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Jana Růžičková, Marek Kucbel, Helena Raclavská, Barbora Švédová, Konstantin Raclavský, Dagmar Juchelková
The combustion of biomass in boilers of emission classes 2 and 3 produces deposits in the form of char and soot inside the combustion chamber. Char and soot differ in content of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) as well as in the content of organic compounds. Deposits from boilers of emission class 2 contain higher amounts of OC and EC than those from boilers of emission class 3. The only exception is deposits formed by the combustion of briquettes from hardwood in boilers of emission class 3 that contained approximately by up to 60 percent higher amount of OC and by approx...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Ahmed Adebayo Ishola, Kayode Ezekiel Adewole
The important role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the development of cancer has been demonstrated by various studies. Thus targeting HDACs with inhibitors is a major focus in anticancer drug research. Although few synthetic HDAC inhibitors (HDIs) have been approved for cancer treatment, they have significant undesirable side effects. Therefore emphases have been placed on natural HDIs as substitutes for the synthetic ones. In a bid to identify more HDIs, this study evaluated the binding tendency of compounds derived from Morinda lucida Benth...
February 15, 2019: Molecular Biology Reports
Valéria Sutti Nunes, Patrícia Miralda Cazita, Sérgio Catanozi, Edna Regina Nakandakare, Eder Carlos Rocha Quintão
Phytosterol metabolism is unknown in the hypercholesterolemia of genetic origin. We investigated the metabolism of phytosterols in a cholesterol-free, phytosterol-containing standard diet in hypercholesterolemic mice knockouts for low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and apolipoprotein E (apoE) mice compared to wild-type mice (controls). Phytosterols were measured in mice tissues by GCMS. ApoE-KO mice absorbed less phytosterols than LDLR-KO and the latter absorbed less phytosterols than control mice, because the intestinal campesterol content was low in both KO mice, and sitosterol was low in the intestine in apoE-KO mice as compared to LDLR-KO mice...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
Kooi-Yeong Khaw, Marie-Odile Parat, Paul Nicholas Shaw, Thao T T Nguyen, Saurabh Pandey, Kristofer J Thurecht, James Robert Falconer
The aims of this study are to investigate the selective cytotoxic activity of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 )-extracted freeze-dried leaf juice (FDLJ) of Carica papaya on squamous cell carcinoma (SCC25) cells, and to delineate the best small scale extraction parameters allowing maximal extract activity. Using scCO2 as a solvent, six operating parameters were studied and the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) process investigated using a factorial design 26-2 . The processing values promoting cytotoxic activity towards SCC-25 are: high pressure (250 bar), low temperature (35 °C), extended processing time (180 minutes), as well as a large amount of starting material (5 g)...
February 8, 2019: Scientific Reports
Xiuling Zhou, Yang Zhang, Yanbing Shen, Xiao Zhang, Shuangping Xu, Zhihua Shang, Menglei Xia, Min Wang
The bioprocess for producing androstenedione (AD) from phytosterols by using Mycobacterium neoaurum is hindered by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides (NAD+ and NADH) ratio imbalance, insoluble substrate, and lengthy biotransformation period. This study aims to improve the efficiency of AD production through a combined application of cofactor, solvent, and fermentation engineering technologies. Through the enhanced type II NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-II), the NAD+ /NADH ratio and ATP levels increased; the release of reactive oxygen species decreased by 42...
January 31, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Chenguang Zhou, Yuanyuan Tan, Sophia Goßner, Youfa Li, Qingyao Shu, Karl-Heinz Engel
The low phytic acid (lpa) rice mutant Os-lpa-MH86-1, exhibiting a mutation-induced metabolite signature (i.e., increased levels of sugars, sugar alcohols, amino acids, phytosterols and biogenic amines), was crossed with two commercial wild-type cultivars. The resulting progenies of generation F8 harvested at three independent field trials were subjected to a GC/MS-based metabolite profiling approach. Statistical assessments via multivariate and univariate analyses demonstrated that the environment had a strong impact on the metabolite profiles of the resulting progenies...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Roberta Tolve, Nicola Condelli, Marisa Carmela Caruso, Francesco Genovese, Giovanni Carlo Di Renzo, Gianluigi Mauriello, Fernanda Galgano
Phytosterols were microencapsulated by spray drying in a shell represented by WPI, inulin and chitosan at four different combinations through the formulation of aqueous suspensions. Moreover, two concentrations of Tween 80 (1.25% and 2.50% w/w) and two inlet temperatures (125 °C and 155 °C) were tested. The effect of the different experimental conditions on the process yield and on the microcapsules properties was evaluated. A significant effect of all variables on the microcapsule properties was found...
February 2019: Food Research International
Daniela Andrade Neves, Marcio Schmiele, Juliana Azevedo Lima Pallone, Eduardo Adilson Orlando, Eder Müller Risso, Elenice Carla Emidio Cunha, Helena Teixeira Godoy
Jambu (Acmella oleracea (L.) R.K. Jansen) is a neglected plant native to the Amazon Biome. Although it is very consumed in the north of Brazil, little is known about its chemical and nutritional composition. Thus, this study aimed to characterize jambu and to evaluate the effects of the boiling process on its chemical composition. The proximate composition, minerals, total amino acids, fatty acids levels, and phytosterols were determined. In comparison with conventional vegetables jambu presented higher levels of protein (24...
February 2019: Food Research International
Simon Hammann, Ansgar Korf, Ian D Bull, Heiko Hayen, Lucy J E Cramp
Minor lipids in cereals (such as phytosterols and alkylresorcinols) can be important for human nutrition and/or be used as biomarkers for cereal intake. However, the analysis of cereal lipids is very challenging due to the complex lipidome comprising several hundred individual compounds present over a wide range of concentrations. Here we present a method for the profiling of cereal lipids using high temperature gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/Q-TOF MS). The method was used to investigate the lipid profiles of 77 samples of bread wheat, spelt, einkorn, emmer, barley, rye and oats...
June 1, 2019: Food Chemistry
Michele Scognamiglio, Dario Costa, Antonio Sorriento, Claudio Napoli
Coronary heart disease (CHD) remain the leading cause of disability and death in industrialized Countries. Among many conditions that contribute to the etiology and progression of CHD, the presence of high LDL-C levels represent the major risk factor. Therefore, the reduction of LDL-C levels play a key role in the management of patients with high or very high cardiovascular risk. Although statins represent the gold standard therapy for the reduction of cholesterol levels, do not allow to achieve target levels of LDL-C in all patients...
January 29, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Eva Kovacikova, Anton Kovacik, Marek Halenar, Katarina Tokarova, Lubica Chrastinova, Lubomir Ondruska, Rastislav Jurcik, Eduard Kolesar, Jozef Valuch, Adriana Kolesarova
Amygdalin is one of the most studied secondary metabolites of Prunus genus. It is a cyanogenic glycoside which was initially obtained from the bitter almonds seeds and is a major component of the seeds of plants, such as apricots, almonds, peaches, apples and other rosaceous plants. The views of scientists on the use of amygdalin have been contradictory for many years, partly because toxicokinetics and metabolism of amygdalin still have not been adequately explored. The present in vivo study was designed to reveal whether pure amygdalin intramuscularly injected or apricot seeds oral consumption induce changes in overall health status of rabbit as a biological model...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Sylvain Darnet, Hubert Schaller
4,4-Dimethylsterols and 4-methylsterols are sterol biosynthetic intermediates (C4-SBIs) acting as precursors of cholesterol, ergosterol, and phytosterols. Their accumulation caused by genetic lesions or biochemical inhibition causes severe cellular and developmental phenotypes in all organisms. Functional evidence supports their role as meiosis activators or as signaling molecules in mammals or plants. Oxygenated C4-SBIs like 4-carboxysterols act in major biological processes like auxin signaling in plants and immune system development in mammals...
January 27, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sara E Rostas, Christopher McPherson
Parenteral nutrition (PN) is frequently required by extremely preterm infants due to gastrointestinal immaturity and complications of prematurity. Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) and intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) are common complications of prolonged PN. Plant-based intravenous lipid emulsions, containing proinflammatory omega-6 fatty acids and phytosterols, may contribute to these conditions as well as other comorbidities such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and retinopathy of prematurity...
January 2019: Neonatal Network: NN
Ipsita A Banerjee, Karl R Fath, Stephen H Frayne, Mindy M Hugo, Ben Cohen
Nanoscale supramolecular systems have been increasingly gaining importance as drug release vehicles due to their ability to target tumor cells. In this work, we have developed a new class of nanoassemblies derived from the phytosterol 24-EpiBrassinolide (EpiB) for the development of nanocarriers for the anticancer drug Doxorubicin (DOX). EpiB is a biocompatible cholesterol mimic, and has inherent apoptotic properties toward cancer cells. Thus, by encapsulating DOX within a nanocarrier with innate anticancer ability we have developed a targeting system that can enhance the uptake and efficacy of DOX in tumor cells...
April 2019: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Zhe Dong, Meng-Ying Jiang, Jie Shi, Ming-Ming Zheng, Feng-Hong Huang
In this study, Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) was immobilized into modified hollow mesoporous silica (HMSS) materials with different hydrophobicity. Among propyl-(C₃), phenyl-(C₆), octyl-(C₈), and octadecyl-(C18 ) modified HMSS as well as native HMSS, taking advantage of more hydrophobic microenvironment, the HMSS-C18 -CRL showed exceptional performance in enzymatic esterification reaction. Using the novel HMSS-C18 with immobilized CRL (HMSS-C18 -CRL), we investigated the esterification of phytosterols with polyunsaturated fat acid (PUFA) in a solvent-free system for the production of phytosterols esters...
January 22, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Caroline Tao, Artem A Shkumatov, Shawn T Alexander, Brandon L Ason, Mingyue Zhou
Cardiovascular disease is expected to remain the leading cause of death worldwide despite the introduction of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors that effectively control cholesterol. Identifying residual risk factors for cardiovascular disease remains an important step for preventing and clinically managing the disease. Here we report cardiac injury and increased mortality occurring despite a 50% reduction in plasma cholesterol in a mouse model of phytosterolemia, a disease characterized by elevated levels of dietary plant sterols in the blood...
2019: Communications biology
Chengsheng Jia, Xue Xia, Ping Liu, Huiqi Wang, Jiarui Zhang, Xiaoming Zhang
The aim of this work was to produce a series of phytosteryl amino acid ester hydrochlorides by two-step method, which involved esterification of phytosterols with N-tert-butoxycarbonyl (BOC)-amino acid and deprotection of BOC group. The highest yield of over 95.0% was obtained when the catalysts were the mixtures of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochlide (EDC), 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) and triethylamine. It was found that batch charging of the reactants and catalysts was conducive to improving yield...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Linda Dykes
Sorghum contains a wide array of phytochemicals and their levels are affected by the genotype. Phytochemicals identified in sorghum include phenolic acids, flavonoids, condensed tannins, polycosanols, phytosterols, stilbenes, and phenolamides. Most of these phytochemicals are concentrated in the bran fraction and have been shown to have several potential health benefits, which include antidiabetic, cholesterol-lowering, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. This chapter gives an overview of sorghum genetics relevant to phytochemicals, phytochemicals identified in sorghum grain, and their potential health benefits...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Monika Michalak, Anna Kiełtyka-Dadasiewicz
Vegetable oils, which are a rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, phytosterols, vitamins and antioxidants, have a significant effect on the functioning and development of the body and contribute to health maintenance. They can be obtained from seeds, fruit stones, fruit, nuts or sprouts. This study discusses various species of plants that are sources of nut oils consumed in the daily diet and also used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries.
January 17, 2019: Journal of Oleo Science
Donporn Wongwaiwech, Monthana Weerawatanakorn, Somsak Tharatha, Chi-Tang Ho
Rice bran oil (RBO) has become a popular oil globally. However, the RBO extraction process leaves various residue products, which contain bioactive substances of varying potency which could be significant sources of functional ingredients for both food production and pharmaceutical manufacture. The objective of our study was to compare the bioactive substances in various by-products derived from the two rice bran oil processing methods; solvent extraction and cold pressing. The residues from solvent extraction processing contained up to 97...
January 2019: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
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