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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761017/brown-and-brite-the-fat-soldiers-in-the-anti-obesity-fight
#1
REVIEW
Shireesh Srivastava, Richard L Veech
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is proposed to maintain thermal homeostasis through dissipation of chemical energy as heat by the uncoupling proteins (UCPs) present in their mitochondria. The recent demonstration of the presence of BAT in humans has invigorated research in this area. The research has provided many new insights into the biology and functioning of this tissue and the biological implications of its altered activities. Another finding of interest is browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) resulting in what is known as beige/brite cells, which have increased mitochondrial proteins and UCPs...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760750/impact-of-diverse-chemotherapeutic-agents-and-external-factors-on-activation-of-brown-adipose-tissue-in-a-large-patient-collective
#2
Cornelia Brendle, Norbert Stefan, Irina Stef, Sabine Ripkens, Martin Soekler, Christian la Fougère, Konstantin Nikolaou, Christina Pfannenberg
Increased activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity in adults is thought to prevent obesity. Therefore, regulators of BAT activity might serve as anti-obesity therapy in future, but are not investigated thoroughly up to now. In our study, we assessed retrospectively the association of BAT activity with several external factors and diverse chemotherapeutic and immunosuppressive agents in a collective of 702 patients. The patients underwent at least two clinically indicated PET/CT examinations in the course of different oncological and inflammatory diseases...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759876/the-importance-of-peripheral-nerves-in-adipose-tissue-for-the-regulation-of-energy-balance
#3
REVIEW
Magdalena Blaszkiewicz, Jake W Willows, Cory P Johnson, Kristy L Townsend
Brown and white adipose tissues are essential for maintenance of proper energy balance and metabolic health. In order to function efficiently, these tissues require both endocrine and neural communication with the brain. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as the inducible brown adipocytes that appear in white adipose tissue (WAT) after simulation, are thermogenic and energy expending. This uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-mediated process requires input from sympathetic nerves releasing norepinephrine. In addition to sympathetic noradrenergic signaling, adipose tissue contains sensory nerves that may be important for relaying fuel status to the brain...
February 12, 2019: Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759802/cold-and-exercise-therapeutic-tools-to-activate-brown-adipose-tissue-and-combat-obesity
#4
REVIEW
Carmem Peres Valgas da Silva, Diego Hernández-Saavedra, Joseph D White, Kristin I Stanford
The rise in obesity over the last several decades has reached pandemic proportions. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic organ that is involved in energy expenditure and represents an attractive target to combat both obesity and type 2 diabetes. Cold exposure and exercise training are two stimuli that have been investigated with respect to BAT activation, metabolism, and the contribution of BAT to metabolic health. These two stimuli are of great interest because they have both disparate and converging effects on BAT activation and metabolism...
February 12, 2019: Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759346/intrauterine-exposure-to-hyperglycemia-retards-the-development-of-brown-adipose-tissue
#5
Dan-Qing Yu, Ping-Ping Lv, Yi-Shang Yan, Guan-Xin Xu, Annapurna Sadhukhan, Shan Dong, Yan Shen, Jun Ren, Xue-Ying Zhang, Chun Feng, Yi-Ting Huang, Shen Tian, Yin Zhou, Yi-Ting Cai, Zhen-Hua Ming, Guo-Lian Ding, Hong Zhu, Jian-Zhong Sheng, Min Jin, He-Feng Huang
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an exclusive tissue of nonshivering thermogenesis. It is fueled by lipids and glucose and involved in energy and metabolic homeostasis. Intrauterine exposure to hyperglycemia during gestational diabetes mellitus may result in abnormal fetal development and metabolic phenotypes in adulthood. However, whether intrauterine hyperglycemia influences the development of BAT is unknown. In this study, mouse embryos were exposed to the intrauterine hyperglycemia environment by injecting streptozocin into pregnant mice at 1 d post coitum (dpc)...
February 13, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753533/high-pancreatic-amylase-expression-promotes-adiposity-in-obesity-prone-carbohydrate-sensitive-rats
#6
Dalila Azzout-Marniche, Catherine Chaumontet, Julien Piedcoq, Nadezda Khodorova, Gilles Fromentin, Daniel Tomé, Claire Gaudichon, Patrick C Even
Background: We have reported large differences in adiposity (fat mass/body weight) gain between rats fed a low-fat, high-starch diet, leading to their classification into carbohydrate "sensitive" and "resistant" rats. In sensitive animals, fat accumulates in visceral adipose tissues, leading to the suggestion that this form of obesity could be responsible for rapid development of metabolic syndrome. Objective: We investigated whether increased amylase secretion by the pancreas and accelerated starch degradation in the intestine could be responsible for this phenotype...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745879/autophagy-in-adipocyte-browning-emerging-drug-target-for-intervention-in-obesity
#7
REVIEW
Seung-Hyun Ro, Yura Jang, Jiyoung Bae, Isaac M Kim, Cameron Schaecher, Zachery D Shomo
Autophagy, lipophagy, and mitophagy are considered to be the major recycling processes for protein aggregates, excess fat, and damaged mitochondria in adipose tissues in response to nutrient status-associated stress, oxidative stress, and genotoxic stress in the human body. Obesity with increased body weight is often associated with white adipose tissue (WAT) hypertrophy and hyperplasia and/or beige/brown adipose tissue atrophy and aplasia, which significantly contribute to the imbalance in lipid metabolism, adipocytokine secretion, free fatty acid release, and mitochondria function...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742901/mri-estimates-of-brown-adipose-tissue-in-children-associations-to-adiposity-osteocalcin-and-thigh-muscle-volume
#8
Jonathan Andersson, Josefine Roswall, Emma Kjellberg, Håkan Ahlström, Jovanna Dahlgren, Joel Kullberg
CONTEXT: Brown adipose tissue is of metabolic interest. The tissue is however poorly explored in children. METHODS: Sixty-three 7-year old subjects from the Swedish birth-cohort Halland Health and Growth Study were recruited. Care was taken to include both normal weight and overweight children, but the subjects were otherwise healthy. Only children born full term were included. Water-fat separated whole-body MRI scans, anthropometric measurements, and measurements of fasting glucose and levels of energy homeostasis related hormones, including the insulin-sensitizer osteocalcin, were performed...
February 8, 2019: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738951/effects-of-stanniocalcin-hormones-on-rat-brown-adipose-tissue-metabolism-under-fed-and-fasted-conditions
#9
Elaine Sarapio, Samir Khal De Souza, Everton Lopes Vogt, Débora Santos Rocha, Rafael Bandeira Fabres, Marcia Trapp, Roselis S M Da Silva
In this study we determined the effect of fed and fasting (48 h) states on the expression of stanniocalcin-1 (Stc1) and stanniocalcin-2 (Stc2) in rat brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as the in vitro effects of human stanniocalcin 1 and 2 (hSTC-1 and hSTC-2) hormones on lipid and glucose metabolism. In addition, lactate, glycogen levels and hexokinase (HK) activity were determined. In fasting Stc2 expression increased markedly. The targets of action of hSTC-1 and hSTC-2 were glucose uptake and oxidation as well as glycogen storage, controlling the energetic metabolism in BAT...
February 7, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735436/low-protein-and-methionine-high-starch-diets-increase-energy-intake-and-expenditure-increase-fgf21-decrease-igf-1-and-has-little-effect-on-adiposity-in-mice
#10
Catherine Chaumontet, Dalila Azzout-Marniche, Anne Blais, Julien Piedcoq, Daniel Tomé, Claire Gaudichon, Patrick C Even
Low-protein diets most often induce increased energy intake in an attempt to increase protein intake to meet protein needs with a risk of accumulation as fat of the excess energy intake. In female adult BalbC mice, a decrease in dietary casein from 20% to 6% and 3% increased energy intake and slightly increased adiposity, and this response was exacerbated with soy proteins with low methionine content. The effect on fat mass was however limited because total energy expenditure (TEE) increased to the same extent as energy intake...
February 8, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735224/from-white-to-beige-adipocytes-therapeutic-potential-of-dietary-molecules-against-obesity-and-their-molecular-mechanisms
#11
REVIEW
Siyu Wang, Min-Hsiung Pan, Wei-Lun Hung, Yen-Chen Tung, Chi-Tang Ho
The global incidence of obesity and its complications continue to rise along with a demand for novel therapeutic approaches. In addition to classic brown adipose tissue (BAT), the formation of brown-like adipocytes called beige adipocytes, within white adipose tissue (WAT), has attracted much attention as a therapeutic target due to its inducible features when stimulated, resulting in the dissipation of extra energy as heat. There are various dietary agents that are able to modulate the beige-development process by interacting with critical molecular signaling cascades, leading to the enhancement of thermogenesis...
February 8, 2019: Food & Function
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30725119/mots-c-peptide-regulates-adipose-homeostasis-to-prevent-ovariectomy-induced-metabolic-dysfunction
#12
Huanyu Lu, Ming Wei, Yue Zhai, Qingyang Li, Zichen Ye, Li Wang, Wenjing Luo, Jingyuan Chen, Zifan Lu
The postmenopausal state is associated with an increased risk of metabolic disorder including reduced energy expenditure and weight gain, leading to higher cardiovascular and cancer risks among other diseases. Mitochondrial-derived peptide (MOTS-c) is a 16-amino acid peptide encoded by mitochondrial DNA. Here, we showed that MOTS-c treatment in mice prevented ovariectomy-induced obesity and insulin resistance. After ovariectomy, low levels of estrogens increased fat mass overload and disturbed normal adipose function, forcing the development of insulin resistance...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30724123/resolution-of-hypothyroidism-restores-cold-induced-thermogenesis-in-humans
#13
Claudia Irene Maushart, Rahel Loeliger, Gani Gashi, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Matthias Johannes Betz
Objective Hypothyroidism is a frequent endocrine disorder with common symptoms of increased cold sensitivity and unintended weight gain, indicating changes in energy expenditure (EE) and response to cold exposure. Thyroid hormones (TH) play an important role for proper function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and cold induced thermogenesis (CIT) in rodents, but the role of hypothyroidism on CIT in humans is uncertain. Methods This was a prospective observational study. We recruited 42 patients presenting with subclinical or overt hypothyroidism in whom TH replacement was planned...
February 6, 2019: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723844/the-impact-of-early-human-migration-on-brown-adipose-tissue-evolution-and-its-relevance-to-the-modern-obesity-pandemic
#14
REVIEW
Dyan Sellayah
Genetic factors are believed to be primarily responsible for obesity; however, an understanding of how genes for obesity have become so prevalent in modern society has proved elusive. Several theories have attempted to explain the genetic basis for obesity, but none of these appear to factor in the interethnic variation in obesity. Emerging evidence is increasingly pointing to a link between reduced basal metabolism and ineffective brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. In fact, BAT presence and function are strongly correlated with metabolic rates and directly influence obesity susceptibility...
February 1, 2019: Journal of the Endocrine Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30712161/strength-training-and-aerobic-exercise-alter-mitochondrial-parameters-in-brown-adipose-tissue-and-equally-reduce-body-adiposity-in-aged-rats
#15
Anand Thirupathi, Bruno Luiz da Silva Pieri, João Annibal Milano Peixoto Queiroz, Matheus Scarpatto Rodrigues, Gustavo de Bem Silveira, Daniela Roxo de Souza, Thais Fernandes Luciano, Paulo Cesar Lock Silveira, Claudio Teodoro De Souza
With aging, there is a reduction in mitochondrial activity, and several changes occur in the body composition, including increased adiposity. The dysfunction of mitochondrial activity causes changes and adaptations in tissue catabolic characteristics. Among them, we can mention brown adipose tissue (BAT). BAT's main function is lipid oxidation for heat production, hence playing a role in adaptive thermogenesis induced by environmental factors such as exercise. It is known that exercise causes a series of metabolic changes, including loss body fat; however, there is still no consensus in the academic community about whether both strength and aerobic exercise equally reduces adiposity...
February 2, 2019: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711031/physiology-and-pathophysiology-of-the-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor
#16
Li-Kun Yang, Ya-Xiong Tao
The β3 -adrenergic receptor (β3 -AR) is an important regulator of various physiological functions, such as thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, lipolysis in white adipose tissue, negative inotropic effect in cardiomyocyte, and relaxation in blood vessel. The activation of β3 -AR by its agonists is shown to have metabolic (antiobesity and antidiabetic) and cardiovascular effects in animal models, highlighting β3 -AR as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of several human diseases. Moreover, a substantial number of studies performed on different populations have identified some β3 -AR polymorphic variants associated with obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and other disorders...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30703287/divergent-metabolic-effects-of-acute-versus-chronic-repeated-forced-swim-stress-in-the-rat
#17
Cristina Rabasa, Kaisa Askevik, Erik Schéle, Min Hu, Heike Vogel, Suzanne L Dickson
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to examine divergence regarding the impact of acute versus chronic repeated stress on energy balance. METHODS: Rats were exposed to either chronic repeated forced swim (FS) stress for 7 days or an acute stress (a single FS). Body weight and food intake were measured daily. Metabolic parameters explored included brown adipose tissue (BAT) weight and activity. RESULTS: Chronic repeated FS stress decreased body weight and caloric efficiency...
January 31, 2019: Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30699240/impact-of-free-choice-diets-high-in-fat-and-different-sugars-on-metabolic-outcome-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-rats
#18
Fiona Peris-Sampedro, Myriam Mounib, Erik Schéle, Christian E Edvardsson, Iris Stoltenborg, Roger A H Adan, Suzanne L Dickson
OBJECTIVE: Rats were exposed to free-choice diets (fat plus one of two different sugar solutions, glucose or sucrose), and the metabolic consequences and impact on locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior were explored. METHODS: For 3 weeks, 7-week-old male rats were offered either chow only or free-choice high-fat diets differing in their added sugar: no sugar, sucrose, or glucose. In a second experiment, after 2 weeks on the diets, rats were switched from high sucrose to high glucose for two additional weeks...
January 30, 2019: Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30690068/adipocyte-mterf4-regulates-non-shivering-adaptive-thermogenesis-and-sympathetic-dependent-glucose-homeostasis
#19
Anna Castillo, Maria Vilà, Inés Pedriza, Rosario Pardo, Yolanda Cámara, Edgar Martín, Daniel Beiroa, Javier Torres-Torronteras, Marta Oteo, Miguel A Morcillo, Ramon Martí, Rafael Simó, Rubén Nogueiras, Josep A Villena
In humans, low brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass and activity have been associated with increased adiposity and fasting glucose levels, suggesting that defective BAT-dependent thermogenesis could contribute to the development of obesity and/or type 2 diabetes. The thermogenic function of BAT relies on a vast network of mitochondria exclusively equipped with UCP1. Mitochondrial biogenesis is exquisitely regulated by a well-defined network of transcription factors that coordinate the expression of nuclear genes required for the formation of functional mitochondria...
January 25, 2019: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30689089/translational-pharmacology-and-physiology-of-brown-adipose-tissue-in-human-disease-and-treatment
#20
Christopher J Larson
Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) is experimentally modeled to better understand the biology of this important metabolic tissue, and also to enable the potential discovery and development of novel therapeutics for obesity and sequelae resulting from the persistent positive energy balance. This chapter focuses on translation into humans of findings and hypotheses generated in nonhuman models of BAT pharmacology. Given the demonstrated challenges of sustainably reducing caloric intake in modern humans, potential solutions to obesity likely lie in increasing energy expenditure...
January 29, 2019: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
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