterium ulcerans is increasingly occurring in children, adolescents and adults. In addition to diphtheria toxin (DT), phospholipase D (PLD) is considered a virulence factor of C. ulcerans. In the present study, a first case of concurrent diphtheria by a PLD-negative C. ulcerans and infectious mononucleosis (IM) was verified. Clinical and microbiological profiles and binding properties to human Fibrinogen (Fbg), Fibronectin (Fn) and type I collagen (col I) biotinylated proteins and virulence to Caenorhabditis elegans were investigated for C...
February 15, 2019: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Aroa Soriano, Marc Masanas, Ariadna Boloix, Núria Masiá, Laia París-Coderch, Olga Piskareva, Carlos Jiménez, Kai-Oliver Henrich, Josep Roma, Frank Westermann, Raymond L Stallings, Constantino Sábado, Josep Sánchez de Toledo, Anna Santamaria, Soledad Gallego, Miguel F Segura
Current therapies for most non-infectious diseases are directed at or affect functionality of the human translated genome, barely 2% of all genetic information. By contrast, the therapeutic potential of targeting the transcriptome, ~ 70% of the genome, remains largely unexplored. RNA therapeutics is an emerging field that widens the range of druggable targets and includes elements such as microRNA. Here, we sought to screen for microRNA with tumor-suppressive functions in neuroblastoma, an aggressive pediatric tumor of the sympathetic nervous system that requires the development of new therapies...
February 15, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Pojchanun Kanitthamniyom, Yi Zhang
Magnetic digital microfluidics uses magnetic force to manipulate droplets on a Teflon-coated substrate through the added magnetic particles. To achieve a wide range of droplet manipulation, hydrophilic patterns, known as surface energy traps, are introduced onto the Teflon-coated hydrophobic substrate. However, the Teflon-coated substrate is difficult to modify because it is non-wettable, and existing techniques for patterning surface energy traps have many limitations. Inspired by the mussel adhesion mechanism, we use polydopamine, a bioinspired substance that adheres strongly to almost any materials, to pattern surface energy traps on the Teflon-coated substrate with a great ease...
February 16, 2019: Electrophoresis
Michael Mohseni, Theodore Szymanski
BACKGROUND Auricular hematomas are well-known among wrestlers and other contact sports participants, but spontaneous auricular hematomas are rare. The differential diagnosis for acute spontaneous auricular swelling is limited. In addition to infectious causes, antecedent trauma, and bleeding complications, angioedema should also be considered. Although rare, acute non-traumatic auricular hematomas need urgent surgical intervention if they are large. CASE REPORT A 37-year-old male presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with the complaint of acute pain and swelling to his left ear 30 minutes prior to arrival...
February 16, 2019: American Journal of Case Reports
Marcelo M Samsa, Lesley C Dupuy, Clayton W Beard, Carolyn M Six, Connie S Schmaljohn, Peter W Mason, Andrew J Geall, Jeffrey B Ulmer, Dong Yu
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a known biological defense threat. A live-attenuated investigational vaccine, TC-83, is available, but it has a high non-response rate and can also cause severe reactogenicity. We generated two novel VEE vaccine candidates using self-amplifying mRNA (SAM). LAV-CNE is a live-attenuated VEE SAM vaccine formulated with synthetic cationic nanoemulsion (CNE) and carrying the RNA genome of TC-83. IAV-CNE is an irreversibly-attenuated VEE SAM vaccine formulated with CNE, delivering a TC-83 genome lacking the capsid gene...
January 7, 2019: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Alvaro Martínez-Doménech, Marta García-Legaz-Martínez, Cristian Valenzuela-Oñate, Gemma Pérez-Pastor, Fernando Alfageme-Roldán, José Luis Sánchez-Carazo, Amparo Pérez-Ferriols
A 50-year-old woman consulted to the emergency department for painful erythematous swelling on her forearm hours after a spider bite. The patient had spent the evening cleaning the outside of her home, located in the periphery of an urban area, next to a ravine, on the western Mediterranean Basin, when she identified a spider on the dorsum of her forearm. She described it as a light-brown coloured spider, with darker long legs, between 1 and 1,5 cm in size. Though she felt no pain she brushed off the spider and it scared away...
February 15, 2019: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Noriaki Oguri, Akihito Sakuraba, Hiromu Morikubo, Oki Kikuchi, Taro Sato, Soutaro Tokunaga, Shintaro Minowa, Osamu Ikezaki, Tatsuya Mitsui, Miki Miura, Daisuke Saito, Mari Hayashida, Hideaki Mori, Takako Osaki, Shigeru Kamiya, Mitsutoshi Senoh, Haru Kato, Tadakazu Hisamatsu
We report a case of community-acquired fulminant colitis caused by Clostridium difficile in Japan. A 46-year-old woman was diagnosed with severe infectious enterocolitis and was admitted at another hospital. The stool culture was positive for toxigenic C. difficile. Since the patient presented with fulminant C. difficile infection (CDI) with toxic megacolon, respiratory insufficiency, and circulatory failure, she was transferred to Kyorin University Hospital for intensive care. Intubation and antibiotic therapy were performed...
February 14, 2019: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Rashida Ginwala, Raina Bhavsar, DeGaulle I Chigbu, Pooja Jain, Zafar K Khan
Inflammation has been reported to be intimately linked to the development or worsening of several non-infectious diseases. A number of chronic conditions such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders emerge as a result of tissue injury and genomic changes induced by constant low-grade inflammation in and around the affected tissue or organ. The existing therapies for most of these chronic conditions sometimes leave more debilitating effects than the disease itself, warranting the advent of safer, less toxic, and more cost-effective therapeutic alternatives for the patients...
February 5, 2019: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Nisha K Duggal, Erin M McDonald, James Weger-Lucarelli, Seth A Hawks, Jana M Ritter, Hannah Romo, Gregory D Ebel, Aaron C Brault
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection can result in neurological disorders including Congenital Zika Syndrome in infants exposed to the virus in utero. Pregnant women can be infected by mosquito bite as well as by sexual transmission from infected men. Herein, the variants of ZIKV within the male reproductive tract and ejaculates were assessed in inoculated mice. We identified two non-synonymous variants at positions E-V330L and NS1-W98G. These variants were also present in the passage three PRVABC59 isolate and infectious clone relative to the patient serum PRVABC59 sequence...
February 7, 2019: Virology
Frederik T Larsen, Bertrand Bed'Hom, Mohammad Naghizadeh, Rikke B Kjærup, Siamak Zohari, Tina S Dalgaard
Vaccination programs are implemented in poultry farms to limit outbreaks and spread of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), which is a substantial economic burden in the poultry industry. Immune correlates, used to predict vaccine efficacy, have proved difficult to find for IBV-vaccine-induced protection. To find correlates of IBV-vaccine-induced protection, hence, we employed a flow cytometric assay to quantify peripheral leucocyte subsets and expression of cell surface markers of six different non-vaccinated and vaccinated Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) haplotypes...
February 11, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Graham Pawelec
T cell "exhaustion" describes a state of late-stage differentiation usually associated with active prevention of functionality via ligation of negative signaling receptors on the cell surface, and which can be reversed by blocking these interactions. This contrasts with T cell "senescence," which has been defined as a state that is maintained by intrinsic internal cell signaling (caused by DNA damage or other stresses) and which can be reversed pharmacologically. Interventions to alleviate these two different categories of inhibitory pathways may be desirable in immunotherapy for cancer and possibly certain infectious diseases, but reciprocally inducing and maintaining these states, or some properties thereof, may be beneficial in organ transplantation and autoimmunity...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Cristina Lecchi, Carlotta Catozzi, Valentina Zamarian, Gaia Poggi, Giorgia Borriello, Alessandra Martucciello, Domenico Vecchio, Esterina DeCarlo, Giorgio Galiero, Fabrizio Ceciliani
Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria from the Brucella genus that can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products. Brucellosis also causes financial losses in animal production. Ruminants are highly susceptible to brucellosis, and the causative agent water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) is Brucella abortus. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are cropping up as promising biomarkers for several infectious diseases. The goals of this study were to characterize the serum miRNA signature associated with brucellosis in water buffaloes and investigate the miRNAs' potential use as biomarkers in vaginal fluids...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Zarchi E Sumon, Charles S Berenson, John A Sellick, Zackery P Bulman, Brian T Tsuji, Kari A Mergenhagen
Infectious complications following surgical valve replacements are extremely difficult to treat, often requiring prolonged antimicrobials therapy with or without surgery. Vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus is an infrequent pathogen, with an estimated prevalence of less than 0.3%, but presents even greater challenges. We report a case of successful cure of daptomycin-non-susceptible and vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic valve endocarditis using an eight-week course of combination antimicrobial therapy...
February 14, 2019: Infectious Diseases
Coraline Canivet, Olus Uyar, Chantal Rhéaume, Jocelyne Piret, Guy Boivin
The cerebral immune response induced by herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis (HSE) was evaluated in susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 mice. BALB/c and C57BL/6 (named C57BL/6-high) mice were respectively infected intranasally with 1 × 103 and 5 × 105 plaque-forming units (PFUs) of HSV-1. C57BL/6 mice (named C57BL/6-low) infected with a low inoculum (1 × 103 PFUs) of HSV-1 were tested in parallel. Mice were monitored for weight loss, sickness signs, and survival for 21 days. The viral load, infectious titers, cytokine/chemokine levels, and peripheral leukocyte infiltration were determined in brain homogenates on days 0 (non-infected), 4, 6, and 8 post-infection (p...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Chih-Yung Chiu, Mei-Ling Cheng, Kin-Sun Wong, Shen-Hao Lai, Meng Han Chiang, Ming-Han Tsai, Gigin Lin
Fibrin formation in infectious parapneumonic effusion (IPE) characterizes complicated parapneumonic effusion and is important for providing guidelines for management of IPEs that require aggressive interventions. We aim to identify metabolic mechanisms associated with bacterial invasion, inflammatory cytokines, and biochemical markers in cases of fibrinous infectious pleural effusions in children with pneumonia. Pleural fluid metabolites were determined by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Metabolites contributed for the separation between fibrinous and non-fibrinous IPEs were identified using supervised partial least squares-discriminant analysis (Q2/R2 = 0...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Proteome Research
Carine Mekoguem, Cécile Triboulet, Alexandre Gouveia
BACKGROUND: Mycetoma is a neglected infectious disease caused by a fungus (eumycetoma) or bacteria (actinomycetoma); it is characterized by chronic local inflammation with sinus formation and purulent discharge. Its course can be quite devastating because of the difficulty in diagnosing the infection and in eliminating the causative agent. Although endemic in many countries in the tropics and subtropics, the migration of Africans to Europe may increase the presence of this neglected disease in European countries...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Niels C Pedersen, Michel Perron, Michael Bannasch, Elizabeth Montgomery, Eisuke Murakami, Molly Liepnieks, Hongwei Liu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of the nucleoside analog GS-441524 for cats suffering from various forms of naturally acquired feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). METHODS: Cats ranged from 3.4-73 months of age (mean 13.6 months); 26 had effusive or dry-to-effusive FIP and five had non-effusive disease. Cats with severe neurological and ocular FIP were not recruited. The group was started on GS-441524 at a dosage of 2.0 mg/kg SC q24h for at least 12 weeks and increased when indicated to 4...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Milan Tuček
Occupational medicine studies the impact of work and working conditions on the health of workers. It deals with the prevention, diagnostics, treatment, and medicolegal aspects of diseases caused or exacerbated by working conditions. This specialization comprehensively deals with relations between work and health. It prescribes procedures for building a safe and healthy working environment, handles the problem of adapting the work to the abilities of workers with regard to their physical and mental health, it is concerned about health promotion in workers, including evaluation and promotion of their working capacity, and studies the impact of work and working conditions on the occurrence of chronic non-infectious diseases, the progression of which may be significantly influenced by work and working conditions...
2019: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
Ping Xu, Yazhou Cai, Xiaona Ying, Shiqiao Shi, Weidong Song
Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare and recurrent ulcerating, non-infectious, inflammatory dermatosis, with occasional concomitant extracutaneous manifestations. The pathogenesis and aetiology of PG are unknown. Moreover, early diagnosis is challenging because there are several visceral manifestations that may occur prior to the skin findings, such that misdiagnosis of PG as an infection is common. Here, we present a case of PG in which pulmonary and spleen lesions preceded the cutaneous manifestations. The correct diagnosis was made 6 months after multiple nodules were detected in the lung and spleen, based on the development of skin wound ulcers...
February 2019: Internal Medicine Journal
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