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Matheus Oliveira de Almeida, Bruno Tirotti Saragiotto, Chris Maher, Leonardo Oliveira Pena Costa
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if allocation concealment and intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis influence the treatment effects of physical therapy interventions in low back pain trials. DATA SOURCES: We searched on PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PEDro and CINAHL up to February 2017. STUDY SELECTION: We included low back pain trials that compared physical therapy interventions to placebo or no intervention or minimal intervention with pain or disability outcomes...
January 30, 2019: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Iain Marshall, Rachel Marshall, Byron Wallace, Jon Brassey, James Thomas
OBJECTIVE: To simulate possible changes in systematic review results if rapid review methods were used. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We re-calculated meta-analyses for binary primary outcomes in Cochrane systematic reviews, simulating rapid review methods. We simulated: searching only PubMed; excluding older articles (5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 years prior to the search date); excluding smaller trials (<50, <100, and <200 participants); and using the largest trial only...
December 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Yan Luo, Anna Chaimani, Yuki Kataoka, Edoardo Giuseppe Ostinelli, Yusuke Ogawa, Andrea Cipriani, Georgia Salanti, Toshi A Furukawa
INTRODUCTION: Depressive disorders are the most common, burdensome and costly mental disorders. Their treatments have developed through the past decades and we now have more than a dozen new generation antidepressants, while a series of guidelines have been published to provide recommendations over the years. However, there still may exist important gaps in this evidence synthesis and implementation process. Systematic reviews may not have been conducted in the most unbiased, informative and timely manners; guidelines may not have reflected the most up-to-date evidence; clinicians may not have changed their clinical decision-makings in accordance with the relevant evidence...
December 9, 2018: BMJ Open
Tessa A Hulshof, Sytse U Zuidema, Peter J K van Meer, Christine C Gispen-de Wied, Hendrika J Luijendijk
OBJECTIVES: To assess baseline imbalances in placebo-controlled trials of atypical antipsychotics in dementia, and their association with neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), and mortality. METHOD: We searched for trials in multiple sources. Two reviewers extracted baseline characteristics and outcomes per treatment group. We calculated direction, range, pooled mean, and heterogeneity in the baseline differences, and used meta-regression for the relationship with the outcomes...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Ewoud Schuit, Alvin H Li, John P A Ioannidis
Background: One of the claimed main advantages of individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA) is that it allows assessment of subgroup effects based on individual-level participant characteristics, and eventually stratified medicine. In this study, we evaluated the conduct and results of subgroup analyses in IPDMA. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library from inception to 31 December 2014. We included papers if they described an IPDMA based on randomized clinical trials that investigated a therapeutic intervention on human subjects and in which the meta-analysis was preceded by a systematic literature search...
November 15, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Hannah Ewald, Benjamin Speich, Aviv Ladanie, Heiner C Bucher, John Pa Ioannidis, Lars G Hemkens
OBJECTIVE: To determine how marginal structural models (MSMs), which are increasingly used to estimate causal effects, are used in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and compare their results with those from intention-to-treat (ITT) or other analyses. DESIGN: and Setting: We searched PubMed, Scopus, citations of key references, and Eligible RCTs reported clinical effects based on MSMs and at least one other analysis. RESULTS: We included 12 RCTs reporting 138 analyses for 24 clinical questions...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Clémence Leyrat, Agnès Caille, Sandra Eldridge, Sally Kerry, Agnès Dechartres, Bruno Giraudeau
Background: Cluster (CRTs) and individually randomized trials (IRTs) are often pooled together in meta-analyses (MAs) of randomized trials. However, the potential systematic differences in intervention effect estimates between these two trial types has never been investigated. Therefore, we conducted a meta-epidemiological study comparing intervention effect estimates between CRTs and IRTs. Methods: All Cochrane MAs including at least one CRT and one IRT, published between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014, were included...
November 9, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Perrine Janiaud, Ioana-Alina Cristea, John P A Ioannidis
The original article can be found online.
November 8, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
Tim Mathes, Pauline Klaßen, Dawid Pieper
OBJECTIVE: The study aims to assess whether the results from registry-based randomized trials (RRCTs) systematically differ from the results of conventional randomized controlled trials (CRCTs). STUDY DESIGN: Meta-epidemiological study. We identified RRCTs (02/2016) and subsequent systematic reviews (SRs) that included one RRCT (04/2017). We calculated pooled odds ratios for RRCTs and CRCTs for mortality and other incidence measures (e.g., cardiovascular events)...
September 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Aviv Ladanie, Benjamin Speich, Florian Naudet, Arnav Agarwal, Tiago V Pereira, Francesco Sclafani, Juan Martin-Liberal, Thomas Schmid, Hannah Ewald, John P A Ioannidis, Heiner C Bucher, Benjamin Kasenda, Lars G Hemkens
BACKGROUND: The available evidence on the benefits and harms of novel drugs and therapeutic biologics at the time of approval is reported in publicly available documents provided by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We aimed to create a comprehensive database providing the relevant information required to systematically analyze and assess this early evidence in meta-epidemiological research. METHODS: We designed a modular and flexible database of systematically collected data...
September 19, 2018: Trials
Perrine Janiaud, Ioana-Alinea Cristea, John P A Ioannidis
PURPOSE: To study the landscape of funding in intensive care research and assess whether the reported outcomes of industry-funded randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are more favorable. METHODS: We systematically assembled meta-analyses evaluating any type of intervention in the critical care setting and reporting the source of funding for each included RCT. Furthermore, when the intervention was a drug or biologic, we searched also the original RCT articles, when their funding information was unavailable in the meta-analysis...
October 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
Agnes Dechartres, Ignacio Atal, Carolina Riveros, Joerg Meerpohl, Philippe Ravaud
Background: Evidence about the effect on meta-analysis results of including unpublished trials or those published in languages other than English is unclear or discordant. Purpose: To compare treatment effects between published and unpublished randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and between trials published in English and other languages using a meta-epidemiologic approach. Data Sources: Cochrane reviews published between March 2011 and January 2017 and trial references cited in the reviews...
August 21, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Lauge Neimann Rasmussen, Paul Montgomery
BACKGROUND: Studies published in languages other than English are often neglected when research teams conduct systematic reviews. Literature on how to deal with non-English studies when conducting reviews have focused on the importance of including such studies, while less attention has been paid to the practical challenges of locating and assessing relevant non-English studies. We investigated the factors which might predict the inclusion of non-English studies in systematic reviews in the social sciences, to better understand how, when and why these are included/excluded...
August 23, 2018: Systematic Reviews
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
J W O'Sullivan, A Albasri, C Koshiaris, J K Aronson, C Heneghan, R Perera
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between the quality of guidelines for diagnostic tests (both the quality and reporting and the quality of the evidence underpinning recommendations) and non-adherence. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a meta-epidemiological study. We previously published a systematic review that quantified the percentage of test use that was non-adherent with guidelines. For the current study, we assessed these guidelines using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE) II tool...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
A Engelking, M Cavar, L Puljak
AIMS: New randomized clinical trials (RCTs) should be initiated if previous systematic reviews (SRs) indicate that new trials are needed. We analysed whether RCTs published in anaesthesiology journals mentioned previous SRs as a rationale for conducting trial and for discussing results. METHODS: This was a meta-epidemiological, descriptive cross-sectional study. We analysed RCTs published in the seven first-quartile anaesthesiology journals between 2014 and 2016...
November 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Barbara Nussbaumer-Streit, Irma Klerings, Gernot Wagner, Thomas L Heise, Andreea I Dobrescu, Susan Armijo-Olivo, Jan M Stratil, Emma Persad, Stefan K Lhachimi, Megan G Van Noord, Tarquin Mittermayr, Hajo Zeeb, Lars Hemkens, Gerald Gartlehner
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of abbreviated literature searches on evidence syntheses conclusions. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We randomly selected 60 Cochrane reviews of clinical interventions and repeated literature searches using 14 abbreviated approaches (combinations of MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL with and without searches of reference lists). If abbreviated searches missed included studies, we recalculated meta-analyses. Cochrane authors determined whether the new evidence base would change conclusions...
October 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Sophia Gratsia, Despina Koletsi, Padhraig S Fleming, Nikolaos Pandis
Background/objectives: To assess the prevalence of within-group comparisons from baseline to follow-up in published orthodontic articles and to identify potential associations between this statistical problem and a number of study characteristics. Materials/method: The most recent 24 issues of four leading orthodontic journals with highest impact factor (American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics; AJODO, European Journal of Orthodontics; EJO, Angle Orthodontist; ANGLE, Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research; OCR) were electronically searched until December 31st 2017...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Orthodontics
C H W Smeets, S U Zuidema, T A Hulshof, M Smalbrugge, D L Gerritsen, R T C M Koopmans, H J Luijendijk
OBJECTIVES: Postulating that efficacy of antipsychotics for agitation and psychosis in dementia is best estimated in trials among patients with these symptoms and with symptom-specific outcomes, we investigated whether clinically broader definitions affected the pooled efficacy. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Trials were searched in multiple databases and categorized according to patient population (agitated, psychotic, and mixed) and outcome scale (agitation, psychosis, and generic)...
September 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Victor M Lu, Kevin Phan, Julia X M Yin, Kerrie L McDonald
INTRODUCTION: There are many potential biomarkers in glioblastoma (GBM), and meta-analyses represent the highest level of evidence when inferring their prognostic significance. It is possible however, that inherent design properties of the studies included in these meta-analyses may affect the pooled hazard ratio (HR) of the meta-analyses. This meta-epidemiological study aims to investigate the potential bias of three study-level properties in meta-analyses of GBM biomarkers currently published in the literature...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
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