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Panneerselvam Sundar Rajan, Kannappan Panchamoorthy Gopinath, Jayaseelan Arun, Kirubanandam Grace Pavithra
In this study Scenedesmus abundans was used as a biosorbent material for removing hydrocarbons from simulated petroleum wastewater. Batch experiments resulted in the removal of 92.16% of hydrocarbons from simulated wastewater within 60 min. The spent biosorbent was converted to bio-oil through hydrothermal liquefaction process (HTL) at temperature range from 220 to 320 °C with 1 h holding time. Liquid hydrocarbons (bio-oil) yield was 43.4 wt% at 300 °C with 15 g of spent sorbent loading and possessed HHV of 39...
March 16, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Donghoon Ro, Hoda Shafaghat, Seong-Ho Jang, Hyung Won Lee, Sang-Chul Jung, Jungho Jae, Jin Sun Cha, Young-Kwon Park
Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant renewable energy source that can be converted into various liquid fuels via thermochemical processes such as pyrolysis. Pyrolysis is a thermal decomposition method, in which solid biomass are thermally depolymerized to liquid fuel called bio-oil or pyrolysis oil. However, the low quality of pyrolysis oil caused by its high oxygen content necessitates further catalytic upgrading to increase the content of oxygen-free compounds, such as aromatic hydrocarbons. Among the three different types of lignocellulosic biomass components (hemicellulose, lignin, and cellulose), lignin is the most difficult fraction to be pyrolyzed because of its highly recalcitrant structure for depolymerization, forming a char as a main product...
March 7, 2019: Environmental Research
Olli Sippula, Kati Huttunen, Jouni Hokkinen, Sara Kärki, Heikki Suhonen, Tuula Kajolinna, Miika Kortelainen, Tommi Karhunen, Pasi Jalava, Oskari Uski, Pasi Yli-Pirilä, Maija-Riitta Hirvonen, Jorma Jokiniemi
There is currently great interest in replacing fossil-oil with renewable fuels in energy production. Fast pyrolysis bio-oil (FPBO) made of lignocellulosic biomass is one such alternative to replace fossil oil, such as heavy fuel oil (HFO), in energy boilers. However, it is not known how this fuel change will alter the quantity and quality of emissions affecting human health. In this work, particulate emissions from a real-scale commercially operated FPBO boiler plant are characterized, including extensive physico-chemical and toxicological analyses...
March 1, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Xiaopo Niu, Fuxiang Feng, Gang Yuan, Xiangwen Zhang, Qingfa Wang
Hollow Silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 zeolites with hierarchical porous shells have been synthesized by using a dissolution-recrystallization method. The morphology, structure, and acidity of these zeolites supported Pt catalysts were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, MAS-SSNMR, FE-SEM, FE-TEM, N₂-BET, XPS, NH₃-TPD, and CO pulse chemisorption. Compared to the conventional ZSM-5 supported Pt catalyst, the special structure in hollow ZSM-5 zeolite significantly promotes the dispersion of metallic Pt and the synergistic effect between metal active sites and acid sites...
March 4, 2019: Nanomaterials
Yuzhen Wang, Yitong Zhu, Zhuan Liu, Jian Su, Changqing Fang, Donghai Xu, Wenhan Song, Shuzhong Wang
Liquefaction performances of waste Tetra Pak in sub-/supercritical water were evaluated in micro-batch reactors. The influences of temperature (300-420 °C), pressure (16-24 MPa), residence time (5-60 min) and feed concentration (5-40 wt%) on bio-oil yield, high heating value (HHV), and functional groups in bio-oil were investigated. The results showed that bio-oil yield firstly increased with increasing temperature and then decreased when the temperature exceeded 360 °C. Reaction time longer than 30 min gave a negative effect on bio-oil yield...
February 28, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Kuo Zeng, Xiao He, Haiping Yang, Xianhua Wang, Hanping Chen
Untreated corn stalk (CS), deionized water washed CS (WCS), aqueous phase bio-oil washed CS (LCS), and 5% acetic acid washed CS (CCS) were torrefied at 230, 260, and 290 °C. The influences of washing, torrefaction, and combined washing-torrefaction pretreatments on corn stalk pyrolysis were investigated. The combined pretreatments, especially aqueous phase bio-oil washing-torrefaction improved fuel properties of pretreated samples largely by increasing their volatile and hydrogen contents. Absorption peaks of O-H and CO groups in combined pretreatment samples increased when torrefaction temperature increased...
February 25, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Chunmei Jia, Francisco G Cirujano, Bart Bueken, Birgit Claes, Dries Jonckheere, Kevin M Van Geem, Dirk De Vos
The capping formate anions of the metal-organic framework (MOF) zirconium benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate (MOF-808) were removed by a solvent exchange procedure, resulting in a formate-free MOF-808 sample containing "geminal" defects consisting of six coordinatively unsaturated sites (CUSs) on each of the Zr6 nodes. Adsorption experiments with this material showed that the uptake of 4-methylguaiacol from a bio-oil mixture was proportional to the number of defects and amounted to one mole adsorbed per mole of zirconium...
February 27, 2019: ChemSusChem
Jon Alvarez, Maider Amutio, Gartzen Lopez, Laura Santamaria, Javier Bilbao, Martin Olazar
Pinewood sawdust and the waste rubber from truck tyres have been co-pyrolysed in order to improve the properties of bio-oil for its integration in oil refineries. In addition, an analysis has been conducted of the effect the interactions between these two materials' pyrolysis reactions have on product yields and properties. Biomass/tyre mixing ratios of 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100 by weight percentage have been pyrolysed in continuous mode at 500 °C in a conical spouted bed reactor, obtaining oil yields in the 55...
February 15, 2019: Waste Management
Yury Kostyukevich, Mihail Vlaskin, Alexander Zherebker, Anatoly Grigorenko, Ludmila Borisova, Eugene Nikolaev
We have performed a comparative analysis of the bio-oil produced by thermal liquefaction of microalgae in different solvents using high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry and GC-MS approach. Water, methanol, ethanol, butanol, isopropanol, acetonitrile, toluene, and hexane were used as solvents in which the liquefaction was performed. It was observed that all resulting oils demonstrate a considerable degree of similarity. For all samples, compounds containing 1 and 2 nitrogen atoms dominated in the positive ESI spectra, while a relative contribution of other compounds was small...
February 13, 2019: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Lin Jiang, Yunpu Wang, Leilei Dai, Zhenting Yu, Qi Yang, Sha Yang, Deyu Jiang, Zhiyun Ma, Qiuhao Wu, Bo Zhang, Yuhuan Liu, Roger Ruan
A ZSM-5/SiC composite catalyst was synthesized and characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy in this study. The composite catalyst had the characteristics of ZSM-5 and SiC, and the surface of SiC grew evenly with a layer of ZSM-5. The effect of the composite catalyst on the product distribution and chemical composition in a co-pyrolysis downdraft system was investigated. In a down system with a catalytic temperature of 450 °C, a feed-to-catalyst ratio of 2:1, and a soybean-soapstock-to-straw ratio of 1:1, the proportions of alkanes, olefins, aromatics, and phenoxy compounds were 6...
January 25, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Ravinder Kumar, Vladimir Strezov, Emma Lovell, Tao Kan, Haftom Weldekidan, Jing He, Behnam Dastjerdi, Jason Scott
The bio-oil obtained from a general pyrolysis process contains a higher concentration of oxygenated compounds and the resultant physical and chemical properties make it an unsuitable drop-in fuel. The oxygenated compounds in the bio-oil can be converted into hydrocarbons or less oxygenated compounds with the application of catalysts. This study demonstrated the bio-oil upgrading with the application of catalysts, comparing the catalytic effect of combined mono-metallic catalysts (Cu/zeolite and Ni/zeolite) and sole bi-metallic catalyst (CuNi/zeolite) on the composition of bio-oil and pyrolytic gases...
January 18, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Zhi-Xiang Xu, Jin-Hong Cheng, Zhi-Xia He, Qian Wang, Yue-Wen Shao, Xun Hu
In order to obtain the N-containing organics from cellulose under mild conditions, hydrothermal liquefaction of cellulose in the presence of ammonia was conducted in this study. The results showed that the increasing reaction temperature and prolonging time facilitated the conversion of cellulose in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) with NH3 ·H2 O and decreased the amount of solid residue. Reaction temperature showed more influence than reaction time on solid residue formation. The components of bio-oil were significantly affected by reaction temperature and reaction time...
January 15, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Jing He, Vladimir Strezov, Tao Kan, Haftom Weldekidan, Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie, Ravinder Kumar
Slow pyrolysis of heavy-metal(loid)-contaminated Avicennia marina biomass obtained from phytoremediation was conducted to investigate the deportment of 12 heavy metal(loid)s in pyrolysis products (biochar, bio-oil, gas) at temperatures from 300 to 800 °C. The results indicated that different heavy metal(loid)s showed diverse volatilities, while all elements tended to transform into volatile products with the increase of pyrolysis temperature. Cd was found highly volatile, while Fe and Cu were non-volatile elements...
January 23, 2019: Bioresource Technology
José A Calles, Alicia Carrero, Arturo J Vizcaíno, Lourdes García-Moreno, Pedro J Megía
Hydrogen obtained from biomass derivatives is considered a promising alternative to fossil fuels. The aim of this work is to test the viability of Ni-M/SBA-15 (M: Co, Cu, Cr) catalysts for the hydrogen production from bio-oil aqueous fraction reforming. Tests were performed in a fixed-bed reactor at 600 °C and atmospheric pressure. Firstly, the steam reforming (SR) of acetic acid, hydroxyacetone, furfural and phenol, as representative constituents of the bio-oil aqueous fraction, was carried out. Lower reactivity with increasing carbon number and decreasing steam-to-carbon ratio was observed...
January 25, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yongxing Chen, Xiudi Cao, Shan Zhu, Fengshou Tian, Yongyan Xu, Chaosheng Zhu, Lin Dong
The effect of Na2 CO3 , Fe and Na2 CO3  + Fe during hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of wheat stalk with different temperature and reaction time was investigated in this study. The results indicated that Na2 CO3  + Fe can promote the cracking of wheat stalk compared with Na2 CO3 or Fe. Meanwhile, higher temperature favored the decomposition of wheat stalk and formation of heavy bio-oil. The highest heavy bio-oil yield was 24.25 wt% and the maximum liquefaction conversion rate was 89.45 wt% in system of Na2 CO3  + Fe at 270 °C...
January 19, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Jing-Xian Wang, Jing-Pei Cao, Xiao-Yan Zhao, Sheng-Nan Liu, Xue-Yu Ren, Ming Zhao, Xin Cui, Qiang Chen, Xian-Yong Wei
Pore structure and accessible active sites of HZSM-5 (Z5) are the key factors for its catalysis. The bifunctional hierarchical Z5 were prepared with leaching agent HF and loading Ni, and their performance for catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of cellulose was investigated in a drop tube quartz reactor. Z5 modified with 0.5 mol/L HF (0.5F-Z5) showed excellent light aromatics (LAs) yield, which can be attributed to the enhancement in the small mesopores (2-10 nm) and the decrease of Brønsted acid sites during dealumination...
January 15, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Shaoqing Wang, Zhihe Li, Xueyuan Bai, Weiming Yi, Peng Fu
Catalytic pyrolysis of lignin over a dual-catalyst system of modified red mud and HZSM-5 was carried out in a bench-scale micro-reactor. Effects of pyrolysis temperature, modified red mud to HZSM-5 ratio, catalysts to lignin ratio on the yield of products and selectivity of aromatic hydrocarbons were investigated. Results indicated that 550 °C was the optimal pyrolysis temperature with the maximal yield of bio-oil (20.16 wt%). At a modified red mud to HZSM-5 ratio of 1:1, the content of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) increased to 41...
January 9, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Kehui Cen, Jie Zhang, Zhongqing Ma, Dengyu Chen, Jianbin Zhou, Huanhuan Ma
Washing pretreatments of rice straw were performed using three different solutions, namely water, dilute hydrochloric acid solution (HCl solution, pH = 2.9), and aqueous phase bio-oil (APBO, pH = 2.9). The raw and pretreated samples were pyrolyzed at 550 °C in a fixed bed reactor. Results showed that among the three pretreatments, washing with APBO had the highest removal efficiency of alkali metal and alkaline earth metals (AAEMs). Among the pyrolysis products, bio-oil from APBO washed sample had the highest mass, energy, and carbon yields, lowest water content of 36...
January 14, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Zhiqiang Wang, Chen Hong, Yi Xing, Zaixing Li, Yifei Li, Jian Yang, Lihui Feng, Jiashuo Hu, Haipeng Sun
This work studied thermal characteristics and product formation mechanism during pyrolysis of penicillin fermentation residue (PR). Results showed that PR pyrolysis proceeded in four stages. The kinetic triplet of each stage was calculated using Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose, and integral master-plot methods. The kinetic model for stage 1 was the three-dimensional diffusion model, the simple reaction order model for stage 2 and stage 4, and the nucleation-growth model for stage 3. FTIR analysis suggested that the intensities of absorption peaks of NH, CO, CH, CN, and CO in chars weakened gradually with increasing temperature, corresponding to the production of CH4 , CO, NH3 , and HCN...
January 9, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Dongyu Chen, Dongxiao Gao, Sergio C Capareda, Shunchao Huang, Ying Wang
Acid washing is an alternative and promising approach for biomass to produce high-quality bio-oil. The hydrochloric acid washing pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse was performed in this study. The effects of acid washing on the ultrastructure of sweet sorghum bagasse were investigated using scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared, and the effects on pyrolysis using thermogravimetric analyzer and a fast pyrolysis device. The results indicated acid treatment obviously changed the surface morphology of the cell walls of sweet sorghum bagasse, effectively removed most metals from sweet sorghum bagasse, and increased the volatiles and bio-oil yields...
January 8, 2019: Bioresource Technology
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