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Han Zhang, Jia-Jing Wen, Yun-Ni Zhang, Samwel Mchele Limbu, Zhen-Yu Du, Jian-Guang Qin, Li-Qiao Chen
High fat diets are commonly used in aquaculture to reduce feed cost in Nile tilapia, but impair its lipid homeostasis. This study evaluated the role of forskolin on reducing fat accumulation in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by using in vitro and in vivo experiments. The use of 50 μM forskolin in vitro increased free fatty acid and glycerol release, but decreased triglyceride in adipocytes and hepatocytes. The adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), protein kinase cAMP-dependent type I regulatory subunit alpha (PKAR I) and other genes related to β-oxidation (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha, PPARα and carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, CPT1) were significantly up-regulated...
December 26, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Leandro José de Assis, Adriana Manfiolli, Eliciane Mattos, João H T Marilhano Fabri, Iran Malavazi, Ilse D Jacobsen, Matthias Brock, Robert A Cramer, Arsa Thammahong, Daisuke Hagiwara, Laure Nicolas Annick Ries, Gustavo Henrique Goldman
Aspergillus fumigatus mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in maintaining the normal morphology of the cell wall and providing resistance against cell wall-damaging agents. Upon cell wall stress, cell wall-related sugars need to be synthesized from carbohydrate storage compounds. Here we show that this process is dependent on cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activity and regulated by the high-osmolarity glycerol response (HOG) MAPKs SakA and MpkC. These protein kinases are necessary for normal accumulation/degradation of trehalose and glycogen, and the lack of these genes reduces glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis...
December 11, 2018: MBio
Yang Hu, Yanjie Liu, Xiaoran Hao, Dan Wang, Oren Akhberdi, Biyun Xiang, Xudong Zhu
BACKGROUND: The canonical heterotrimeric G protein-cAMP/PKA pathway regulates numerous cellular processes in filamentous fungi. Chaetomium globosum, a saprophytic fungus, is known for producing many secondary metabolites, including cytotoxic chaetoglobosin A (ChA), as well as abundant cellulase and xylanase. RESULTS: Here we report on the functional characterization of this signaling pathway in C. globosum. We blocked the pathway by knocking down the putative Gα-encoding gene gna1 (in the pG14 mutant)...
October 11, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Kang Zhang, Xuemei Yuan, Jinping Zang, Min Wang, Fuxin Zhao, Peifen Li, Hongzhe Cao, Jianmin Han, Jihong Xing, Jingao Dong
A pathogenic mutant, BCG183, was obtained by screening the T-DNA insertion library of Botrytis cinerea . A novel pathogenicity-related gene BcKMO , which encodes kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), was isolated and identified via thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR, bioinformatics analyses, and KMO activity measurement. The mutant BCG183 grew slowly, did not produce conidia and sclerotia, had slender hyphae, and presented enhanced pathogenicity. The phenotype and pathogenicity of the BcKMO -complementing mutant (BCG183/ BcKMO ) were similar to those of the wild-type (WT) strain...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yang Hu, Xiaoran Hao, Longfei Chen, Oren Akhberdi, Xi Yu, Yanjie Liu, Xudong Zhu
Sensing the environmental signals, the canonical Gα-cAMP/PKA pathway modulates mycelial growth and development, and negatively regulates some secondary metabolism in filamentous fungi, e.g. aflatoxin in Aspergillus nidulans. Here we report the characterization of this signaling pathway in Chaetomium globosum, a widely spread fungus known for synthesizing abundant secondary metabolites, e.g. chaetoglobosin A (ChA). RNAi-mediated knockdown of a putative Gα-encoding gene gna-1, led to plural changes in phenotype, e...
2018: PloS One
Yonggen Jia, Jean-Baptiste Marq, Hugo Bisio, Damien Jacot, Christina Mueller, Lu Yu, Jyoti Choudhary, Mathieu Brochet, Dominique Soldati-Favre
Toxoplasma gondii encodes three protein kinase A catalytic (PKAc1-3) and one regulatory (PKAr) subunits to integrate cAMP-dependent signals. Here, we show that inactive PKAc1 is maintained at the parasite pellicle by interacting with acylated PKAr. Either a conditional knockdown of PKAr or the overexpression of PKAc1 blocks parasite division. Conversely, down-regulation of PKAc1 or stabilisation of a dominant-negative PKAr isoform that does not bind cAMP triggers premature parasite egress from infected cells followed by serial invasion attempts leading to host cell lysis...
November 2, 2017: EMBO Journal
Scott H Wettlaufer, L Raghu Penke, Katsuhide Okunishi, Marc Peters-Golden
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), via cAMP signaling, inhibits a variety of fibroblast functions relevant to fibrogenesis. Among these are their translation of collagen I protein and their differentiation to myofibroblasts. PKA is central to these actions, with cAMP binding to regulatory (R) subunits leading to the release of catalytic subunits. Here we examined the role of specific PKAR subunit isoforms in these inhibitory actions in transforming growth factor β-1 (TGFβ-1)-stimulated human lung fibroblasts (HLFs)...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Nikhil Kumar Tulsian, Srinath Krishnamurthy, Ganesh Srinivasan Anand
Spatiotemporal control of the cAMP signaling pathway is governed by both hormonal stimulation of cAMP generation by adenylyl cyclases (activation phase) and cAMP hydrolysis by phosphodiesterases (PDEs) (termination phase). The termination phase is initiated by PDEs actively targeting the protein kinase A (PKA) R-subunit through formation of a PDE-PKAR-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) complex (the termination complex). Our results using PDE8 as a model PDE, reveal that PDEs mediate active hydrolysis of cAMP bound to its receptor RIα by enhancing the enzymatic activity...
June 20, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Marco Godi, Marica Giardini, Antonio Nardone, Anna Maria Turcato, Marco Caligari, Fabrizio Pisano, Marco Schieppati
Training subjects to step-in-place eyes open on a rotating platform while maintaining a fixed body orientation in space [podokinetic stimulation (PKS)] produces a posteffect consisting in inadvertent turning around while stepping-in-place eyes closed [podokinetic after-rotation (PKAR)]. Since the rationale for rehabilitation of curved walking in Parkinson's disease is not fully known, we tested the hypothesis that repeated PKS favors the production of curved walking in these patients, who are uneasy with turning, even when straight walking is little affected...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Rebecca L Eccles, Maciej T Czajkowski, Carolin Barth, Paul Markus Müller, Erik McShane, Stephan Grunwald, Patrick Beaudette, Nora Mecklenburg, Rudolf Volkmer, Kerstin Zühlke, Gunnar Dittmar, Matthias Selbach, Annette Hammes, Oliver Daumke, Enno Klussmann, Sylvie Urbé, Oliver Rocks
Protein kinase A is a key mediator of cAMP signalling downstream of G-protein-coupled receptors, a signalling pathway conserved in all eukaryotes. cAMP binding to the regulatory subunits (PKAR) relieves their inhibition of the catalytic subunits (PKAC). Here we report that ARHGAP36 combines two distinct inhibitory mechanisms to antagonise PKA signalling. First, it blocks PKAC activity via a pseudosubstrate motif, akin to the mechanism employed by the protein kinase inhibitor proteins. Second, it targets PKAC for rapid ubiquitin-mediated lysosomal degradation, a pathway usually reserved for transmembrane receptors...
October 7, 2016: Nature Communications
Marco Schieppati, S Sozzi, O Crisafulli
OBJECTIVE: Turning around while stepping in place can be produced voluntarily. One way of producing involuntary turning around while stepping-in-place eyes closed is by training subjects onto a rotating platform while stepping-in-place and maintaining a fixed body orientation in space. This task produces a post-effect called "podokinetic after-rotation" (PKAR). Such training has been suggested for Parkinsonian patients. We tested the hypothesis that voluntary stepping-in-place and turning around also produces a post-effect similar to the PKAR...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Stefania Sozzi, Marco Schieppati
Training subjects to step in place on a rotating platform while maintaining a fixed body orientation in space produces a posteffect consisting in inadvertent turning around while stepping in place eyes closed (podokinetic after-rotation, PKAR). We tested the hypothesis that voluntary turning around while stepping in place also produces a posteffect similar to PKAR. Sixteen subjects performed 12 min of voluntary turning while stepping around their vertical axis eyes closed and 12 min of stepping in place eyes open on the center of a platform rotating at 60°/s (pretests)...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Samuel T Nemanich, Gammon M Earhart
INTRODUCTION: Gait dysfunction is common in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Freezing of gait (FOG) is one such gait disturbance that significantly impacts mobility and quality of life in PD. Recent evidence suggests that cerebellar connectivity may differ in people with PD and FOG (PD+FOG) relative to those without FOG (PD-FOG). Investigation of gait adaptation, or the ability to change gait patterns in response to external perturbations, is cerebellum-dependent, is a practical means of probing cerebellar integrity and may provide additional insights regarding the FOG phenomenon...
January 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Srinath Krishnamurthy, Nikhil Kumar Tulsian, Arun Chandramohan, Ganesh S Anand
The second messenger molecule cAMP regulates the activation phase of the cAMP signaling pathway through high-affinity interactions with the cytosolic cAMP receptor, the protein kinase A regulatory subunit (PKAR). Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are enzymes responsible for catalyzing hydrolysis of cAMP to 5' AMP. It was recently shown that PDEs interact with PKAR to initiate the termination phase of the cAMP signaling pathway. While the steps in the activation phase are well understood, steps in the termination pathway are unknown...
September 15, 2015: Biophysical Journal
S J Sokanovic, M M Janjic, N J Stojkov, A Z Baburski, M M Bjelic, S A Andric, T S Kostic
Here, we chronologically analyzed age-associated changes of cAMP- and MAPK-signaling in Leydig cells (LCs) in relation with decreased testosterone (T) production. In Wistar rats, decreased serum T observed in 12 to 24-month-old rats was not related to decreased serum LH concentration but to reduced luteinizing hormone receptor (Lhr/LHR) and time-coordinated reduction of steroidogenic gene expression (decreased Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1 in 12-month-old rats followed by decreased Star/StAR, Hsd3b/HSD3B, Hsd17b4, and increased Cyp19a1 later in life)...
October 2014: Experimental Gerontology
T Liu, B C Ma, J M Hou, Y H Zuo
By using EST database from a full-length cDNA library of Curvularia lunata, we have isolated a 2.9 kb cDNA, termed PKAr. An ORF of 1,383 bp encoding a polypeptide of 460 amino acids with molecular weight 50.1 kDa, (GeneBank Acc. No. KF675744) was cloned. The deduced amino acid sequence of the PKAr shows 90 and 88 % identity with cAMP-dependent protein kinase A regulatory subunit from Alternaria alternate and Pyrenophora tritici-repentis Pt-1C-BFP, respectively. Database analysis revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of PKAr shares considerable similarity with that of PKA regulatory subunits in other organisms, particularly in the conserved regions...
September 2014: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Matthew J Merrins, Aaron R Van Dyke, Anna K Mapp, Mark A Rizzo, Leslie S Satin
Pulses of insulin released from pancreatic β-cells maintain blood glucose in a narrow range, although the source of these pulses is unclear. We and others have proposed that positive feedback mediated by the glycolytic enzyme phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK1) enables β-cells to generate metabolic oscillations via autocatalytic activation by its product fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP). Although much indirect evidence has accumulated in favor of this hypothesis, a direct measurement of oscillating glycolytic intermediates has been lacking...
November 15, 2013: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Chen Shnaiderman, Itay Miyara, Ilana Kobiler, Amir Sherman, Dov Prusky
Ammonium secreted by the post-harvest pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during host colonization accumulates in the host environment due to enhanced fungal nitrogen metabolism. Two types of ammonium transporter-encoding genes, AMET and MEP, are expressed during pathogenicity. Gene disruption of AMET, a gene modulating ammonia secretion, showed twofold reduced ammonia secretion and 45% less colonization on avocado fruit, suggesting a contribution to pathogenicity. MEPB, a gene modulating ammonium transport, is expressed by C...
March 2013: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Callum J Osler, Raymond F Reynolds
After a period of stepping on a rotating platform, blindfolded subjects demonstrate a tendency to unconsciously turn when stepping in place, an after-effect known as podokinetic after-rotation (PKAR). Recent studies have also reported a change in postural orientation following the adaptive period and have suggested that this is causally related to PKAR. Here, we assess changes in trunk orientation following platform adaptation and determine their relationship to PKAR. Specifically, we determine whether a reorganized standing posture causes PKAR...
August 2012: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
John T Scott, Corey A Lohnes, Fay B Horak, Gammon M Earhart
Podokinetic after-rotation (PKAR) is a phenomenon in which subjects inadvertently rotate when instructed to step in place after a period of walking on a rotating treadmill. PKAR has been shown to transfer between different forms of locomotion, but has not been tested in a non-locomotor task. We conducted two experiments to assess effects of PKAR on perception of subjective straight ahead and on quiet standing posture. Twenty-one healthy young right-handed subjects pointed to what they perceived as their subjective straight ahead with a laser pointer while they were recorded by a motion capture system both before and after a training period on the rotating treadmill...
February 2011: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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