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Science Production

Hany S El-Mesery, Hanping Mao, Abd El-Fatah Abomohra
The quality and safety of food is an increasing concern for worldwide business. Non-destructive methods (NDM), as a means of assessment and instrumentation have created an esteemed value in sciences, especially in food industries. Currently, NDM are useful because they allow the simultaneous measurement of chemical and physical data from food without destruction of the substance. Additionally, NDM can obtain both quantitative and qualitative data at the same time without separate analyses. Recently, many studies on non-destructive detection measurements of agro-food products and final quality assessment of foods were reported...
February 18, 2019: Sensors
Ismail Eş, Mohsen Gavahian, Francisco J Marti-Quijal, Jose M Lorenzo, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah, Christos Tsatsanis, Sotirios C Kampranis, Francisco J Barba
The recent progress in genetic engineering has brought multiple benefits to the food and agricultural industry by enhancing essential characteristics of agronomic traits. Powerful tools in the field of genome editing, such as siRNA-mediated RNA interference for targeted suppression of gene expression and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) for DNA repair have been widely used for commercial purposes. However, in the last few years, the discovery of the CRISPR-Cas9 system has revolutionized genome editing and has attracted attention as a powerful tool for several industrial applications...
February 16, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
Matthew R Hauwiller, Justin C Ondry, Cindy M Chan, Prachi Khandekar, Jessica Yu, A Paul Alivisatos
Graphene liquid cell electron microscopy has the necessary temporal and spatial resolution to enable in situ observation of nanoscale dynamics in solution. However, the chemistry of the solution in the liquid cell during imaging is as yet poorly understood due to the generation of a complex mixture of radiolysis products by the electron beam. In this work, the etching trajectories of nanocrystals were used as a probe to determine the effect of the electron beam dose rate and preloaded etchant, FeCl3, on the chemistry of the liquid cell...
February 19, 2019: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Javier González de Dios, Adolfo Alonso-Arroyo, Rafael Aleixandre-Benavent
PURPOSE: To analyse the coverage and main bibliometric indicators of ANALES DE PEDIATRÍA in Scopus and Science Citation Index Expanded of the Web of Science (SCIE) databases. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The evolution of the journal production was identified according to the document types, collaboration indexes between authors and institutions, and citations, and impact indicators (number of citations, impact factor, 5-years impact factor and without self-citations, Scimago Journal Rank, quartile, h index and most cited works)...
February 15, 2019: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Seung Y Rhee, Kenneth D Birnbaum, David W Ehrhardt
Enormous societal challenges, such as feeding and providing energy for a growing population in a dramatically changing climate, necessitate technological advances in plant science. Plant cells are fundamental organizational units that mediate the production, transport, and storage of our primary food sources, and they sequester a significant proportion of the world's carbon. New technologies allow comprehensive descriptions of cells that could accelerate research across fields of plant science. Complementary to the efforts towards understanding the cellular diversity in human brain and immune systems, a Plant Cell Atlas (PCA) that maps molecular machineries to cellular and subcellular domains, follows their dynamic movements, and describes their interactions would accelerate discovery in plant science and help to solve imminent societal problems...
February 15, 2019: Trends in Plant Science
Hui Yu, Qi-Zhi Zhong, Tian-Geng Liu, Wen-Ze Qiu, Bai-Heng Wu, Zhi-Kang Xu, Ling-Shu Wan
Deposition of dopamine and tannic acid has received great attention in the fields of surface and interface science and technology. The deposition behaviors of various metal-phenolic systems have been investigated, and it is generally accepted that at least one catechol group is essential to the formation of the coatings. Herein, we report a novel and effective surface coating system based on the coordination complexes of FeIII ions with a natural product juglone that contains only one phenolic hydroxyl. We investigated the deposition behaviors of this novel system on various substrates...
February 18, 2019: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Navin Bhatt, Sudha Agrawal, Kabindra Mehta
BACKGROUND: Facial appearance has increasing importance to individuals and women, in particular. Till date, there are no reports of the extrinsic factors influencing skin aging in Nepalese population. OBJECTIVES: To assess the risk factors and self-perception for facial aging in Nepalese population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 110 attendees aged 30-70 years visiting the dermatology outpatient department of B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Lumin Wang, Fawei Zhu, Sen Liao, Miao Chen, Yu Qiu Zhu, Qi Liu, Xiaoqing Chen
Facile and cost-effective detection of multiple targets is essential for a variety of applications ranging from life sciences to environmental monitoring. Here, we report a versatile ratiometric fluorescence platform for multiple detection of various targets based on the conjugation of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with protonated graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (Pg-C3 N4 NSs). We demonstrate that intrinsic peroxidase-like activity of Pg-C3 N4 NSs is enhanced by conjugating with ssDNA, and thus the oxidation of substrate o-phenylenediamine (OPD) is promoted in the presence of H2 O2 ...
May 15, 2019: Talanta
Érica Naomi Oiye, Maria Fernanda Muzetti Ribeiro, Juliana Midori Toia Katayama, Maraine Catarina Tadini, Marco Antonio Balbino, Izabel Cristina Eleotério, Juliana Magalhães, Alex Soares Castro, Ricardo Soares Mota Silva, José Wilmo da Cruz Júnior, Edward Ralph Dockal, Marcelo Firmino de Oliveira
Schiff bases and their transition metal complexes are inexpensive and easy to synthesize. These compounds display several structural and electronic features that allow their application in numerous research fields. Over the last three decades, electroanalytical scientists of various areas have developed electrochemical sensors from many compounds. The present review discusses the applicability of Schiff bases, their transition metal complexes and new materials containing these compounds as electrode modifiers in sensors to detect analytes of forensic, pharmaceutical and environmental interest...
February 15, 2019: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Federica Sordo, Emma-Rose Janecek, Yunpeng Qu, Véronique Michaud, Francesco Stellacci, Jan Engmann, Tim J Wooster, Fabien Sorin
Food engineering faces the difficult challenge of combining taste, i.e., tailoring texture and rheology of food matrices with the balanced intake of healthy nutrients. In materials science, fiber suspensions and composites have been developed as a versatile and successful approach to tailor rheology while imparting materials with added functionalities. Structures based on such types of physical (micro)fibers are however rare in food production mainly due to a lack of food-grade materials and processes allowing for the fabrication of fibers with controlled sizes and microstructures...
February 15, 2019: Advanced Materials
Frank H Arthur
Wheat, corn, and brown rice were treated with different combinations of a deltamethrin suspension concentrate (SC) formulation and a new emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulation, at rates of either 0.5 or 1.0 ppm alone or in combination with 1.25 and 2.5 ppm methoprene (10 treatments in all, including an untreated control). Treated commodities were stored at ambient conditions on the floor of an empty grain bin in Manhattan, KS, USA, in 5-kg lots for individual replicates. The commodities were sampled and bio-assayed every three months for 15 months by exposing 10 mixed-sex parental adults of selected adult stored product insects on 70⁻80 g of the commodity...
February 5, 2019: Insects
K Bergaoui, N Reguigui, C Brown, B Yousfi, M A Nasri, K Gary
A deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron generator facility has been developed with a wide range of applications in mind. D-D neutron generators provide a safe, convenient, and low-cost solution for the production of thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons for laboratory and industrial applications. The regulatory burden for operating one of these generators is small as it contains no radioactive material and produces no radiation when turned off. One such D-D neutron generator has been installed at the National Center of Nuclear Sciences and Technologies (CNSTN)...
February 2, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Lingfei Wu, Dashun Wang, James A Evans
One of the most universal trends in science and technology today is the growth of large teams in all areas, as solitary researchers and small teams diminish in prevalence1-3 . Increases in team size have been attributed to the specialization of scientific activities3 , improvements in communication technology4,5 , or the complexity of modern problems that require interdisciplinary solutions6-8 . This shift in team size raises the question of whether and how the character of the science and technology produced by large teams differs from that of small teams...
February 13, 2019: Nature
Mei Kie Hon, Mohd Saberi Mohamad, Abdul Hakim Mohamed Salleh, Yee Wen Choon, Kauthar Mohd Daud, Muhammad Akmal Remli, Mohd Arfian Ismail, Sigeru Omatu, Richard O Sinnott, Juan Manuel Corchado
In recent years, metabolic engineering has gained central attention in numerous fields of science because of its capability to manipulate metabolic pathways in enhancing the expression of target phenotypes. Due to this, many computational approaches that perform genetic manipulation have been developed in the computational biology field. In metabolic engineering, conventional methods have been utilized to upgrade the generation of lactate and succinate in E. coli, although the yields produced are usually way below their theoretical maxima...
February 13, 2019: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
Carolyn Cobbold
This essay describes how the Victorian media reported on the transformation of coal tar into a synthetic palette of colours in the form of aniline and azo dyes. These dyes were the first of many new chemical substances including drugs, perfumes, and flavourings, which chemists began to synthesise and produce on an industrial scale from a waste product of the coal gas industry. Although intended for use in the textile industry, the new dyes soon began to be added to food, becoming one of the first examples of laboratory-created, industrially manufactured chemicals to permeate our daily life in unexpected ways...
February 13, 2019: Ambix
Stefano Canali
In current philosophical discussions on evidence in the medical sciences, epidemiology has been used to exemplify a specific version of evidential pluralism. According to this view, known as the Russo-Williamson Thesis, evidence of both difference-making and mechanisms is produced to make causal claims in the health sciences. In this paper, I present an analysis of data and evidence in epidemiological practice, with a special focus on research on the exposome, and I cast doubt on the extent to which evidential pluralism holds in this case...
February 12, 2019: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Leiyang Lv, Dianhu Zhu, Chao-Jun Li
Alkenes are fundamental functionalities in nature and highly useful intermediates in organic synthesis, medicinal chemistry and material sciences. Transition-metal-catalyzed Heck couplings with organic halides as electrophiles have been established as a powerful protocol for the synthesis of this valuable building block. However, the requirement of organic halides and the generation of stoichiometric hazardous halide wastes may cause significant sustainable concerns. The halide-free oxidative Heck alkenylations involving organometallics or arenes as the coupling partners provide a facile and alternative pathway...
February 12, 2019: Nature Communications
Yishan Wang, Huijuan Wang, Chunfang Zhang, Chao Zhang, Huqin Yang, Ruiyue Gao, Zhaohui Tong
BACKGROUND: With the development of new techniques to easily obtain lower respiratory tract specimens, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and other lung fluids are gaining importance in pulmonary disease diagnosis. We aimed to review and summarize lung fluid biomarkers associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome diagnosis and mortality. METHODS: After searching PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for articles published prior to January 11, 2018, we performed a meta-analysis on biomarkers for acute respiratory distress syndrome diagnosis in at-risk patients and those related to disease mortality...
February 12, 2019: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Joyce C Havstad, N Adam Smith
The last half century of paleornithological research has transformed the way that biologists perceive the evolutionary history of birds. This transformation has been driven, since 1969, by a series of exciting fossil discoveries combined with intense scientific debate over how best to interpret these discoveries. Ideally, as evidence accrues and results accumulate, interpretive scientific agreement forms. But this has not entirely happened in the debate over avian origins: the accumulation of scientific evidence and analyses has had some effect, but not a conclusive one, in terms of resolving the question of avian origins...
February 11, 2019: Systematic Biology
Sid Ahmed Dahdi, Asma Ben Abdelaziz, Tarek Baroumi, Ousmane Ba, Mohamadou Diagana, Lebchir Dada, Ahmed Ben Abdelaziz
BACKGROUND: As part of the preparatory work for the elaboration of a strategic plan for the development of scientific research in Mauritania, an overview of national biomedical research was recommended by the supervisory authorities. AIM: Describe the bibliometric profile of biomedical scientific publications in Mauritania, indexed in Medline database, over the past 25 years. METHODS: A bibliometric study was carried out on Medline Database covering the period from 1 January 1992 to 31 December 2016...
October 2018: La Tunisie Médicale
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