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Xinhua Wang, Xin Li, Guangqing Liu, Yanfeng He, Chang Chen, Xiaoying Liu, Gang Li, Yiqin Gu, Yuqing Zhao
The physicochemical and morphological properties and the sorption capacities of discarded mushroom-stick biochar (DMB) prepared at different pyrolysis temperatures from 300 °C to 800 °C were explored. Results showed that the yield and surface oxygen-containing group content of DMB prepared at 300 °C (DMB3) were higher than those of DMB prepared at higher pyrolysis temperature (DMB5 and DMB8), while the DMB prepared at 800 °C (DMB8) had higher pH, mineral element and ash content, aromaticity, and polarity...
February 20, 2019: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Anas Aaqel Salim Salim Al-Ani, Thiago Henrique Scarabello Stape, Murat Mutluay, Leo Tjäderhane, Arzu Tezvergil-Mutluay
OBJECTIVE: To understand dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) interaction with distinct methacrylate monomer blends and the impact on polymer formation by investigating the combined relationship among degree of resin hydrophilicity, presence of DMSO and specific physico/mechanical properties. METHODS: One hydrophobic (R2) and one hydrophilic (R5) methacrylate-based resins with different monomer compositions were solvated in ascending DMSO concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 5, and 10 w/w %)...
February 14, 2019: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Emily Hepburn, Casey Madden, Drew Szabo, Timothy L Coggan, Bradley Clarke, Matthew Currell
The extent of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in groundwater surrounding legacy landfills is currently poorly constrained. Seventeen PFAS were analysed in groundwater surrounding legacy landfills in a major Australian urban re-development precinct. Sampling locations (n = 13) included sites installed directly in waste material and down-gradient from landfills, some of which exhibited evidence of leachate contamination including elevated concentrations of ammonia-N (≤106 mg/L), bicarbonate (≤1,740 mg/L) and dissolved methane (≤10...
February 8, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Juan Wang, Xinhui Liu, Guannan Liu, Zixuan Zhang, Hao Wu, Baoshan Cui, Junhong Bai, Wei Zhang
Microplastics can have strong sorption capacity for many contaminants, thus greatly influencing the fate, transport and bioavailability of those contaminants in the environment. However, the effect of particle size on contaminant sorption by microplastics is still poorly understood. This study investigated the sorption of phenanthrene and nitrobenzene to micron-, submicron- and nano- sized polystyrene microplastics of 170 µm, 102 µm, 50 µm, 30 µm, 800 nm, 235 nm or 50 nm. All phenanthrene sorption isotherms and most nitrobenzene sorption isotherms were linear because of the strong sorption capacity of microplastics and the hydrophobic partitioning...
February 18, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Runwei Li, Victor Ibeanusi, Jada Hoyle-Gardner, Christy Crandall, Charles Jagoe, John Seaman, Aavudai Anandhi, Gang Chen
At the Department of Energy (DOE) managed Savannah River Site (SRS), uranium and other heavy metals continue to pose threats to the ecosystem health and processes. In the oxic soil of this site, uranium is present primarily as soluble salts of the uranyl ion (i.e., U(VI) or UO2 2+ ). Although UO2 2+ has a strong sorption to the soil, the mobile indigenous bacteria may facilitate its transport. On the contrary, precipitation of UO2 2+ with phosphate has been found to be an alternative remediation strategy. This research investigated the effects of mobile bacteria and phytate on UO2 2+ transport at SRS in column experiments...
February 13, 2019: Chemosphere
Muhammad Zaheer Afzal, Rengyu Yue, Xue-Fei Sun, Chao Song, Shu-Guang Wang
In this study, humic acid coated biochar (HA-BC) and chitosan were combined to prepare an adsorbent with enhanced reactivity for the removal of ciprofloxacin (CIP). With initial CIP concentrations of 250 mg/L, the maximum adsorbed amount was 154.89 mg/g. Removal rates reached equilibrium after 12 h, obeying the pseudo second-order kinetic model. Adsorption isotherm data was better fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model. The sorption capacity of humic acid-biochar/chitosan hydrogel beads (HBCB) decreased by 11...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Antonio López-Piñeiro, David Peña, Ángel Albarrán, Javier Sánchez-Llerena, Daniel Becerra, Damián Fernández, Soraya Gómez
Bensulfuron-methyl (BM) and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) are herbicides widely used in rice agroecosystems, and are commonly found in their environments, especially in water resources. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sorption-desorption, leaching, and dissipation of BM and MCPA under aerobic and anaerobic rice cropping conditions. For this purpose, a three-year field experiment was conducted in SW Spain using four management systems: aerobic with sprinkler irrigation and tillage (ST), sprinkler irrigation and no-tillage (SNT), long-term sprinkler irrigation and no-tillage (SNTLT ), and anaerobic with flooding and tillage (FT)...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Liqiang Cui, Matt R Noerpel, Kirk G Scheckel, James A Ippolito
Cadmium contamination in waters and soils can lead to food chain accumulation and ultimately deterioration in human health; means for reducing bioavailable Cd are desperately required, and biochars may play a role. Long-term (240 d) lab incubation experiments were utilized to explain wheat straw-derived biochar effects on Cd sorption and decreasing Cd bioavailability in soils and solutions (0, 5, and 15% biochar as wt:wt or wt:vol, respectively), and to identify Cd forms present using both the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) chemical sequential extraction procedure and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS)...
February 15, 2019: Environment International
Kathryn A Johnson, Lisa J Mauer
Water plays a significant role in the gelatinization and retrogradation (crystallization) of starch. Amylopectin crystalline regions can adopt several hydrated polymorphic forms; however, reports differ on the migration of water during retrogradation. The objectives of this study were to determine the moisture sorption patterns of gelatinized starch lyophiles during retrogradation in controlled relative humidity (RH) environments and document the amylopectin polymorph(s) formed. Starches from different botanical sources containing A-type and B-type amylopectin polymorphs were studied...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Food Science
Ling Zhao, Juan Liu, Hui Wang, Yuan-Hua Dong
Copper (Cu) and norfloxacin (Nor) are frequently used as feed additives for animal growth promotion, which results in a great probability of Cu2+ and Nor coexisting in animal excretion and in soils. Sorption of Cu2+ and Nor on soil organic matter (SOM) can markedly affect their environmental fate. Thus, humic acid (HA), a major fraction of SOM, was chosen to investigate the cosorption behaviors of Cu2+ and Nor on HA under different solution chemistry conditions (pHs, ionic strengths, and foreign ions). The addition of Nor decreased the maximum adsorption capacity (Qm ) of Cu2+ and an increasing effect was observed with increasing Nor concentration...
February 18, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Michael S McLachlan, Sebastian Felizeter, Michael Klein, Matthias Kotthoff, Pim De Voogt
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are environmental contaminants of concern in both food and drinking water. PFAA fate in agricultural soil is an important determinant of PFAA contamination of groundwater and crops. The fate of C4-C14 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and two perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) in an agricultural soil was studied in a field lysimeter experiment. Soil was spiked with PFAAs at four different levels and crops were planted. PFAA concentrations in soil were measured at the beginning and end of the growing season...
February 5, 2019: Chemosphere
Derin M Thomas, Nicholas S Fisher
137 Cs bioaccumulation and retention in seven different marine animal species, including crustaceans, mollusc larvae, and fish larvae were compared under different temperature conditions (10 °C, 18 °C and 25 °C). Replicate animals were experimentally exposed to 0.5 nM 137 Cs dissolved in filtered seawater for 3 days, and their 137 Cs contents were periodically measured using gamma spectrometry. Among the seven species, 137 Cs bioconcentration factors ranged from 14 to 239 at the end of the exposure periods...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
I Uogintė, G Lujanienė, K Mažeika
In this study magnetic Prussian blue (MPB) was synthesized and applied as sorbent for the efficient removal of heavy metals (Cu (II), Co (II), Ni (II) and Pb (II)) from aqueous solution. The average diameter of nanoparticles was found to be about 15 nm. The experimental results were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models with high regression coefficients. The kinetics data were expressed by pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. The influence of initial concentration, sorbent dosage and time on the heavy metals sorption efficiency was studied using response surface methodology (RSM)...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Chen-Chou Wu, Wen-Jing Wang, Lian-Jun Bao, Lei Shi, Shu Tao, Eddy Y Zeng
Vapor-phase constituents of tobacco smoke are known to accumulate on clothing surfaces; however, the significance of texture properties, such as specific surface area, porosity, and surface roughness, and airborne particles to the sorption capacity of fabrics has not been adequately addressed. In the present study, cotton (t-shirt) and polyester (pajama and lab coat) fabrics were exposed to cigarette smoke containing gaseous and particulate tobacco-derived compounds (e.g., N-nitrosamines). Fabric-air distribution coefficients and particle deposition fluxes were then determined to evaluate the accumulation of the target analytes...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Vijay Gupta, Sanjay K Mandal
Using achiral components, a V-shaped dicarboxylic acid (H2 L) and a conformationally flexible bidentate linker (bpp), a thermally stable chiral metal organic framework {[Cd(bpp)(L)(H2 O)]·DMF} n (1), where H2 L = 4,4'-(dimethylsilanediyl)bis-benzoic acid, bpp = 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane and DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide, has been solvothermally synthesized and crystallographically characterized. It consists of 1D helical chains linked at the cadmium centers resulting in an overall 2D framework. Its microporous nature was confirmed by gas-sorption measurements...
February 18, 2019: Inorganic Chemistry
José Ramón Ares Fernández, Roman Nevshupa, Esmeralda Muñoz-Cortés, Carlos Sánchez, Fabrice Leardini, Isabel Ferrer, Vo Minh Huy Tran, Francois Aguey-Zinsou, Jose-Francisco Fernández
In the last decades, a broad family of hydrides have attracted attention as prospective hydrogen storage materials of very high gravimetric and volumetric capacity, fast H2-sorption kinetics, environmental friendliness and economical affordability. However, constraints due to their high activation energies of the different H2-sorption steps and the Gibbs energy of their reaction with H2 has led to the need of high thermal energy to drive H2 uptake and release. High heat leads to significant degradation effects (recrystallization, phase segregation, nanoparticles agglomeration...
February 18, 2019: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Zhaofeng Li, Zhifang Zhou, Yunfeng Dai, Beibing Dai
This paper employed a one-dimensional large-deformation model in consideration of the coupling of mechanical consolidation and solute transport, to study the transport of contaminants in a largely-deformed aquitard. An analytical solution has been derived to describe the drawdown variation in a largely-deformed aquitard which is subjected to abrupt hydraulic head decline in adjacent confined aquifers. The pore water flux and void ratio variation were obtained on the basis of the analytical solution. The equation for transient contaminant flux was solved by the finite difference method...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Md A Momen, Mark L Dietz
Extractant-loaded polysulfone (PS) capsules suitable for the separation and preconcentration of rare earth ions from acidic media have been prepared and characterized. Specifically, PS macro- and microcapsules have been impregnated with bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP), and their performance in the extraction of europium (Eu3+ ) from nitric acid solution evaluated. The HDEHP-loaded microcapsules were found to exhibit sorption efficiency superior to those of analogous macrocapsules. Comparison to a conventional (i...
May 15, 2019: Talanta
Zaiming Chen, Xin Xiao, Baoshan Xing, Baoliang Chen
It remains a challenge to precisely predict and control environmental behaviors of ionizable organic contaminants (IOCs) due to their species change relative to pH and because of the lack of appropriate models to illustrate the underlying pH-dependent mechanisms. We studied the pH-dependent sorption behavior of five sulfonamide antibiotics (SAs) as typical IOCs with different pKa values towards a series of biochars as representative sorbents with well-characterized surface structures. After subtracting the contribution of the speciation effect using a classical speciation model, up to three unexpected enhanced sorption peaks could be found and regulated by the pKa,SA of the SAs and the pKa, BC of the biochars...
February 4, 2019: Environmental Pollution
M Verlinde, J Gorny, G Montavon, S Khalfallah, B Boulet, C Augeray, D Larivière, C Dalencourt, A Gourgiotis
A new rapid protocol for 226 Ra separation and preconcentration in natural water samples was developed before its determination by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). For this purpose, the commercially available Ra specific resin AnaLig® Ra-01 was used. This resin shows a high selectivity for radium in a large range of acid concentrations and no affinity or possible elution of 226 Ra interfering elements. The distribution coefficients of Ra and other elements over a wide range of acid (HCl and HNO3 ) concentrations were obtained...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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