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Kyle A Cutting, Jay J Rotella, Sean R Schroff, Michael R Frisina, James A Waxe, Erika Nunlist, Bok F Sowell
Animals are expected to select habitats that maximize their fitness over evolutionary time scales. Yet in human-modified landscapes, habitat selection might not always lead to increased fitness because animals undervalue high-quality resources that appear less attractive than those of lower quality. In the American West, agriculture has modified landscapes, yet little is known about whether agricultural changes alter the reliability of the cues animals use to identify habitat quality; ultimately forming maladaptive breeding strategies where behavioral cues are mismatched with survival outcomes...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Andreas Walker, Kim Sophie Ennker, Rolf Kaiser, Nadine Lübke, Jörg Timm
BACKGROUND: Chronic infection with the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is associated with the risk of progressive liver disease. Although, HCV treatment options and viral cure rates have tremendously increased over the last decade, all currently licensed combination therapies contain inhibitors of the replication complex NS5A. Resistance-associated substitutions (RAS) in NS5A can limit the efficacy of therapy; however, resistance testing is routinely not recommended for all patients. Notably, pan-genotypic combinations have been approved, however the correct identification of the HCV genotype is still required for treatment decisions and is a good predictor for treatment success...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Yangchun Li, Zhaoping Wang, Zongwu Zhao, Yuting Cui
Low salinity treatment is proven to be the practical polyploidy inducing method for shellfish with advantages of lower cost, higher operability and reliable food security. However, little is known about the possible molecular mechanism of hypotonic induction. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) based proteomic profiling was pursued to investigate the responses of zygotes of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas to low salinity. A total of 2235 proteins were identified and 87 proteins were considered differentially expressed, of which 14 were up-regulated and 69 were down-regulated...
December 11, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Lise Brogaard, Ole Kierkegaard, Lone Hvidman, Kristiane Roed Jensen, Peter Musaeus, Niels Uldbjerg, Tanja Manser
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about how teams' non-technical performance influences clinical performance in obstetric emergencies like postpartum haemorrhage. DESIGN: Video review - observational study. SETTING: A university hospital (5,000 deliveries) and a regional hospital (2,000 deliveries) in Denmark. POPULATION: Obstetric teams managing real-life postpartum haemorrhage. METHODS: We systematically assessed 99 video recordings of obstetric teams managing real-life major postpartum haemorrhage...
February 16, 2019: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
F B Oberhauser, A Schlemm, S Wendt, T J Czaczkes
Foraging animals use a variety of information sources to navigate, such as memorised views or odours associated with a goal. Animals frequently use different information sources concurrently, to increase navigation accuracy or reliability. While much research has focussed on conflicts between individually learned (private) information and social information, conflicts between private information sources have been less broadly studied. Here, we investigate such a conflict by pitting route memory against associative odour cue learning in the ant Lasius niger...
February 15, 2019: Animal Cognition
Maxim Signaevsky, Marcel Prastawa, Kurt Farrell, Nabil Tabish, Elena Baldwin, Natalia Han, Megan A Iida, John Koll, Clare Bryce, Dushyant Purohit, Vahram Haroutunian, Ann C McKee, Thor D Stein, Charles L White, Jamie Walker, Timothy E Richardson, Russell Hanson, Michael J Donovan, Carlos Cordon-Cardo, Jack Zeineh, Gerardo Fernandez, John F Crary
Accumulation of abnormal tau in neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) occurs in Alzheimer disease (AD) and a spectrum of tauopathies. These tauopathies have diverse and overlapping morphological phenotypes that obscure classification and quantitative assessments. Recently, powerful machine learning-based approaches have emerged, allowing the recognition and quantification of pathological changes from digital images. Here, we applied deep learning to the neuropathological assessment of NFT in postmortem human brain tissue to develop a classifier capable of recognizing and quantifying tau burden...
February 15, 2019: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Liat Samuelov, Alexandra Nathan, Evgenia Slutsky, Dana Fruchter, Andrea Gat, Eli Sprecher, Ilan Goldberg
BACKGROUND: Although tissue-eosinophilia has traditionally been considered diagnostically supportive of adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDRs), studies have suggested it is neither a sensitive nor a specific finding in drug eruptions (DEs). OBJECTIVES: Determining whether skin-tissue eosinophilia is a reliable indicator of ACDR. METHODS: A nested case-control retrospective study conducted in a cohort of 170 patients at a single institution...
February 15, 2019: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Jacob L Jaremko, Robert G W Lambert, Susanne J Pedersen, Ulrich Weber, Duncan Lindsay, Zeid Al-Ani, Kieran Steer, Marcus Pianta, Stephanie Wichuk, Walter P Maksymowych
OBJECTIVE: To assess reliability, feasibility, and responsiveness of Hip Inflammation Magnetic resonance imaging Scoring System (HIMRISS) for bone marrow lesions (BML) in hip osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: HIMRISS was scored by 8 readers in 360 hips of 90 patients imaged pre/post-hip steroid injection. Pre-scoring, new readers trained online to achieve intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) > 0.80 versus experts. RESULTS: HIMRISS reliability was excellent for BML status (ICC 0...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Rheumatology
Benjamin Thomas, Emre Gazyakan, Florian Falkner, Volker J Schmidt, Christoph Hirche, Ulrich Kneser, Amir K Bigdeli
BACKGROUND: Though technically feasible, free tissue transfer carries the risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality in elderly patients. To minimize the operative treatment time and complication rates, we choose the rectus abdominis muscle (RAM) flap. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2017, 34 patients (mean age: 74±7 years, range: 65-89 years) with comorbidities underwent defect reconstruction with a free RAM flap. Recipient-sites were: lower extremity (65%), trunk (18%), upper extremity (12%), and head and neck (6%)...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Ana Sjaus, Ashraf Fayad
The need for temporary cardiac pacing may occur in emergency and elective situations and may require transvenous right ventricular lead placement. The treatment of bradyarrhythmias presents the most common perioperative emergency indication. Intraoperatively, temporary rapid right ventricular pacing is accepted as a safe, titratable, and highly reliable method to achieve deliberate hypotension, and it has become a routine practice in the anesthetic management of cardiovascular interventions. The navigation of the lead into the right ventricle often requires fluoroscopy to guide placement and to confirm position...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Kathrin E Witzke, Frederik Großerueschkamp, Hendrik Jütte, Melanie Horn, Florian Roghmann, Nicolas von Landenberg, Thilo Bracht, Angela Kallenbach-Thieltges, Heiko Käfferlein, Thomas Brüning, Karin Schork, Martin Eisenacher, Katrin Marcus, Joachim Noldus, Andrea Tannapfel, Barbara Sitek, Klaus Gerwert
Histopathological differentiation between severe urocystitis with reactive urothelial atypia and carcinoma in situ (CIS) can be difficult, particularly after a treatment that deliberately induces an inflammatory reaction, such as intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guèrin. However, precise grading in bladder cancer is critical for therapeutic decision making and thus requires reliable immunohistochemical biomarkers. Herein, an exemplary potential biomarker in bladder cancer was identified by the novel approach of Fourier transform infrared imaging for label-free tissue annotation of tissue thin sections...
February 9, 2019: American Journal of Pathology
Wenrong Yao, Ying Guo, Xi Qin, Lei Yu, Xinchang Shi, Lan Liu, Yong Zhou, Jinpan Hu, Chunming Rao, Junzhi Wang
The therapeutic recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor 1 (rhKGF-1) was approved by the FDA for oral mucositis resulting from hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancies in 2004. However, no recommended bioassay for rhKGF-1 bioactivity has been recorded in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia. In this study, we developed an rhKGF-1-dependent bioassay for determining rhKGF-1 bioactivity based on HEK293 and HaCat cell lines that stably expressed the luciferase reporter driven by the serum response element (SRE) and human fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR2) IIIb...
February 15, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Fatemeh Kargarfard, Ashkan Sami, Farhid Hemmatzadeh, Esmaeil Ebrahimie
Influenza has a negative sense, single-stranded, segmented RNA. In the context of pandemic influenza research, most studies have focused on variations in the surface proteins (Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase). However, new findings suggest that all internal and external proteins of influenza viruses can contribute in pandemic emergence, pathogenicity and increasing host range. The occurrence of the 2009 influenza pandemic and the availability of many external and internal segments of pandemic and non-pandemic sequences offer a unique opportunity to evaluate the performance of machine learning models in discrimination of pandemic from seasonal sequences using mutation positions in all segments...
February 12, 2019: Gene
F Occelli, F Hasselmann, J Bourien, M Eybalin, J L Puel, N Desvignes, B Wiszniowski, J-M Edeline, B Gourévitch
Aging is often considered to affect both the peripheral (i.e. the cochlea) and central (brainstem and thalamus-cortex) auditory systems. We investigated the effects of aging on the cochlea, brainstem and cortex of female Sprague Dawley rats. The auditory nerve threshold remained stable between the ages of 9 and 21 months, as did distortion product otoacoustic emissions and the number of ribbon synapses between inner hair cells and nerve fibers. The first clear signs of aging appeared in the brainstem, in which response amplitude decreased, with thresholds remaining stable until the age of 15 months, and increasing slightly thereafter...
February 12, 2019: Neuroscience
Yong Ju Park, Bhupendra K Sharma, Sachin M Shinde, Min-Seok Kim, Bongkyun Jang, Jae-Hyun Kim, Jong-Hyun Ahn
Large-area, ultra-thin flexible tactile sensors with conformal adherence are becoming crucial for advances in wearable electronics, electronic skins and bio-robotics. However, normal passive tactile sensors suffer from high crosstalk, resulting in inaccurate sensing, which consequently, limits their use in such advanced applications. Active-matrix driven tactile sensors could potentially overcome such hurdles but it demands the high performance and reliable operations of the thin-film-transistor array that could efficiently control integrated pressure gauges...
February 15, 2019: ACS Nano
Hyungseok Jang, Michael Carl, Yajun Ma, Saeed Jerban, Tan Guo, Wei Zhao, Eric Y Chang, Jiang Du
PURPOSE: In ultrashort echo time (UTE) imaging, fat suppression can improve short T2 * contrast but can also reduce short T2 * signals. The conventional two-point Dixon (2p-Dixon) method does not perform well due to short T2 * decay. In this study, we propose a new method to suppress fat for high contrast UTE imaging of short T2 tissues, utilizing a single-point Dixon (1p-Dixon) method. METHODS: The proposed method utilizes dual-echo UTE imaging, where UTE is followed by the second TE, chosen flexibly...
February 15, 2019: NMR in Biomedicine
C Herion, L Egger, R Greif, C Violato
AIM: To investigate whether the CanMEDS-based International Federation of Nurse Anesthetists' Standards could adequately define the scope of practice and reliably be used to train and evaluate Swiss nurse anesthetists (NAs). BACKGROUND: Although nurse anesthetists represent a majority of the global workforce in anesthesia, policies that define the scope of practice are frequently non-existent. In low- and middle-income countries, the lack of anesthesia providers with adequate training is a major challenge...
February 15, 2019: International Nursing Review
John B Keven, Edward D Walker, Patrick J Venta
Genetic profiling has been used to link mosquito bloodmeals to the individual humans, but this analysis has not been done for other mammalian bloodmeals. In this study, we describe a microsatellite-based method for identifying individual pigs in mosquito bloodmeals based on their unique multilocus genotypes. Eleven tetranucleotide microsatellites and a sex-specific marker were selected based on Smith-Waterman DNA sequence alignment scores from the reference genome and primers were designed with features that reduce primer dimers, promote complete adenylation, and enable fluorescent labeling of amplicons...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Medical Entomology
Mohammad S Jalali, Sabina Razak, William Gordon, Eric Perakslis, Stuart Madnick
BACKGROUND: Over the past decade, clinical care has become globally dependent on information technology. The cybersecurity of health care information systems is now an essential component of safe, reliable, and effective health care delivery. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to provide an overview of the literature at the intersection of cybersecurity and health care delivery. METHODS: A comprehensive search was conducted using PubMed and Web of Science for English-language peer-reviewed articles...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Internet Research
David H Abbott, Daniel A Dumesic, Jon E Levine
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) diagnosis comprises combinations of female hyperandrogenism, menstrual irregularity and polycystic ovaries. While it is a familial and highly prevalent endocrine disorder, progress towards a cure is hindered by absence of a definitive pathogenic mechanism and lack of an animal model of naturally occurring PCOS. Areas covered: These include an overview of PCOS and its potential etiology, and an examination of insights gained into its pathogenic origins. Animal models derived from experimentally-induced hyperandrogenism during gestation, or from naturally-occurring PCOS-like traits, most reliably demonstrate reproductive, neuroendocrine and metabolic pathogenesis...
January 31, 2019: Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism
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