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pig breeding

Thomas Guiho, Christine Azevedo-Coste, David Guiraud, Claire Delleci, Grégoire Capon, Natalia Delgado-Piccoli, Luc Bauchet, Jean-Rodolphe Vignes
OBJECTIVESpinal cord injuries (SCIs) result in loss of movement and sensory feedback, but also organ dysfunction. Nearly all patients with complete SCI lose bladder control and are prone to kidney failure if intermittent catheterization is not performed. Electrical stimulation of sacral spinal roots was initially considered to be a promising approach for restoring continence and micturition control, but many patients are discouraged by the need for surgical deafferentation as it could lead to a loss of sensory functions and reflexes...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
B E Bass, T Tsai, H Yang, V Perez, D Holzgraefe, J Chewning, J W Frank, C V Maxwell
A study was conducted using 3 groups of gestating gilts and sows (n = 98) to determine the effects of Pichia guilliermondii (Pg), a whole cell inactivated yeast product (CitriStim; ADM Alliance Nutrition), on performance and immune parameters of dams and litters. Within 24 h of breeding, gilts and sows were allotted to 1 of 3 treatments consisting of a control (SC) diet or SC diet supplemented with 0.1 (S1) or 0.2% (S2) Pg. Dietary treatments were maintained through lactation. Colostrum and milk (d 14) samples were collected for IgA, IgG, and IgM analysis...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
John B Keven, Edward D Walker, Patrick J Venta
Genetic profiling has been used to link mosquito bloodmeals to the individual humans, but this analysis has not been done for other mammalian bloodmeals. In this study, we describe a microsatellite-based method for identifying individual pigs in mosquito bloodmeals based on their unique multilocus genotypes. Eleven tetranucleotide microsatellites and a sex-specific marker were selected based on Smith-Waterman DNA sequence alignment scores from the reference genome and primers were designed with features that reduce primer dimers, promote complete adenylation, and enable fluorescent labeling of amplicons...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Medical Entomology
Mariana I Giassetti, Michela Ciccarelli, Jon M Oatley
The demand for food will increase to an unprecedented level over the next 30 years owing to human population expansion, thus necessitating an evolution that improves the efficiency of livestock production. Genetic gain to improve production traits of domestic animal populations is most effectively achieved via selective use of gametes from animals deemed to be elite, and this principle has been the basis of selective breeding strategies employed by humans for thousands of years. In modern-day animal agriculture, artificial insemination (AI) has been the staple of selective breeding programs, but it has inherent limitations for applications in beef cattle and pig production systems...
February 15, 2019: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Zongbao Liu, Uli Klümper, Lei Shi, Lei Ye, Meng Li
It is well verified that pig farms are an important reservoir and supplier of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, little is known about the transmission of ARGs between the breeding environment and subsequently produced pork. This study was conducted to investigate if ARGs and associated host bacteria spread from the breeding environment onto the meat through the food production chain. We thus analyzed the occurrence and abundance of ARGs, as well as comparing both ARG and bacterial community compositions in farm soil, pig feces and pork samples from a large-scale pig farm located in Xiamen, People's Republic of China...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Martin Škrlep, Marjeta Čandek-Potokar, Nina Batorek-Lukač, Urška Tomažin, Mónica Flores
Dry-fermented sausages were produced in a traditional way, without addition of nitrites and starter cultures, from meat of an autochthonous breed (Krškopolje pig) raised either in a conventional indoor or organic husbandry system. Physicochemical and sensory analyses were performed at the end of processing to characterize their quality. Dry-fermented sausages from organic pork retained more moisture, which resulted in higher water activity and softer texture (instrumental and sensory). They were more oxidized (higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)), in agreement with more unsaturated fatty acid profile, a higher score for rancid taste, and a higher relative abundance of volatiles from lipid β-oxidation...
February 12, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Jingyao Chen, Haitao Wang, Jianhui Bai, Wenjie Liu, Xiaojuan Liu, Dawei Yu, Tao Feng, Zhaolin Sun, Linlin Zhang, Linyuan Ma, Yiqing Hu, Yunlong Zou, Tan Tan, Jie Zhong, Man Hu, Xiaofei Bai, Dengke Pan, Yiming Xing, Yaofeng Zhao, Kegong Tian, Xiaoxiang Hu, Ning Li
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a highly contagious disease and the most economically important disease of the swine industry worldwide. Highly pathogenic-PRRS virus (HP-PRRSV) is a variant of PRRSV, which caused high morbidity and mortality. Scavenger receptor CD163, which contains nine scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains, is a key entry mediator for PRRSV. A previous study demonstrated that SRCR domain 5 (SRCR5), encoded by exon 7, was essential for PRRSV infection in vitro ...
2019: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Joon Ki Hong, Yong Min Kim, Kyu Ho Cho, Eun Seok Cho, Deuk Hwan Lee, Tae Jeong Choi
Objective: Sow longevity is important for efficient and profitable pig farming. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in social genetic effect (SGE) of pigs on stress-tolerance and behavior. The present study aimed to estimate genetic correlations among average daily gain (ADG), stayability (STAY), and number of piglets born alive at the first parity (NBA1) in Korean Yorkshire pigs, using the SGE model. Methods: The phenotypic records of ADG and reproductive traits of 33,120 and 11,654 pigs, respectively, were evaluated...
February 7, 2019: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Zhong Xu, Hao Sun, Zhe Zhang, Cheng-Yue Zhang, Qing-Bo Zhao, Qian Xiao, Babatunde Shittu Olasege, Pei-Pei Ma, Xiang-Zhe Zhang, Qi-Shan Wang, Yu-Chun Pan
Background: Porcine respiratory disease is one of the most important health problems which causes significant economic losses. Objective: To understand the genetic basis for susceptibility to swine enzootic pneumonia (EP) in pigs, we detected 102,809 SNPs in a total of 249 individuals based on genome-wide sequencing data. Methods: Genome comparison of three susceptibility to swine EP pig breeds (Jinhua, Erhualian and Meishan) with two western lines that are considered more resistant (Duroc and Landrace) using XP-EHH and FST statistical approaches identified 691 positively selected genes...
February 7, 2019: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
A Ribani, V J Utzeri, C Geraci, S Tinarelli, M Djan, N Veličković, R Doneva, S Dall'Olio, L Nanni Costa, G Schiavo, S Bovo, G Usai, M Gallo, Č Radović, R Savić, D Karolyi, K Salajpal, K Gvozdanović, I Djurkin-Kušec, M Škrlep, M Čandek-Potokar, C Ovilo, L Fontanesi
Autochthonous pig breeds are usually reared in extensive or semi-extensive production systems that might facilitate contact with wild boars and, thus, reciprocal genetic exchanges. In this study, we analysed variants in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene (which cause different coat colour phenotypes) and in the nuclear receptor subfamily 6 group A member 1 (NR6A1) gene (associated with increased vertebral number) in 712 pigs of 12 local pig breeds raised in Italy (Apulo-Calabrese, Casertana, Cinta Senese, Mora Romagnola, Nero Siciliano and Sarda) and south-eastern European countries (Krškopolje from Slovenia, Black Slavonian and Turopolje from Croatia, Mangalitsa and Moravka from Serbia and East Balkan Swine from Bulgaria) and compared the data with the genetic variability at these loci investigated in 229 wild boars from populations spread in the same macro-geographic areas...
February 11, 2019: Animal Genetics
D Hu, A Rampoldi, A Bratus-Neuenschwander, A Hofer, H U Bertschinger, P Vögeli, S Neuenschwander
The F4ac receptor locus (F4acR), which encodes susceptibility or resistance to Escherichia coli diarrhoea, is inherited as an autosomal recessive monogenetic trait. F4acR is localized on pig chromosome 13 (SSC13q41-q44) near the MUC13 gene. Two flanking markers (CHCF1 and ALGA0106330) with a high linkage disequilibrium (LD) with F4acR were found to be effective for the genetic identification of F4ac-resistant pigs in the Swiss Large White breed (one recombinant out of 2034 genotyped pigs). Three recombinant boars, one each from the Duroc, Swiss Landrace and Piétrain breeds, were genotyped with seven different markers and phenotyped by means of a microscopic adhesion test...
February 6, 2019: Animal Genetics
Dongfang Li, Shuangjian Zheng, Chunxiang Zhou, Md Robiul Karim, Luyang Wang, Haiyan Wang, Fuchang Yu, Junqiang Li, Weiyi Wang, Yange Wang, Sumei Zhang, Fuchun Jian, Rongjun Wang, Changshen Ning, Longxian Zhang
Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of the most frequently diagnosed Microsporidia of humans and most animals. However, there is no information on E. bieneusi infection of pigs in Tibet and Henan, China. In the present study, 1190 fecal samples were collected from pigs in Tibet and Henan and screened for the presence of E. bieneusi. The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi infection was 54.2% (645/1190), with differences in prevalence observed among geographical areas, ages, and pig breeds. Moreover, 10 E. bieneusi genotypes were identified based on internal transcribed spacer region genotyping, including eight known genotypes (EbpC, EbpA, CHG19, CHC5, Henan-III, I, D, and H) and two novel genotypes (XZP-I and XZP-II)...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Qing-Bo Zhao, Hao Sun, Zhe Zhang, Zhong Xu, Babatunde Shittu Olasege, Pei-Pei Ma, Xiang-Zhe Zhang, Qi-Shan Wang, Yu-Chun Pan
Chinese indigenous pigs in the Taihu Lake region are well known for their high fecundity and other excellent characteristics. To better understand the characteristics of these breeds in this area as well as to provide the government and breeders the molecular basis for formulating a reasonable conservation policy, we explored the structure of haplotype blocks and genetic diversity of the 7 populations which is relevant for the management and conservation of these important genetic resources using next-generation sequencing data...
2019: Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online
Sarita Z Y Guy, Li Li, Peter C Thomson, Susanne Hermesch
Disease resilience is the ability to maintain performance and health, despite infection challenges in the environment. The evaluation of disease resilience requires measures of environment infection challenges, along with other environmental challenges. The overall objective of this study was to define disease resilience using pedigree, production and medication records from an Australian herd of Large White pigs. The extent to which the infection challenges were captured by environmental descriptors based on contemporary group (CG) estimates of growth was assessed (n = 8,835)...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
Robert V Knox
Factors that affect follicle health and growth can influence estrus, ovulation, conception and litter size. Since the majority of the breeding herd is composed of sows, production schedules are established based on synchronized follicle growth following weaning. Insemination of sows over a 3 to 4 d period after weaning facilitates farrowing over fewer days and helps improve the uniformity of pigs at weaning. Synchronized inseminations of the group are reduced when disturbance to the follicular phase results in delayed estrus...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
Wei Zhang, Qian-Qian Song, Fen Wu, Jin-Zhi Zhang, Ming-Shu Xu, Hai-Hong Li, Zhu-Jun Han, Hai-Xia Gao, Ning-Ying Xu
To investigate breed characteristics and the effect of hybridization of Jiaxing Black Pig (JBP) with Western breeds, the carcass and meat quality traits and flavor substances such as inosinic acids (IMP), intramuscular fat (IMF) in longissimus muscle (LM) from five breeds including JBP, Berkshire, Berkshire × JBP (BJBP), Duroc × Berkshire × JBP (DBJBP), Duroc × Landrace × JBP (DLJBP) were compared in this study. It was found that water holding capacity (WHC) of LM in JBP was significantly higher than that in the other strains (p < 0...
February 3, 2019: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Jakub Gryz, Dagny Krauze-Gryz
Carrion plays a crucial role in the raven's diet. In the past, domestic pig carrion was widely available in Poland. This changed with an African swine fever (ASF) outbreak and the introduction of strict procedures aimed at stopping the virus from spreading. We compared data from Central Poland (field and forest mosaic, study area of 105 km²) for two periods, i.e., before (2011⁻2014) and after the ASF outbreak (2015⁻2018). In breeding seasons, nests of ravens were found, juveniles were counted, and the time when juveniles left their nests was recorded...
January 30, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
John J McGlone, Arlene Garcia, Anoosh Rakhshandeh
The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a novel 3-molecule boar pheromone (BOARBETTER® , BB,) to improve sow reproductive performance (breeding, conception, farrowing rates, pigs born alive, stillborn, mummies and total born). Data from 12 commercial farm sites were used to evaluate the effectiveness of BB. Each farm was used as the experimental unit in the meta-analyses. Individual sows records were collected, merged and analyzed in overall analyses. Relative to CON, BB increased the number of total born pigs per litter (13...
January 27, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Monika Stachowiak, Krzysztof Flisikowski
Analysis of allele-specific expression may help to elucidate the genetic architecture of complex traits including fat deposition in pigs. Here, we used pyrosequencing to investigate the allele proportions of candidate genes (ACACA, ADIPOR1, FASN, LEP, ME1, SCD, and TNF) involved in regulation of lipid metabolism in two fat deposits (subcutaneous and visceral fat) and longissimus dorsi muscle of pigs representing Polish Large White, Polish Landrace, Duroc, and Pietrain breeds. We detected differential allelic expression of ACACA, LEP, SCD, and TNF in all tissues analyzed...
January 26, 2019: Journal of Applied Genetics
Dinh-Toi Chu, Tran Uyen Ngoc, Thien Chu-Dinh, Vo Truong Nhu Ngoc, Bui Van Nhon, Van-Huy Pham, Le Long Nghia, Le Quynh Anh, Thi Hong Van Pham, Nguyen Duc Truong
Southeast Asia is considered one of worldwide hotspots consisting many distinct zoonotic infections. With optimal condition for the development of various pathogens, Vietnam is facing serious risks of zoonotic diseases. Besides, more than 50% Vietnamese people settle in rustic areas and earn their livings through small-scale animal breeding. It is possible that zoonotic diseases can be easily spread to the population by close contact with the infected animals, their infected residues, contaminated water, soil, or other possible means of transmission...
January 24, 2019: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
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