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Chronic stimulant use in adults with adhd

José Martínez-Raga, María López-Cerveró
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic, complex and multifactorial neurodevelopmental disorder associated with high rates of concurrent psychiatric disorders, along with problems and complications on different areas of individual functioning. ADHD is not exclusively a childhood disorder, 40-60% persisting into adulthood with an estimated prevalence of 2.5-5%. Adolescence is a stage where great and continuous changes occur, associated with a lower adherence to treatment, a greater vulnerability to the emergence of academic problems, more risk-behaviors, the onset of substance use and higher rates of other comorbid disorders...
2019: Medicina
Yu-Jung Jenny Wei, Yanmin Zhu, Wei Liu, Regina Bussing, Almut G Winterstein
Importance: There exist limited data on the long-term concurrent use of stimulants and opioids among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a population at risk for prescription drug abuse. Objective: To assess the prevalence and secular trends of and the factors associated with long-term concurrent use of stimulants and opioids among adults with ADHD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study assessed Medicaid Analytic eXtract data from 29 states between 1999 and 2010...
August 3, 2018: JAMA Network Open
Natasha Kharas, Pamela Yang, Daniel Castro-Alvarado, Kevelyn Rose, Nachum Dafny
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental, behavioral disorder that is characterized by patterns of impulsivity and limited attention. Stimulants, such as methylphenidate (MPD) and amphetamine (Amph), are utilized as first-line agents in the treatment of ADHD. While Amph is known elicit dependence, MPD is not. Interdependence between MPD and Amph is a growing concern. Therefore, it is important to explore this interaction in animal models to gain insight on its mechanisms. In experimental studies, drugs that elicit behavioral sensitization and cross-sensitization in animals are considered to have the potential to elicit dependence...
December 14, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Hideyuki Imagawa, Saurabh P Nagar, William Montgomery, Tomomi Nakamura, Masayo Sato, Keith L Davis
Objective: To describe the characteristics and medication treatment patterns of adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prescribed atomoxetine in Japan. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of insurance claims data was conducted using the Japan Medical Data Center database. Adults (≥18 years) with ADHD who had ≥1 atomoxetine claim from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014, and ≥180 to ≤900 days of follow-up were included...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Erin M Miller, Jorge E Quintero, Francois Pomerleau, Peter Huettl, Greg A Gerhardt, Paul E A Glaser
Glutamate dysfunction has been implicated in a number of substance of abuse studies, including cocaine and methamphetamine. Moreover, in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), it has been discovered that when the initiation of stimulant treatment occurs during adolescence, there is an increased risk of developing a substance use disorder later in life. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) serves as a phenotype for ADHD and studies have found increased cocaine self-administration in adult SHRs when treated with the stimulant methylphenidate (MPH) during adolescence...
February 3, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Erin Downey, Wei Pan, Jan Harrison, Esther Poza-Juncal, Paula Tanabe
BACKGROUND: The consumption of controlled substances in North Carolina and the nation has created a health crisis with epidemic levels of medication diversion, abuse, overdose and death. Primary care providers are the principal prescribers of controlled substances and at greatest risk of encountering patients that abuse medications. Guidelines recommend patient agreements with monitoring requirements when prescribing opioids and stimulants. Studies have focused on opioids and excluded stimulants...
January 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Michael Huss, Praveen Duhan, Preetam Gandhi, Chien-Wei Chen, Carsten Spannhuth, Vinod Kumar
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by hyperactivity and/or inattention and is often associated with a substantial impact on psychosocial functioning. Methylphenidate (MPH), a central nervous system stimulant, is commonly used for pharmacological treatment of adults and children with ADHD. Current practice guidelines recommend optimizing MPH dosage to individual patient needs; however, the clinical benefits of individual dose optimization compared with fixed-dose regimens remain unclear...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Gislaine Z Réus, Giselli Scaini, Stephanie E Titus, Camila B Furlanetto, Leticia B Wessler, Gabriela K Ferreira, Cinara L Gonçalves, Gabriela C Jeremias, João Quevedo, Emilio L Streck
BACKGROUND: Methylphenidate (MPH) is the drug of choice for pharmacological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Studies have pointed to the role of glucose and lactate as well as in the action mechanisms of drugs used to treat these neuropsychiatric diseases. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the effects of MPH administration on lactate release and glucose uptake in the brains of young and adult rats. METHODS: MPH (1.0, 2.0 and 10.0mg/kg) or saline was injected in young and adult Wistar male rats either acutely (once) or chronically (once daily for 28 days)...
October 2015: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Catherine M Claussen, Nachum Dafny
The misuse and abuse of the psychostimulant, methylphenidate (MPD) the drug of choice in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has seen a sharp uprising in recent years among both youth and adults for its cognitive enhancing effects and for recreational purposes. This uprise in illicit use has lead to many questions concerning the long-term consequences of MPD exposure. The objective of this study was to record animal behavior concomitantly with the caudate nucleus (CN) neuronal activity following acute and repetitive (chronic) dose response exposure to methylphenidate (MPD)...
September 2015: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
K van der Marel, V Bouet, G F Meerhoff, T Freret, M Boulouard, F Dauphin, A Klomp, P J Lucassen, J R Homberg, R M Dijkhuizen, L Reneman
Methylphenidate (MPH) is a widely prescribed stimulant drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. Its use in this age group raises concerns regarding the potential interference with ongoing neurodevelopmental processes. Particularly the hippocampus is a highly plastic brain region that continues to develop postnatally and is involved in cognition and emotional behavior, functions known to be affected by MPH. In this study, we assessed whether hippocampal structure and function were affected by chronic oral MPH treatment and whether its effects were different in adolescent or adult rats...
November 19, 2015: Neuroscience
Sucharita S Somkuwar, Kathleen M Kantak, Linda P Dwoskin
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with hypofunctional medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Methylphenidate (MPH) remediates ADHD, in part, by inhibiting the norepinephrine transporter (NET). MPH also reduces ADHD-like symptoms in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), a model of ADHD. However, effects of chronic MPH treatment on NET function in mPFC and OFC in SHR have not been reported. In the current study, long-term effects of repeated treatment with a therapeutically relevant oral dose of MPH during adolescence on NET function in subregions of mPFC (cingulate gyrus, prelimbic cortex and infralimbic cortex) and in the OFC of adult SHR, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY, inbred control) and Wistar (WIS, outbred control) rats were determined using in vivo voltammetry...
August 30, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Alexandra S Potter, Geoffrey Schaubhut, Megan Shipman
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common chronic neurobehavioral disorder related to clinically significant levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity. ADHD begins in childhood and symptoms persist into adulthood for the majority of those with the disorder. Associated features of ADHD include emotion dysregulation and cognitive impairments, which contribute to the considerable functional impairments in this disorder. Current approved treatments are reasonably effective; however, a significant need remains for new pharmacotherapies, both for individuals who do not achieve a full therapeutic response and for symptoms that are under-treated including cognition and emotion regulation...
December 2014: CNS Drugs
Ricarda Schwarz, Andreas Reif, Claus-Jürgen Scholz, Lena Weissflog, Brigitte Schmidt, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Christian Jacob, Susanne Reichert, Julia Heupel, Julia Volkert, Juliane Kopf, Max Hilscher, Heike Weber, Sarah Kittel-Schneider
OBJECTIVES: Methylphenidate (MPH) is a commonly used stimulant medication for treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Besides inhibiting monoamine reuptake there is evidence that MPH also influences gene expression directly. METHODS: We investigated the impact of MPH treatment on gene expression levels of lymphoblastoid cells derived from adult ADHD patients and healthy controls by hypothesis-free, genome-wide microarray analysis. Significant findings were subsequently confirmed by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT PCR) analysis...
April 2015: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Clarissa M Comim, Karin M Gomes, Gislaine Z Réus, Fabrícia Petronilho, Gabriela K Ferreira, Emílio L Streck, Felipe Dal-Pizzol, João Quevedo
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate oxidative damage through the thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) and protein carbonyl groups; antioxidant enzymatic system - superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT); and energetic metabolism in the brain of spontaneously hypertensive adult rats (SHR) after both acute and chronic treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH). METHODS: Adult (60 days old) SHRs were treated during 28 days (chronic treatment), or 1 day (acute treatment)...
April 2014: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Philip Asherson, Allan H Young, Dominique Eich-Höchli, Paul Moran, Vibeke Porsdal, Walter Deberdt
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults can resemble, and often co-occurs with, bipolar disorder (BD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD). This can lead to mistaken diagnoses and ineffective treatment, resulting in potentially serious adverse consequences. All three conditions can substantially impair well-being and functioning, while BD and BPD are associated with suicidality. OBJECTIVES: To update clinicians on the overlap and differences in the symptomatology of ADHD versus BD and BPD in adults; differential diagnosis of ADHD from BD and BPD in adults; and diagnosis and treatment of adults with comorbid ADHD-BD or ADHD-BPD...
August 2014: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Marco A Bottelier, Marieke L J Schouw, Anne Klomp, Hyke G H Tamminga, Anouk G M Schrantee, Cheima Bouziane, Michiel B de Ruiter, Frits Boer, Henricus G Ruhé, Damiaan Denys, Roselyne Rijsman, Ramon J L Lindauer, Hans B Reitsma, Hilde M Geurts, Liesbeth Reneman
BACKGROUND: Animal studies have shown that methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) have different effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic system in the developing brain compared to the developed brain. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On the Developing brain (ePOD) study is a combination of different approaches to determine whether there are related findings in humans. METHODS/DESIGN: Animal studies were carried out to investigate age-related effects of psychotropic drugs and to validate new neuroimaging techniques...
2014: BMC Psychiatry
Cathleen G Jones, Pamela B Yang, Victor T Wilcox, Keith D Burau, Nachum Dafny
The psychostimulants considered the gold standard in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, one of the most common childhood disorders, are also finding their way into the hands of healthy young adults as brain augmentation to improve cognitive performance. The possible long-term effects of psychostimulant exposure in adolescence are considered controversial, and thus, the objective of this study was to investigate whether the chronic exposure to the psychostimulant amphetamine affects the behavioral diurnal rhythm activity patterns of female adolescent Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat...
May 2014: Journal of Neural Transmission
Brian K Unwin, Jeffrey Goodie, Brian V Reamy, Jeffrey Quinlan
There are approximately 20 million students in U.S. colleges and universities. Although this population is characterized as having good health, 600,000 students report some form of disability or some type of medical problem, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, learning disabilities, psychiatric disorders, and chronic illnesses, among others. Physicians can enhance youth transition to an adult model of health care; the use of self-care skills checklists is one recommended method to assist with the transition...
November 1, 2013: American Family Physician
Rana Ahmed, Parisa Aslani
Suboptimal adherence to treatment regimens is a major obstacle to treatment efficacy and positive outcomes for patients. While poor adherence is common across a variety of chronic conditions, an area which presents unique challenges to clinicians and researchers is non-adherence among pediatric populations. These challenges are well illustrated by the management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a pervasive pediatric psychiatric condition. The average rates of non-adherence in children and adults ranged between 15 and 87%...
December 2013: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Lisa C Obermeit, Jordan E Cattie, Khalima A Bolden, Maria J Marquine, Erin E Morgan, Donald R Franklin, J Hampton Atkinson, Igor Grant, Steven Paul Woods
AIMS: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is widely regarded as a common comorbidity of methamphetamine (MA) dependence, but the frequency, persistence, and real-world impact of ADHD among MA users are not known. METHODS: Four hundred individuals with MA use disorders within 18months of evaluation and 355 non-MA using comparison subjects completed a comprehensive neuropsychiatric research battery, including self-report measures of everyday functioning...
December 2013: Addictive Behaviors
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