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Mycobacteria of lung (non-tuberculosis)

Vera V Ustinova, Tatiana G Smirnova, Dmitry G Sochivko, Dmitry A Varlamov, Elena E Larionova, Sofya N Andreevskaya, Irina Yu Andrievskaya, Ekaterina A Kiseleva, Larisa N Chernousova, Atadzhan Ergeshov
The purpose of the present study was to create a real-time PCR test system allowing simultaneous detection of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) both in culture and sputum. NTM cultures (18 strains, 18 species), MTBC cultures (16 strains, 2 species) and non-mycobacterial microorganisms from the collection of the Central Research TB Institute (CTRI) were used for the preliminary evaluation of the test system. 301 NTM cultures from patients with mycobacteriosis were used to assess the sensitivity of the developed test system...
January 2019: Tuberculosis
Monika Szturmowicz, Izabela Siemion-Szcześniak, Dorota Wyrostkiewicz, Magdalena Klatt, Sylwia Brzezińska, Anna Zabost, Anna Lewandowska, Dorota Filipczak, Karina Oniszh, Agnieszka Skoczylas, Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Jan Kuś
INTRODUCTION: An increasing incidence rate of respiratory isolates of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been noted recently in most European countries as well as in the US. Despite many publications, there is no consensus concerning the importance of different factors in promoting NTM lung disease (NTMLD). The aim of the present retrospective study was to analyse patients with positive NTM respiratory isolates in search of factors predisposing to NTMLD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 73 patients, 23 males, 50 females, median age 62...
December 30, 2018: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
Rosalie Lubbers, Jayne S Sutherland, Delia Goletti, Roelof A de Paus, Coline H M van Moorsel, Marcel Veltkamp, Stefan M T Vestjens, Willem J W Bos, Linda Petrone, Franca Del Nonno, Ingeborg M Bajema, Karin Dijkman, Frank A W Verreck, Gerhard Walzl, Kyra A Gelderman, Geert H Groeneveld, Annemieke Geluk, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Simone A Joosten, Leendert A Trouw
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major threat to global health. Currently, diagnosis of active TB is hampered by the lack of specific biomarkers that discriminate active TB disease from other (lung) diseases or latent TB infection (LTBI). Integrated human gene expression results have shown that genes encoding complement components, in particular different C1q chains, were expressed at higher levels in active TB compared to LTBI. Methods: C1q protein levels were determined using ELISA in sera from patients, from geographically distinct populations, with active TB, LTBI as well as disease controls...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
H Suzuki, Y Matsuda, M Noda, H Oishi, T Watanabe, T Sado, M Yamada, T Tamada, Y Okada
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To treat organ transplant patients with mycobacterial infection, physicians need to pay attention to interaction between drugs used against mycobacteria and immunosuppressants. The purpose of this report is to describe the clinical features of and treatment for mycobacterial infection in lung transplant (LTx) recipients. METHODS: To investigate the incidence, treatment, and outcome for mycobacterial infection, we retrospectively reviewed 100 LTx recipients in our program since 2000...
November 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Xuan Peng, Tao Luo, Xiaoqian Zhai, Chunxi Zhang, Jing Suo, Pengjiao Ma, Chuhan Wang, Lang Bao
Tuberculosis (TB), which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a serious global health problem. The PE/PPE family, featuring unique sequences, structures and expression in Mtb, is reported to interfere with the macrophage response to the pathogen and facilitate its infection. PPE11 (Rv0453) existed in pathogenic mycobacteria and was persistently expressed in the infected guinea pig lungs. However, the role it played in the pathogenesis remains unclear. Here, to investigate the interaction and potential mechanism of PPE11 between pathogens and hosts, we heterologously expressed PPE11 in non-pathogenic, rapidly growing Mycobacterium smegmatis strains...
October 23, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Mary A De Groote, Mary Jackson, Mercedes Gonzalez-Juarrero, Wei Li, Casey L Young, Christina Wong, James Graham, Joshua Day, Teresa Hoang, Thale C Jarvis, Wendy Ribble, Xicheng Sun, Urs A Ochsner
Mycobacteria remain an important problem worldwide, especially drug resistant human pathogens. Novel therapeutics are urgently needed to tackle both drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) and difficult-to-treat infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Benzothiazole adamantyl amide had previously emerged as a high throughput screening hit against M. tuberculosis ( Mtb ) and was subsequently found to be active against NTM as well. For lead optimization, we applied an iterative process of design, synthesis and screening of several 100 analogs to improve antibacterial potency as well as physicochemical and pharmacological properties to ultimately achieve efficacy...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lucille Adam, Moisés López-González, Albin Björk, Sandra Pålsson, Candice Poux, Marie Wahren-Herlenius, Carmen Fernández, Anna-Lena Spetz
Early clearance of tuberculosis is the successful eradication of inhaled bacteria before the development of an adaptive immune response. We previously showed, by utilizing a non-virulent mycobacteria infection model, that C57BL/6 mice are more efficient than BALB/c in their control of bacterial growth in the lungs during the first weeks of the infection. Here, we assessed early (within 1-3 days) innate immune events locally in the lungs to identify factors that may contribute to the control of non-virulent mycobacterial burden...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
James D Blanchard, Valerie Elias, David Cipolla, Igor Gonda, Luiz E Bermudez
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) affect an increasing number of individuals worldwide. Infection with these organisms is more common in patients with chronic lung conditions, and treatment is challenging. Quinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, have been used to treat patients, but the results have not been encouraging. In this report, we evaluate novel formulations of liposome-encapsulated ciprofloxacin (liposomal ciprofloxacin) in vitro and in vivo Its efficacy against Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium abscessus was examined in macrophages, in biofilms, and in vivo using intranasal instillation mouse models...
October 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Dinah B Aziz, Jeanette W P Teo, Véronique Dartois, Thomas Dick
Lung disease caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), relatives of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , is increasing. M. abscessus is the most prevalent rapid growing NTM. This environmental pathogen is intrinsically resistant to most commonly used antibiotics, including anti-tuberculosis drugs. Current therapies take years to achieve cure, if cure if achieved. Thus, there is an urgent medical need to identify new, more efficacious treatments. Here, we explore the possibility of repurposing antibiotics developed for other indications...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
L Eickhoff, H Golpon, P Zardo, H Suhling, T Welte, D Jonigk, J Gottlieb, T Fuehner
BACKGROUND:  Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) bronchoscopy with transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is a well-established tool in mediastinal staging in lung cancer and gains importance in exploration of non-malignant lymphadenopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of EBUS-TBNA in suspected non-malignant diseases. METHODS:  A retrospective, single-center, observation analysis of endobronchial ultrasound bronchoscopy procedures was performed in a university medical center between March 2013 and July 2015...
August 2018: Pneumologie
Esmaeil Mortaz, Milad Moloudizargari, Mohammad Varahram, Mehrnaz Movassaghi, Johan Garssen, Mehdi Kazempour Dizagie, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Ian M Adcock
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are categorized as one of the large and diverse groups of environmental organisms which are abundant in water and soil.  NTM cause a variety of diseases in humans that mainly affect the lung. A predisposition to pulmonary NTM is evident in patients with parenchymal structural diseases including bronchiectasis, emphysema, tuberculosis (TB), cystic fibrosis (CF), rheumatologic lung diseases and other chronic diseases with pulmonary manifestations. Lung infections are not the only consequences of being infected by NTM as they can also infect skin and soft tissue and may also cause lymphadenitis (predominantly in young children) and disseminated disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients or those with severely compromised immune system...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Violeta D Alvarez-Jiménez, Kahiry Leyva-Paredes, Mariano García-Martínez, Luis Vázquez-Flores, Víctor Gabriel García-Paredes, Marcia Campillo-Navarro, Israel Romo-Cruz, Víctor Hugo Rosales-García, Jessica Castañeda-Casimiro, Sirenia González-Pozos, José Manuel Hernández, Carlos Wong-Baeza, Blanca Estela García-Pérez, Vianney Ortiz-Navarrete, Sergio Estrada-Parra, Jeanet Serafín-López, Isabel Wong-Baeza, Rommel Chacón-Salinas, Iris Estrada-García
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). In the lungs, macrophages and neutrophils are the first immune cells that have contact with the infecting mycobacteria. Neutrophils are phagocytic cells that kill microorganisms through several mechanisms, which include the lytic enzymes and antimicrobial peptides that are found in their lysosomes, and the production of reactive oxygen species. Neutrophils also release extracellular vesicles (EVs) (100-1,000 nm in diameter) to the extracellular milieu; these EVs consist of a lipid bilayer surrounding a hydrophilic core and participate in intercellular communication...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mikihito Saito, Hajime Kasai, Kengo Shimazu, Takashi Urushibara, Tomohiko Iida, Toshihide Shinozaki
Acupuncture needles can cause non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) infection on the skin, but there are no reports that acupuncture needles inserted into the lung have caused lung NTM infection. A 63-year-old woman, who underwent removal of a broken acupuncture needle inserted into the lung nine years ago, was admitted with nodules in the right lung. The shadow was positioned where the needle had existed. Partial lung resection of the right lower lobe was performed, and the resected area showed caseous necrosis histopathologically...
January 2018: Respirology Case Reports
Yongliang Liu, Xiaofei Li, Wei Liu, Yang Liu, Zhouyue Zhong, Lili Wang, ShengXiang Ge, Jun Zhang, Ningshao Xia
OBJECTIVE: New tests for diagnosing active tuberculosis (aTB) are urgently needed, and TB antigen-specific cell-mediated immunity can be expected to develop new testing methods of aTB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rv0183 protein, the only monoglyceride lipase identified in mycobacteria, was used to stimulate freshly heparin-treated whole blood. The Rv0183-specific cytokines/chemokines response associated with aTB was screened firstly with 4 aTB patients and 4 LTBIs, and further evaluated in 192 suspected aTB patients and 372 healthy individuals...
April 2018: Journal of Infection
M Gengenbacher, N E Nieuwenhuizen, She Kaufmann
Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only tuberculosis (TB) vaccine in clinical practice, has limitations in efficacy, immunogenicity and safety. Much current TB vaccine research focuses on engineering live mycobacteria to interfere with phagosome biology and host intracellular pathways including apoptosis and autophagy, with candidates such as BCG Δzmp1, BCG ΔureC::hly, BCG::ESX-1Mmar , Mtb ΔphoP ΔfadD26, Mtb ΔRD1 ΔpanCD and M. smegmatis Δesx-3::esx-3(Mtb) in the development pipeline. Correlates of protection in preclinical studies include increased central memory CD4+ T cells and recruitment of antigen-specific T cells to the lungs, with mucosal vaccination found to be superior to parenteral vaccination...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
Deepali Jain, Subha Ghosh, Lucileia Teixeira, Sanjay Mukhopadhyay
Most pathologists are familiar with the microscopic features of tuberculosis and the need to examine special stains for acid-fast bacteria (AFB) in cases of granulomatous lung disease. However, misconceptions do exist, including the concept that finding AFB in "caseating granulomas" confirms the diagnosis of tuberculosis. This dogma is attributable to the high prevalence of tuberculosis in many countries, as well as unfamiliarity with the microscopic spectrum of non-tuberculous mycobacterial lung disease...
November 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Hidehiro Watanabe, Tomonori Uruma, Ikuo Seita, Tsuyoshi Oishi, Yusuke Watanabe, Ayaka Tsukimori, Yoshiteru Haga, Shinji Fukushima, Akihiro Sato, Itaru Nakamura, Tetsuya Matsumoto
Solitary pulmonary caseating granulomas (SPCGs) are a characteristic type of tuberculomas associated with infection with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and other microbes; however, their significance remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with SPCGs in terms of diagnosis, presence of lung cancer and treatment status. A retrospective analysis of 17 immunocompetent patients with histopathologically confirmed caseating granulomas after undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) was conducted at our center between 2011 and 2015...
June 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
I Porvaznik, I Solovič, J Mokrý
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are species other than those belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and do not cause leprosy. NTM are generally free-living organisms that are ubiquitous in the environment. There have been more than 140 NTM species identified to-date. They can cause a wide range of infections, with pulmonary infections being the most frequent (65-90 %). There is growing evidence that the incidence of NTM lung diseases and associated hospitalizations are on the rise, mainly in regions with a low prevalence of tuberculosis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Hongfei Duan, Xiqin Han, Qingfeng Wang, Jing Wang, Jun Wang, Naihui Chu, Hairong Huang
The clinical relevance of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been reported to be different dramatically by species or by regions, however, no such evaluation has been performed in China.A retrospective study was performed in Beijing Chest Hospital. All the NTM strains isolated from respiratory specimens in the past 5 years, and patients' clinical records (symptoms and radiographic information etc.) were investigated. The clinical relevance was evaluated according to the criteria recommended by the American Thoracic society...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
I Porvaznik, I Solovič, J Mokrý
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are species other than those belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and do not cause leprosy. NTM are generally free-living organisms that are ubiquitous in the environment. There have been more than 140 NTM species identified to-date. They can cause a wide range of infections, with pulmonary infections being the most frequent (65-90 %). There is growing evidence that the incidence of NTM lung diseases and associated hospitalizations are on the rise, mainly in regions with a low prevalence of tuberculosis...
September 20, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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