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Swine influenza virus

Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Jessica A Belser, Terrence M Tumpey, Taronna R Maines
The relative importance of influenza virus transmission via aerosols is not fully understood, but experimental data suggests that aerosol transmission may represent a critical mode of influenza virus spread among humans. Decades ago, prototypical laboratory strains of influenza were shown to persist in aerosols; however, there is a paucity of data available covering currently circulating influenza viruses, which differ significantly from their predecessors. In this study, we evaluated the longevity of influenza viruses in aerosols generated in the laboratory...
March 15, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Fatima Amanat, Philip Meade, Shirin Strohmeier, Florian Krammer
Influenza viruses of the H4 subtype are widespread in wild birds, circulate in domestic poultry, readily infect mammals, and tolerate the insertion of a polybasic cleavage site. In addition, serological evidence suggests that humans working with poultry are exposed to these viruses. While H4 viruses are not of immediate pandemic concern, there is a lack of knowledge regarding their antigenicity. In order to study viruses of the H4 subtype, we generated and characterized a panel of antibodies that bind a wide variety of H4 hemagglutinins from avian and swine isolates of both the Eurasian and North American lineage...
2019: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Elisa Crisci, Lorenzo Fraile, Maria Montoya
Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is a polymicrobial syndrome that results from a combination of infectious agents, such as environmental stressors, population size, management strategies, age, and genetics. PRDC results in reduced performance as well as increased mortality rates and production costs in the pig industry worldwide. This review focuses on the interactions of two enveloped RNA viruses-porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and swine influenza virus (SwIV)-as major etiological agents that contribute to PRDC within the porcine cellular innate immunity during infection...
March 11, 2019: Veterinary Sciences
Jacqueline M Nolting, Scott D Scheer, Andrew S Bowman
Since 2011, there have been 468 cases of variant influenza A virus (IAV) reported in the United States, many of which were associated with youth swine exhibition. In an effort to mitigate risk associated with exposure to IAV in swine, the "Measures to Minimize Influenza Transmission at Swine Exhibitions" (MtM) was developed for show organizers, volunteers and exhibitors. These recommendations are updated annually; however, it is not clear if youth swine exhibitors are aware of the recommendations; support the recommendations; and would be willing to practise recommended behaviours...
March 6, 2019: Zoonoses and Public Health
Troy J Kaiser, Rex A Smiley, Brian Fergen, Marc Eichmeyer, Marika Genzow
BACKGROUND: Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) causes an acute respiratory disease of swine which results in great economic losses. A bivalent H1N1 and H3N2, NS1-truncated live-attenuated IAV-S vaccine (LAIV, Ingelvac Provenza™ ) has recently become available. OBJECTIVE: Reduction of shedding during an outbreak in the nursery or finisher is an important parameter from an epidemiological control strategy; therefore, a laboratory efficacy study was conducted to evaluate nasal virus shedding when vaccinated pigs were challenged with either heterologous H1N2 or H3N2 strains 12 weeks post-vaccination...
March 6, 2019: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Hyo Moon Cho, Thi Phuong Doan, Thi Kim Quy Ha, Hyun Woo Kim, Ba Wool Lee, Ha Thanh Tung Pham, Tae Oh Cho, Won Keun Oh
Ecklonia cava is edible seaweed that is found in Asian countries, such as Japan and Korea; and, its major components include fucoidan and phlorotannins. Phlorotannins that are isolated from E. cava are well-known to have an antioxidant effect and strong antiviral activity against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which has a high mortality rate in piglets. In this study, the bioactive components were determined based on two different approaches: (i) bio-guided isolation using the antiviral activity against the H1N1 viral strain, which is a representative influenza virus that originates from swine and (ii) high-resolution mass spectrometry-based dereplication, including relative mass defects (RMDs) and HPLC-qTOFMS fragmentation analysis...
March 4, 2019: Marine Drugs
Ravina, Hari Mohan, Paramjeet Singh Gill, Ashok Kumar
Hemagglutinin (HA) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of influenza A subtype virus H1N1 which play a major role in infection to the human by binding the virus to cells with sialic acid on the membrane of upper respiratory tract or erythrocytes. Based on sequence of HA gene an impedimetric biosensor was developed by immobilizing amino labeled single stranded DNA probe onto cysteine modified gold surface of the screen printed electrode for early and rapid detection of H1N1 (Swine flu) in human. The electrochemical impedance was recorded after hybridization of probe with single stranded cDNA (ss-cDNA) of H1N1 patient samples in presence of redox indicator...
February 26, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Marta Sisteré-Oró, Júlia Vergara-Alert, Thomas Stratmann, Sergi López-Serrano, Sonia Pina-Pedrero, Lorena Córdoba, Mónica Pérez-Maillo, Patrícia Pleguezuelos, Enric Vidal, Veljko Veljkovic, Joaquim Segalés, Jens Nielsen, Anders Fomsgaard, Ayub Darji
Swine influenza viruses (SIVs), the causal agents of swine influenza, are not only important to control due to the economic losses in the swine industry, but also can be pandemic pathogens. Vaccination is one of the most relevant strategies to control and prevent influenza infection. Current human vaccines against influenza induce strain-specific immunity and annual update is required due to the virus antigenic shift phenomena. Previously, our group has reported the use of conserved hemagglutinin peptides (HA-peptides) derived from H1-influenza virus as a potential multivalent vaccine candidate...
2019: PloS One
Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Jessica A Belser, Terrence M Tumpey, Taronna R Maines
Emergence of genetically and antigenically diverse strains of influenza to which the human population has no or limited immunity necessitates continuous risk assessments to determine the likelihood of these viruses acquiring adaptations that facilitate sustained human-to-human transmission. As the North American swine H1 virus population has diversified over the last century by means of both antigenic drift and shift, in vivo assessments to study multifactorial traits like mammalian pathogenicity and transmissibility of these emerging influenza viruses are critical...
February 27, 2019: Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
Ting Ouyang, Xinwei Zhang, Xiaohua Liu, Linzhu Ren
Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is the etiological agent that causes porcine circovirus diseases and porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVD/PCVAD), which are present in every major swine-producing country in the world. PCV2 infections may downregulate the host immune system and enhance the infection and replication of other pathogens. However, the exact mechanisms of PCVD/PCVAD are currently unknown. To date, many studies have reported that several cofactors, such as other swine viruses or bacteria, vaccination failure, and stress or crowding, in combination with PCV2, lead to PCVD/PCVAD...
February 21, 2019: Viruses
Wenyan Zhang, Letian Zhang, Wanting He, Xu Zhang, Baiqing Wen, Congcong Wang, Qiuhua Xu, Gairu Li, Jiyong Zhou, Michael Veit, Shuo Su
Influenza C virus (ICV) was first identified in humans and swine, but recently also in cattle, indicating a wider host range and potential threat to both the livestock industry and public health than was originally anticipated. The ICV hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) glycoprotein has multiple functions in the viral replication cycle and is the major determinant of antigenicity. Here, we developed a comparative approach integrating genetics, molecular selection analysis, and structural biology to identify the codon usage and adaptive evolution of ICV...
February 19, 2019: Viruses
Elena Blázquez, Carmen Rodríguez, Jesús Ródenas, Núria Navarro, Cristina Riquelme, Rosa Rosell, Joy Campbell, Joe Crenshaw, Joaquim Segalés, Joan Pujols, Javier Polo
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the SurePure Turbulator ultraviolet-C (UV-C, 254 nm wavelength) irradiation equipment on inactivation of different enveloped and non-enveloped viruses in commercially collected liquid animal plasma. Specifically, Pseudorabies virus (PRV), Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Swine influenza virus (SIV) as enveloped viruses and Porcine parvovirus (PPV), Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) and Senecavirus A (SVA) as non-enveloped viruses, were inoculated in bovine or porcine plasma and subjected to different UV-C irradiation doses (0, 750, 1500, 3000, 6000 and 9000 J/L) using an UV-C device developed for opaque liquid working under turbulent flow...
2019: PloS One
Kumari Asha, Binod Kumar
Influenza viruses, since time immemorial, have been the major respiratory pathogen known to infect a wide variety of animals, birds and reptiles with established lineages. They belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae and cause acute respiratory illness often during local outbreaks or seasonal epidemics and occasionally during pandemics. Recent studies have identified a new genus within the Orthomyxoviridae family. This newly identified pathogen, D/swine/Oklahoma/1334/2011 (D/OK), first identified in pigs with influenza-like illness was classified as the influenza D virus (IDV) which is distantly related to the previously characterized human influenza C virus...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Joshua D Powell, Eugenio J Abente, Mia K Torchetti, Mary L Killian, Amy L Vincent
In 2017, outbreaks of low and highly pathogenic avian H7N9 viruses were reported in four States in the United States. In total, over 270 000 birds died or were culled, causing significant economic loss. The potential for avian-to-swine transmission of the U.S. avian H7N9 was unknown. In an experimental challenge in swine using a representative low pathogenic H7N9 (A/chicken/Tennessee/17-007431-3/2017; LPAI TN/17) isolated from these events, no infectious virus in the upper and minimal virus in the lower respiratory tract was detected, nor was lung pathology or evidence of transmission in pigs observed, indicating that the virus cannot efficiently infect swine...
February 13, 2019: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Alexander Nagy, Tomáš Jiřinec, Helena Jiřincová, Lenka Černíková, Martina Havlíčková
The ongoing evolution of microbial pathogens represents a significant issue in diagnostic PCR/qPCR. Many assays are burdened with false negativity due to mispriming and/or probe-binding failures. Therefore, PCR/qPCR assays used in the laboratory should be periodically re-assessed in silico on public sequences to evaluate the ability to detect actually circulating strains and to infer potentially escaping variants. In the work presented we re-assessed a RT-qPCR assay for the universal detection of influenza A (IA) viruses currently recommended by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza...
February 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Eugenio J Abente, Daniela S Rajao, Phillip C Gauger, Amy L Vincent
Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) is an important pathogen in pigs in the United States, in addition to posing a potential risk to humans through zoonotic events. Intervention strategies continue to be explored to better control virus circulation. Improved surveillance efforts has led to significantly increased sequence data available on circulating strains, vastly improving our understanding of the genetic and antigenic diversity of IAV-S. IAV-S in North America is characterized by repeated spillover events of human viruses into pigs followed by genetic and antigenic diversification...
February 2, 2019: Vaccine
Karren Prost, Harold Kloeze, Shamir Mukhi, Katie Bozek, Zvonimir Poljak, Samira Mubareka
BACKGROUND: Influenza A virus in swine is of significant importance to human and veterinary public health. Environmental sampling techniques that prove practical would enhance surveillance for influenza viruses in swine. The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of bioaerosol and surface sampling for the detection of influenza virus in swine barns with a secondary objective of piloting a mobile application for data collection. METHODS: Sampling was conducted at a large swine operation between July 2016 and August 2017...
February 4, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Peter Thielen, Jacqueline M Nolting, Sarah W Nelson, Thomas S Mehoke, Craig Howser, Andrew S Bowman
Influenza D virus was first described in 2011 from a pig with respiratory disease; however, recent evidence indicates that cattle are the major viral reservoir. Here, we describe the genome sequence of the eighth complete swine-origin influenza D virus deposited into GenBank, D/swine/Kentucky/17TOSU1262/2017, which was collected at a 2017 swine exhibition.
January 2019: Microbiology Resource Announcements
Oluwagbenga A Adeola, Babasola O Olugasa, Benjamin O Emikpe, Raphael D Folitse
Influenza viruses are frequently transmitted between pigs and their handlers, and among pig handlers. However, reports on socio-environmental variables as potential risk factors associated with transmission of influenza in West African swine production facilities are very scarce. Syndromic survey for influenza was therefore conducted in Ibadan, Nigeria, and Kumasi, Ghana, in order to identify and elucidate selected socio-environmental variables that may contribute to the occurrence and distribution of influenza-like illness (ILI) among swine industry workers...
January 24, 2019: Zoonoses and Public Health
Elias Salem, Sara Hägglund, Hervé Cassard, Tifenn Corre, Katarina Näslund, Charlotte Foret, David Gauthier, Anne Pinard, Maxence Delverdier, Siamak Zohari, Jean-François Valarcher, Mariette Ducatez, Gilles Meyer
The recently discovered influenza D virus (IDV) of the Orthomyxoviridae family has been detected in swine and ruminants with a worldwide distribution. Cattle are considered to be the primary host and reservoir and previous studies suggested a tropism of IDV for the upper respiratory tract and a putative role in the Bovine Respiratory Disease complex. This study aimed to characterize the pathogenicity of IDV in naive calves, as well as the ability of this virus to transmit by air. Eight naive calves were infected by aerosol with a recent French isolate, D/bovine/France/5920/2014...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Virology
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