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S Runge-Ranzinger, A C Morrison, P Manrique-Saide, O Horstick
OBJECTIVE: To assesses what is known and identify knowledge gaps for Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission patterns. METHODS: Meta-review searching the databases BioSys; Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialised Register and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; EMBASE; Google Scholar; LILACS; MEDLINE (PubMed); Web of Science; and WHOLIS with the term "ZIKA". Systematic reviews and reviews specifying the search methods and describing potential modes of transmission were eligible for analysis...
February 16, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Michael Mohseni, Theodore Szymanski
BACKGROUND Auricular hematomas are well-known among wrestlers and other contact sports participants, but spontaneous auricular hematomas are rare. The differential diagnosis for acute spontaneous auricular swelling is limited. In addition to infectious causes, antecedent trauma, and bleeding complications, angioedema should also be considered. Although rare, acute non-traumatic auricular hematomas need urgent surgical intervention if they are large. CASE REPORT A 37-year-old male presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with the complaint of acute pain and swelling to his left ear 30 minutes prior to arrival...
February 16, 2019: American Journal of Case Reports
Guido N Buezas, Federico Becerra, Alejandra I Echeverría, Adrián Cisilino, Aldo I Vassallo
The monophyletic group Caviomorpha constitutes the most diverse rodent clade in terms of locomotion, ecology and diet. Caviomorph species show considerable variation in cranio-mandibular morphology that has been linked to the differences in toughness of dietary items and other behaviors, such as chisel-tooth digging. This work assesses the structural strength of the mandible of three caviomorph species that show remarkable differences in ecology, behavior and bite force: Chinchilla lanigera (a surface-dwelling species), Octodon degus (a semi-fossorial species) and Ctenomys talarum (a subterranean species)...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
Alvaro Martínez-Doménech, Marta García-Legaz-Martínez, Cristian Valenzuela-Oñate, Gemma Pérez-Pastor, Fernando Alfageme-Roldán, José Luis Sánchez-Carazo, Amparo Pérez-Ferriols
A 50-year-old woman consulted to the emergency department for painful erythematous swelling on her forearm hours after a spider bite. The patient had spent the evening cleaning the outside of her home, located in the periphery of an urban area, next to a ravine, on the western Mediterranean Basin, when she identified a spider on the dorsum of her forearm. She described it as a light-brown coloured spider, with darker long legs, between 1 and 1,5 cm in size. Though she felt no pain she brushed off the spider and it scared away...
February 15, 2019: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Kristin E Sloyer, Nathan D Burkett-Cadena, Anni Yang, Joseph L Corn, Stacey L Vigil, Bethany L McGregor, Samantha M Wisely, Jason K Blackburn
Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) is a viral arthropod-borne disease affecting wild and domestic ruminants, caused by infection with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV). EHDV is transmitted to vertebrate animal hosts by biting midges in the genus Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones is the only confirmed vector of EHDV in the United States but is considered rare in Florida and not sufficiently abundant to support EHDV transmission. This study used ecological niche modeling to map the potential geographical distributions and associated ecological variable space of four Culicoides species suspected of transmitting EHDV in Florida, including Culicoides insignis Lutz, Culicoides stellifer (Coquillett), Culicoides debilipalpis Hoffman and Culicoides venustus Lutz...
2019: PloS One
Mohammad Afzal Mahmood, Dale Halliday, Robert Cumming, Khin Thida Thwin, Mya Myitzu, Julian White, Sam Alfred, David A Warrell, David Bacon, Win Naing, Htay Aung, Myat Myat Thein, Nyein Nyein Chit, Sara Serhal, Myat Thet Nwe, Pyae Phyo Aung, Chen Au Peh
INTRODUCTION: Every year millions of people in developing countries suffer from snakebite, causing a large number of deaths and long term complications. Prevention and appropriate first aid could reduce the incidence and improve the health outcomes for those who suffer bites. However, many communities where snakebite is a major issue suffer from a lack of information about prevention and first aid measures that a family or community member could take to prevent severe envenoming, complications and poor outcomes...
February 15, 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
S Ranque-Garnier, C Eldin, C Sault, D Raoult, A Donnet
Lyme disease is caused by bacteria of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex, and can give polymorphic clinical manifestations that can affect several organs such as the skin, the central nervous system, or the joints. In recent years, patients' associations and physicians have been supporting the hypothesis that this infection would manifest as chronic generalized musculoskeletal pain symptoms, named "chronic Lyme disease". Fibromyalgia is a clinical presentation characterized by chronic generalized musculoskeletal pain with a major impact on quality of life and social and psychological functioning...
February 11, 2019: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Nisha K Duggal, Erin M McDonald, James Weger-Lucarelli, Seth A Hawks, Jana M Ritter, Hannah Romo, Gregory D Ebel, Aaron C Brault
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection can result in neurological disorders including Congenital Zika Syndrome in infants exposed to the virus in utero. Pregnant women can be infected by mosquito bite as well as by sexual transmission from infected men. Herein, the variants of ZIKV within the male reproductive tract and ejaculates were assessed in inoculated mice. We identified two non-synonymous variants at positions E-V330L and NS1-W98G. These variants were also present in the passage three PRVABC59 isolate and infectious clone relative to the patient serum PRVABC59 sequence...
February 7, 2019: Virology
Manish Tiwari, Vikas Meshram, Pravin Lambade, Gabriela Fernandes
PURPOSE: The use of plates for open reduction and internal fixation of mandibular fractures has become a widely accepted method in the past 3 decades. However, the anterior mandible is well suited to lag screw fixation owing to the thickness of its bony cortices. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to comparatively evaluate clinical outcomes of fixation using lag screws and miniplates in anterior mandibular fractures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty patients reporting to the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery with noncomminuted anterior mandibular fractures were randomly divided into 2 groups of 25 patients each...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Kazuto Takaishi, Takafumi Okuyama, Shota Kadosaki, Masanobu Uchiyama, Tadashi Ema
Hemisquaramide tweezers, a new family of H-bond donor organocatalysts, are reported. The catalysts could be synthesized within two steps. Among them, H8 -binaphthyl-linked hemisquaramide 7 markedly accelerated the synthesis of cyclic carbonates from epoxides and CO2 . The reactions proceeded well under mild and solvent-free conditions. Kinetic resolution was also achieved at -20 °C ( s = 3.0). The adjustable bite angle and orientation of the two NH groups of the catalysts are important for the high activity...
February 14, 2019: Organic Letters
Caitlyn M Rerucha, John T Ewing, Kathryn E Oppenlander, Wesley Charles Cowan
Acute hand infections are often caused by puncture wounds and are generally classified into superficial or deep infections. Superficial infections occur in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, whereas deep infections can involve the tendon sheaths, adjacent anatomic compartments, deep fascial planes, bursae, joint spaces, and bones. Superficial hand infections are more common than deep infections and are typically managed with elevation, warm soaks, splinting in the position of function, analgesics, and empiric antibiotics when indicated...
February 15, 2019: American Family Physician
Andre V Coombs, Stephanie A Eyerly-Webb, Rachele J Solomon, Rafael Sanchez, Seong K Lee, Eddy H Carrillo, Chauniqua Kiffin, Andrew A Rosenthal, Jill Whitehouse, Barbara Germain, Dafney L Davare
The decision to introduce canines (K9s) to a law enforcement (LE) agency does not typically involve the evaluation of the fiscal or clinical impact on local hospitals. This study compared injury, cost, and care associated with K9s to a common nonlethal force method, the Thomas A Swift Electrical Rifle (TASER), to highlight the cost and resources required to treat both patient types. Patients treated for LE-related K9 and TASER injuries at a Level I community-based trauma center (2011-2016) were evaluated for level of care required ( e...
January 1, 2019: American Surgeon
Charles J Gerardo, João R N Vissoci, C Scott Evans, David L Simel, Eric J Lavonas
Importance: Venomous snakebite severity ranges from an asymptomatic dry bite to severe envenomation and death. The clinical evaluation aids in prognosis and is essential to determine the risks and potential benefits of antivenom treatment. Objectives: To identify historical features, clinical examination findings, basic laboratory testing, and clinical grading scales that will risk-stratify patients with pit viper snake envenomation for severe systemic envenomation, severe tissue injury, and/or severe hematologic venom effects...
February 13, 2019: JAMA Surgery
Khaoula Ameur, Monia Youssef, Hichem Belhadjali, Yosra Soua, Mouna Korbi, Mohamed A Henchi, Jameleddine Zili
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a severe eruption characterized by numerous non-follicular sterile pustules on an erythematous background. AGEP is mostly caused by systemic drugs mainly antibiotics. Others causes of AGEP, such as contact with mercury, spider bites and viral infection had been described.1 This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 12, 2019: Contact Dermatitis
Robert A Jordan, Andrea Egizi
As human cases of tick-borne disease continue to increase, there is a heightened imperative to collect data on human-tick encounters to inform disease prevention. Passive tick surveillance programs that encourage members of the public to submit ticks they have encountered can provide a relatively low-cost means of collecting such data. We report the results of 11 years of tick submissions (2006-2016) collected in Monmouth County, New Jersey, an Atlantic coastal county long endemic for Lyme disease. A total of 8,608 ticks acquired in 22 U...
2019: PloS One
Tim W R Möhlmann, Judith Oymans, Paul J Wichgers Schreur, Constantianus J M Koenraadt, Jeroen Kortekaas, Chantal B F Vogels
BACKGROUND: Shuni virus (SHUV) is an orthobunyavirus that belongs to the Simbu serogroup. SHUV was isolated from diverse species of domesticated animals and wildlife, and is associated with neurological disease, abortions, and congenital malformations. Recently, SHUV caused outbreaks among ruminants in Israel, representing the first incursions outside the African continent. The isolation of SHUV from a febrile child in Nigeria and seroprevalence among veterinarians in South Africa suggests that the virus may have zoonotic potential as well...
February 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
C Sabeta, E C Ngoepe
Rabies is an acute and progressive encephalitis caused by lyssaviruses (family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales). Approximately 99% of the estimated 59,000 annual human rabies deaths in Africa and Asia are attributed to dog bites and are preventable through parenteral dog vaccination. In addition to dog rabies, the rabies virus also circulates in wildlife carnivores in southern Africa and virus exchange occurs readily across species barriers. In the early 1900s, rabies outbreaks were brought under control by the restriction of animal movements and by killing stray dogs...
August 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
N Johnson, J A Montano Hirose
The effective control of dog rabies in Latin America is justifiably seen as a major success in the struggle to limit this devastating zoonosis. However, rabies remains a problem, due to the presence of the virus in bat populations throughout the region, including vampire bats. Vampire bats obtain nutrition exclusively through consuming blood by biting mammals and birds. This makes the species a highly efficient vector of the rabies virus, responsible for sporadic outbreaks of rabies in human populations and numerous cases of rabies in livestock...
August 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
S A Rahman, S Isloor
The Indian subcontinent comprises Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, the Maldives, Myanmar, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. In all of these countries, except the Maldives, rabies is endemic. An estimated 59,000 people die from rabies each year; 45% of these deaths occur on the Indian subcontinent and approximately 33% take place in India. The majority of these deaths are attributable to dog bites, and those most affected are children and the poor. Access to post-exposure prophylaxis is limited and costly, the supply of immunoglobulins and vaccines can be irregular and public awareness of rabies is low...
August 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
A C Jackson
Rabies is an acute neurological infection of humans and animals, caused by rabies virus and usually transmitted by animal bites. After an incubation period usually lasting weeks or longer, a variety of prodromal symptoms may occur. Encephalitic rabies (80% of cases) is associated with episodes of generalised arousal or hyperexcitability and hydrophobia, in which spasms involve the contraction of inspiratory muscles with swallowing. Paralytic rabies (in 20% of cases) is characterised by progressive lower motor neuron weakness...
August 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
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