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IgG mediated food allergy

Oliver Hemmings, Matthew Kwok, Richard McKendry, Alexandra F Santos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The basophil activation test (BAT) using flow cytometry has supplanted traditional methods of measuring basophil degranulation using histamine and other mediator release, and can be used for clinical applications as well as to explore the immune mechanisms of effector cell response to allergen. This review discusses the advancements made in clinical, diagnostic and laboratory research of allergy utilizing an ever-evolving BAT. RECENT FINDINGS: Being an in vitro surrogate of the allergic reaction that happens in vivo in the sick patient, the BAT can be used to support the diagnosis of various allergic conditions, such as food, drug, respiratory and insect venom allergies, and the assessment of clinical response to allergen-specific immunotherapy and other immunomodulatory treatments...
November 15, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Bo Yang, Yan Luo, Zhigang Liu, Pingchang Yang, Yaoting Gui
Bacterial probiotics are of increasing use against intestinal disorders such as food allergy. However, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying probiotics-mediated anti-allergic effect remains unknown. In the present study, we orally treated OVA-sensitized mice with Bifidobacterium infantis (BB) for two weeks. It was found that OVA specific-IgE and-IgG levels in serum were significantly decreased after BB administration. BB treatment also significantly reduced the release of IL-4, -5, -13 in splenocytes...
November 2018: Molecular Immunology
Moumita B Sarkar, Gaurab Sircar, Nandini Ghosh, Abhishek K Das, Kuladip Jana, Angira Dasgupta, Swati G Bhattacharya
Papaya has been reported to elicit IgE-mediated hypersensitivity via pollen inhalation and fruit consumption. Certain papaya sensitive patients with food allergy were found to experience recurrent respiratory distresses even after quitting the consumption of fruits. This observation prompted us to investigate the allergens commonly present in fruits and pollen grains of papaya. A discovery approach consisting of immunoproteomic detection followed by molecular characterization led to the identification of a novel papaya allergen designated as Cari p 1...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Oliver T Burton, Alexandra Epp, Manoussa E Fanny, Samuel J Miller, Amanda J Stranks, Jessica E Teague, Rachael A Clark, Matt van de Rijn, Hans C Oettgen
Immediate hypersensitivity reactions are induced by the interaction of allergens with specific IgE antibodies bound via FcεRI to mast cells and basophils. While these specific IgE antibodies are needed to trigger such reactions, not all individuals harboring IgE exhibit symptoms of allergy. The lack of responsiveness seen in some subjects correlates with the presence of IgG antibodies of the same specificity. In cell culture studies and in vivo animal models of food allergy and anaphylaxis such IgG antibodies have been shown to exert suppression via FcγRIIb...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Nanping Xiao, Fenghua Liu, Guangxi Zhou, Mingming Sun, Fengfu Ai, Zhanju Liu
Objective Dietary antigens are common luminal antigens in the gastrointestinal tract and have been considered to contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We analyzed the levels of food-specific IgGs against a variety of dietary antigens, explored the clinical relevance of food allergy to the pathogenesis of IBD, and investigated whether or not infliximab (IFX) treatment could regulate the immune responses induced by dietary antigens. Methods A total of 301 IBD patients, including 201 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 100 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), were recruited, and their serum food-specific IgGs against 14 food antigens were detected by a semi-quantitative enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
October 1, 2018: Internal Medicine
Keerthi Reddy, Mary Kearns, Santiago Alvarez-Arango, Ismael Carrillo-Martin, Nathaly Cuervo-Pardo, Lyda Cuervo-Pardo, Ves Dimov, David M Lang, Sonia Lopez-Alvarez, Brian Schroer, Kaushik Mohan, Mark Dula, Simin Zheng, Claudia Kozinetz, Alexei Gonzalez-Estrada
BACKGROUND: Food allergy affects an estimated 8% of children and 3% of adults in the United States. Food-allergic individuals increasingly use the web for medical information. We sought to determine the educational quality of food allergy YouTube videos. METHODS: We performed a YouTube search using keywords "food allergy" and "food allergies". The 300 most viewed videos were included and analyzed for characteristics, source, and content. Source was further classified as healthcare provider, alternative medicine provider, patient, company, media, and professional society...
June 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Bart N Lambrecht
In this issue Ohsaki et al. ( explain how breastfeeding can prevent the onset of food allergies in offspring by instructing T reg formation via neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn)-mediated transfer and uptake of allergen-containing IgG immune complexes (Ig-ICs) by gut dendritic cells (DCs).
January 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Asa Ohsaki, Nicholas Venturelli, Tess M Buccigrosso, Stavroula K Osganian, John Lee, Richard S Blumberg, Michiko K Oyoshi
The role of maternal immune responses in tolerance induction is poorly understood. To study whether maternal allergen sensitization affects offspring susceptibility to food allergy, we epicutaneously sensitized female mice with ovalbumin (OVA) followed by epicutaneous sensitization and oral challenge of their offspring with OVA. Maternal OVA sensitization prevented food anaphylaxis, OVA-specific IgE production, and intestinal mast cell expansion in offspring. This protection was mediated by neonatal crystallizable fragment receptor (FcRn)-dependent transfer of maternal IgG and OVA immune complexes (IgG-IC) via breast milk and induction of allergen-specific regulatory T (T reg) cells in offspring...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Catherine Hammond, Jay A Lieberman
The gold standard for diagnosis of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy remains the oral food challenge, with serum IgE testing and skin prick testing serving as acceptable alternatives. However, the increase in prevalence of food allergy (both physician diagnosed and patient suspected) has led patients to pursue a variety of other alternative diagnostic procedures for suspected food allergy, which are reviewed in this article. These procedures (IgG testing, electrodermal testing, cytotoxic testing, provocation/neutralization, and applied kinesiology) have largely been unproven and may lead to unnecessary elimination diets...
February 2018: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
A Stipić Marković, I Ivković-Jureković, S Dodig, I Batišta, R Zrinski-Topić, M Barberić, I Topalušić, Ž Bukovec Megla, V Žižić
In vitro diagnostic procedure in allergology includes determination of serum levels of total and allergen specific IgE antibodies, allergen specific IgG antibodies, plasma tryptase, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and basophil activation test (BAT). In vitro tests should be used according to clinical history, physical examination, and in vivo methods for allergy testing. Clinical relevance of elevated total IgE in allergy diagnosis is modest, since it can be caused by other conditions. Elevated serum levels of allergen specific IgE antibodies, together with positive medical history, are indicative of clinically relevant allergy...
2015: Acta Medica Croatica: C̆asopis Hravatske Akademije Medicinskih Znanosti
Oliver T Burton, Jaciel M Tamayo, Amanda J Stranks, Kyle J Koleoglou, Hans C Oettgen
BACKGROUND: Patients with food allergy produce high-titer IgE antibodies that bind to mast cells through FcεRI and trigger immediate hypersensitivity reactions on antigen encounter. Food-specific IgG antibodies arise in the setting of naturally resolving food allergy and accompany the acquisition of food allergen unresponsiveness in oral immunotherapy. OBJECTIVE: In this study we sought to delineate the effects of IgG and its inhibitory Fc receptor, FcγRIIb, on both de novo allergen sensitization in naive animals and on established immune responses in the setting of pre-existing food allergy...
January 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Jun-Ichi Kashiwakura, Tomoaki Ando, Toshiaki Kawakami
Mast cells are effector cells in immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated immediate hypersensitivity and allergic diseases such as asthma and food allergy. Mast cells are activated by the aggregation of the IgE-bound high-affinity IgE receptor FcεRI with multivalent antigen. Activated mast cells secrete proinflammatory mediators such as histamine, serotonin, and proteases and produce cytokines and chemokines. However, it has been reported that mast cells are activated by crosslinking of FcεRI with monomeric IgE in the absence of antigen...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Hamish Philpott, Francis Thien
Allergy testing has been advocated for patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) as a means of defining food triggers and directing dietary therapy. Several recent and comprehensive studies have demonstrated the futility of skin prick (SPT), skin patch (APT) and serum food antigen specific IgE (SIgE) estimates in this context. Furthermore, if identification of food triggers is the endpoint (as opposed to the ability of an allergy test-directed diet merely to induce remission), previous positive studies have limitations...
March 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Thomas B Martins, Michael E Bandhauer, Diane M Wilcock, Harry R Hill, Patricia R Slev
BACKGROUND: The clinical utility of serum IgG measurement in the diagnosis of allergy and food-induced hypersensitivity has been largely discredited. Recent studies, however, have shown that specific IgG can inhibit IgE mediated allergies, and may play a role in allergen specific desensitization. Accurate reference intervals for IgG specific allergens have not been widely established and are needed for better interpretation of serum antibody concentrations. In this study we established 64 IgG reference intervals for 48 common food allergens, 5 venoms, and 11 molds...
December 2016: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Zahid Shakoor, Abrar AlFaifi, Bayan AlAmro, Lama Nabil AlTawil, Rana Yazid AlOhaly
BACKGROUND: Food intolerance mediated by food specific IgG antibodies has been implicated in a variety of disorders. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of food specific IgG antibodies among patients clinically presenting with allergic symptoms lacking laboratory evidence of allergy. DESIGN: Descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh between 2010-2015. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were screened for food specific IgG antibodies...
November 2016: Annals of Saudi Medicine
Raphaela Freidl, Antonia Gstoettner, Ulrike Baranyi, Ines Swoboda, Frank Stolz, Margarete Focke-Tejkl, Thomas Wekerle, Ronald van Ree, Rudolf Valenta, Birgit Linhart
BACKGROUND: Fish is a frequent elicitor of severe IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Beside avoidance, there is currently no allergen-specific therapy available. Hypoallergenic variants of the major fish allergen, parvalbumin, for specific immunotherapy based on mutation of the 2 calcium-binding sites have been developed. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to establish a mouse model of fish allergy resembling human disease and to investigate whether mouse and rabbit IgG antibodies induced by immunization with a hypoallergenic mutant of the major carp allergen protect against allergic symptoms in sensitized mice...
June 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Kalmia M Smith, Raiann S Rahman, Lisa A Spencer
Eosinophils are native to the healthy gastrointestinal tract and are associated with inflammatory diseases likely triggered by exposure to food allergens (e.g., food allergies and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders). In models of allergic respiratory diseases and in vitro studies, direct Ag engagement elicits eosinophil effector functions, including degranulation and Ag presentation. However, it was not known whether intestinal tissue eosinophils that are separated from luminal food Ags by a columnar epithelium might similarly engage food Ags...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Jacek Gocki, Zbigniew Bartuzi
This paper presents current views on the role of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in the reactions with food antigens in the digestive tract and their role in the diagnosis of food allergy based on the assays of specific IgG class antibodies, with a special focus on contemporary practice guidelines. In the light of current scientific knowledge, the IgG-specific antibody-mediated reactions are a body's natural and normal defensive reactions to infiltrating food antigens, which are considered as pathogens. On the other hand, specific IgG antibodies against food allergens play a crucial role in the induction and maintaining of immunological tolerance to food antigens...
August 2016: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
Jean Christoph Caubet, Ramon Bencharitiwong, Andrew Ross, Hugh A Sampson, M Cecilia Berin, Anna Nowak-Węgrzyn
BACKGROUND: Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated food allergy manifesting within 1 to 4 hours of food ingestion with repetitive emesis and lethargy. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize immune responses to casein in children with FPIES caused by cow's milk (CM). METHODS: Total IgE and IgM, CM-specific IgG, and casein-specific IgE, IgG, IgG4 , and IgM levels, as well as immunoglobulin free light chains, were measured in both patients with active and those with resolved CM-FPIES...
February 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Małgorzata Leśniak, Maciej Juda, Łukasz Dyczek, Maria Czarnobilska, Magdalena Leśniak, Ewa Czarnobilska
Food allergy is most often linked to the type I allergic reaction, while IgE-dependent mechanism causes symptoms in only about 50% of patients. If symptoms are coming from other types of allergic reactions we do not have enough standardized diagnostic methods. The purpose of our review is to discuss the possibilities of diagnosis of food allergies. Regardless of the causal mechanism the interview has the most important role in the diagnosis, and the gold standard is a double blind placebo controlled food challenge...
2016: Przegla̧d Lekarski
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