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System medicine

Fulei Wang, Tiantong Yang, Jian Li, Xiaowei Zhou, Liang Liu
The diagnosis of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is an important task in forensic pathology and clinical medicine. This study aimed to explore the use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to detect DAI. The DAI area of the rat model was detected point by point by the FTIR-mapping system. Infrared spectral data of DAI were obtained by selecting the amide A band, CH3 symmetric stretching, collagen triple-helix structure and asymmetric stretching vibrational frequency of nucleic acid and phospholipid PO2 as the target peak positions...
February 2, 2019: Legal Medicine
Anderson Moreira Aristides Dos Santos, Julian Perelman, Paulo de Andrade Jacinto, Cesar Augusto Oviedo Tejada, Aluísio J D Barros, Andréa D Bertoldi, Alicia Matijasevich, Iná S Santos
The Brazilian Unified Health System was created in the late 1980s to ensure free universal access to health care and was funded by taxes and social contributions. The persistent inequity in access to health services in favour of richer individuals in Brazil has been observed in the literature. However, to the best of our knowledge, no measurement of inequality in medicine use or private health insurance (PHI) among children has been performed with longitudinal data. This paper uses inequality indices and their decompositions to analyse the income-related inequalities/inequities in children's health care in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, using longitudinal data following children from 12 to 72 months of age...
February 4, 2019: Social Science & Medicine
Cheryl Lans
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: There are insufficient safe and effective treatments for chronic pain in pets. In cases such as osteoarthritis there is no commercially available cure and veterinarians use NSAIDs to manage pain. Pet owners may have to plan for a lifetime of plant-based treatment for the conditions that lead to chronic pain in pets. Phytopharmacotherapies have the advantage of being less toxic, cheap or free, readily available, are more likely to be safe for long-term use and have the potential to reset the immune system to normal functioning...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Shun-Chiao Chang, Chi-Feng Lin, Ta-Chun Yeh, Chun-Wei Chang
The study attempts to investigate the features and determinants of the performance of Taiwanese Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Clinics with data for 4905 TCM clinics over the 1998 to 2012 period. The empirical results from the fixed effects model and the Hausman-Taylor Model with cluster-robust standard errors reveal several interesting findings. First, consumer characteristics such as the frequency of disabling injuries has positive impacts on the volume of medical services provided by TCM clinics. These results imply that people are likely to select TCM as the option for medical treatment when they face the occurrence of physical injury in Taiwan...
January 29, 2019: Health Policy
Massimo Salvatori, Alessio Rizzo, Guido Rovera, Luca Indovina, Orazio Schillaci
Hybrid imaging procedures such as single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) showed a rapid diffusion in recent years because of their high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, due to a more accurate localization and definition of scintigraphic findings. However, hybrid systems inevitably lead to an increase in patient radiation exposure because of the added CT component. Effective doses due to the radiopharmaceuticals can be estimated by multiplying the administered activities by the effective dose coefficients, while for the CT component the dose-length product can be multiplied by a conversion coefficient k...
February 15, 2019: La Radiologia Medica
Balasundari Ramesh, Kotturathu Mammen Cherian, Adegbenro Omotuyi John Fakoya
Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) is a biodegradable synthetic polyester synthesized by polymerization or polycondensation. PLLA hydrolytically degrades into lactic acid, a biocompatible metabolic by-product, making it suitable for clinical applications. PLLA scaffolds or nanofibers have been used in various regenerative medicine and drug delivery applications. These scaffolds impart biocompatible properties of high surface area, hydrophobicity, native extracellular properties, and mechanical strength for an organ system...
February 16, 2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Vinícius Silva Lima, Abraão Tiago Batista Guimarães, Amanda Pereira da Costa Araújo, Fernanda Neves Estrela, Ives Charlie da Silva, Nathalie Ferreira Silva de Melo, Leonardo Fernandes Fraceto, Guilherme Malafaia
The advent of biotechnology provided the synthesis of nanoproducts with diverse applications in the field of medicine, agriculture, food, among others. However, the toxicity of many nanoparticles (NP) currently used, which can penetrate natural systems and impact organisms, is not known. Thus, in this study, we evaluated whether the short exposure (5 days) to low concentrations of chitosan-coated zein nanoparticles (ZNP-CS) (0.2 ng/kg, 40 ng/kg, and 400.00 ng/kg) was capable of causing behavioral alterations compatible with cognitive deficit, as well as anxiety and depression-like behavior in Swiss mice...
February 15, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xavier Gansel, Melissa Mary, Alex van Belkum
Disease management requires the use of mixed languages when discussing etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. All phases require data management, and, in the optimal case, such data are interdisciplinary and uniform and clear to all those involved. Such semantic data interoperability is one of the technical building blocks that support emerging digital medicine, e-health, and P4-medicine (predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory). In a world where infectious diseases are on a trend to become hard-to-treat threats due to antimicrobial resistance, semantic data interoperability is part of the toolbox to fight more efficiently against those threats...
February 15, 2019: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Mary Jean Walker, Justin Bourke, Katrina Hutchison
Personalised medicine (PM) has been discussed as a medical paradigm shift that will improve health while reducing inefficiency and waste. At the same time, it raises new practical, regulatory, and ethical challenges. In this paper, we examine PM strategies epistemologically in order to develop capacities to address these challenges, focusing on a recently proposed strategy for developing patient-specific models from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) so as to make individualised treatment predictions. We compare this strategy to two main PM strategies-stratified medicine and computational models...
February 15, 2019: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
Marianne Lehmann, Martina Canatelli-Mallat, Priscila Chiavellini, Gustavo R Morel, Paula C Reggiani, Claudia B Hereñú, Rodolfo G Goya
Biological rejuvenation by partial cell reprogramming is an emerging avenue of research. In this context, regulatable pluripotency gene expression systems are the most widely used at present. We have constructed a regulatable bidirectional adenovector expressing the humanized green fluorescent protein (GFP) and oct4, sox2, klf4, and c-myc genes (known as the Yamanaka genes or OSKM). The OSKM genes are arranged as a bicistronic tandem (hSTEMCCA tandem), which is under the control of a Tet-Off bidirectional promoter that also controls the expression of the gFP gene...
February 15, 2019: Gene Therapy
Yu-Cheng Chen, Yi-Chang Liu, Mohamed El-Shazly, Tung-Ying Wu, Jan-Gowth Chang, Yang-Chang Wu
Reported cases of breast cancer have skyrocketed in the last decades with recent advances in examination techniques. Brest cancer has become the second leading cause of mortality among women worldwide, urging the scientific community to develop or find new drugs from natural sources with potent activity and a reasonable safety profile to tackle this ailment. Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) is a treasured medicinal fungus which has attracted attention due to its potent hepatoprotective and cytotoxic activities. We evaluated the antiproliferative activity of the ethanol extract of artificially cultured AC (EEAC) on breast cancer cells (T47D cells) in vivo and in vitro...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xiaohui Zhao, Zhi-Ping Liu
Network biology and medicine provide unprecedented opportunities and challenges for deciphering disease mechanisms from integrative viewpoints. The disease genes and their products perform their dysfunctions via physical and biochemical interactions in the form of a molecular network. The topological parameters of these disease genes in the interactome are of prominent interest to the understanding of their functionality from a systematic perspective. In this work, we provide a systems biology analysis of the topological features of complex disease genes in an integrated biomolecular network...
February 14, 2019: Genes
Chia-Hsuan Tseng, Wan-Ting Huang, Chee Ho Chew, Jun-Kai Lai, Shih-Hsin Tu, Po-Li Wei, Kang-Yun Lee, Gi-Ming Lai, Chien-Chung Chen
The advent of personalized cancer treatment resulted in the shift from the administration of cytotoxic drugs with broad activity spectrum to a targeted tumor-specific therapy. Aligned to this development, the focus of this study revolved around the application of our novel and patented microtube array membrane (MTAM) in the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) developed an HFA (hollow fiber assay) assay; hereinafter known as MTAM/HFA. Electrospun poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) MTAM was sterilized and loaded with cell lines/patient derived tumor cells (PDTC) and subcutaneously implanted into the backs of BALB/C mice...
February 14, 2019: Materials
Chizuru Iwasawa, Ryota Tamura, Yuki Sugiura, Sadafumi Suzuki, Naoko Kuzumaki, Minoru Narita, Makoto Suematsu, Masaya Nakamura, Kazunari Yoshida, Masahiro Toda, Hideyuki Okano, Hiroyuki Miyoshi
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine. The major safety concern is the tumorigenicity of transplanted cells derived from iPSCs. A potential solution would be to introduce a suicide gene into iPSCs as a safety switch. The herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase ( HSV-TK ) gene, in combination with ganciclovir, is the most widely used enzyme/prodrug suicide system from basic research to clinical applications. In the present study, we attempted to establish human iPSCs that stably expressed HSV-TK with either lentiviral vectors or CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Michael Schreiber, Clemens-Alexander Greim
The rising impact of perioperative sonography is mainly based on mobile high quality ultrasound systems. Relevant bleedings or functional limitations of the abdomen are easy to identify with sonography. The FAST-Concept can be the first access to continue proceedings in ultrasound examination of the abdomen. This paper demonstrates some important ultrasound examinations of the abdomen. The clinical main issues are traumatic and atraumatic bleedings of heart, liver and spleen with haemodynamic instability and functional limitations of abdominal organs like bile cystitis, gastrointestinal passage disability and obstructive uropathy...
February 2019: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
A M Alguacil-Ramos, A Portero-Alonso, E Pastor-Villalba, J Muelas-Tirado, J Díez-Domingo, A Sanchis-Ferrer, J A Lluch-Rodrigo
OBJECTIVES: The enhanced safety surveillance for seasonal influenza vaccines established by the European Medicines Agency is required each season. Therefore, a registry capable of rapidly detecting and evaluating potential new safety concerns is needed. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the vaccine information system of the Valencia region to make a rapid assessment of the influenza vaccine safety and describe the safety of the two vaccine types used in the 2017/2018 season...
February 12, 2019: Public Health
Jie Liu, Shulin Li, Dong Sun
Micro-vascular diseases and its associated complications continue to be a significant health problem worldwide. Vascular lesions from microvascular involvement lead to impaired blood flow and contribute to damage and dysfunction of one or more target organs, that is, the heart, kidneys, eyes, and nervous system. Calcium Dobesilate Drug (CAD) is an established vasoactive and angioprotective drug that has shown a unique, multitarget mode of action in several experimental studies and in different animal models of diabetic microvascular complications...
February 12, 2019: Life Sciences
Jakub Rok, Zuzanna Rzepka, Michalina Respondek, Artur Beberok, Dorota Wrześniok
Tetracyclines belong to antimicrobial classes with the highest consumption in veterinary medicine and agriculture, which leads to the contamination of the environment and food products, as well as to antibiotic resistance and adverse drug reactions. Chloro-derivatives of tetracyclines are thought to be relatively more phototoxic than others and belong to the most frequently cited drugs as photosensitizers. Melanins are heterogenous biopolymers determining skin, hair and eye colour. They are biosynthesized in a multistep process in melanocytes...
February 12, 2019: Chemico-biological Interactions
Sergey A Samsonov, Martin Zacharias, Isaure Chauvot de Beauchene
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), a major constituent of the extracellular matrix, participate in cell-signaling by binding specific proteins. Structural data on protein-GAG interactions are crucial to understand and modulate these signaling processes, with potential applications in regenerative medicine. However, experimental and theoretical approaches used to study GAG-protein systems are challenged by GAGs high flexibility limiting the conformational sampling above a certain size, and by the scarcity of GAG-specific docking tools compared to protein-protein or protein-drug docking approaches...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Jonathan Braun Bsc, S David Gertz, Ariel Furer, Tarif Bader, Hagay Frenkel, Jacob Chen, Elon Glassberg, Dean Nachman
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), commonly referred to as drones, have been made widely available in recent years leading to an exponential growth in their roles and applications. The rapidly developing field of medical drones is on the verge of revolutionizing pre-hospital medicine enabling advanced healthcare delivery to once-inaccessible patients. The aim of this review is to clarify the basic technical properties of currently available medical drones and review recent advances and their usefulness in military and civilian healthcare missions...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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