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Georgios A Maragkos, Ajith J Thomas
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March 15, 2019: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
HaiyanZhang, Jing Yang, Tianyu Xiang, Shuang Sun, Xiusong Wang, Xuenan Wang, Min Li, Mengnan Guo, Qingmei Jia, Dadian Chen, Min Wang
Recent studies on the impact of Parkinson's disease (PD) on the thalamostriatal pathway have mainly focused on the structural and functional changes in the thalamus projection to the striatum. Alterations in the electrophysiological activity of the thalamostriatal circuit in PD have not been intensively studied. To further investigate this circuit, parafascicular nucleus (PF) single-unit spikes and dorsal striatum local field potential (LFP) activities were simultaneously recorded in control and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats during inattentive rest or treadmill walking states...
February 18, 2019: Neuroscience
Srikant S Chakravarthi, Amin B Kassam, Melanie B Fukui, Alejandro Monroy-Sosa, Nichelle Rothong, Joseph Cunningham, Jonathan E Jennings, Neil Guenther, Jeremy Connelly, Tobias Kaemmerer, Kenneth C Nash, Mark Lindsay, Janie Rissell, Juanita M Celix, Richard A Rovin
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic and microneurosurgical approaches to third ventricular lesions are commonly performed under general anesthesia. OBJECTIVE: To report our initial experience with awake transsulcal parafascicular corridor surgery (TPCS) of the third ventricle and its safety, feasibility, and limitations. METHODS: A total of 12 cases are reviewed: 6 colloid cysts, 2 central neurocytomas, 1 papillary craniopharyngioma, 1 basal ganglia glioblastoma, 1 thalamic glioblastoma, and 1 ependymal cyst...
February 12, 2019: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Asami Tanimura, Yijuan Du, Jyothisri Kondapalli, David L Wokosin, D James Surmeier
The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are thought to stem from an imbalance in the activity of striatal direct- and indirect-pathway spiny projection neurons (SPNs). Disease-induced alterations in the activity of networks controlling SPNs could contribute to this imbalance. One of these networks is anchored by the parafascicular nucleus (PFn) of the thalamus. To determine the role of the PFn in striatal PD pathophysiology, optogenetic, chemogenetic, and electrophysiological tools were used in ex vivo slices from transgenic mice with region-specific Cre recombinase expression...
February 6, 2019: Neuron
Massimo Marano, Simone Migliore, Ferdinando Squitieri, Angelo Insola, Eugenio Scarnati, Paolo Mazzone
Tourette syndrome is a rare neuropsychiatric disorder affecting the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical system. The disease manifests in childhood with tics and various psychiatric comorbidities. Cases of refractory Tourette syndrome are valuable candidates for functional neurosurgery. The thalamic centromedian-parafascicular complex is an experimental target that shows a promising role in Tourette syndrome deep brain stimulation, due to pathophysiologic evidences. We have shown on a long term follow-up, that thalamic deep brain stimulation, targeted on the centromedian-parafascicular complex, could modulate motor (i...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Oded Goren, Christoph J Griessenauer, Christian O Bohan, Christopher M Berry, Clemens M Schirmer
BACKGROUND: The minimally invasive parafascicular approach provides a surgical corridor to reach deep lesions with minimal impact on the surrounding brain tissue. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of this approach utilizing the image-guided tubular BrainPath system (NICO Corp, Indianapolis, Indiana) for the resection of deep and subcortical supratentorial cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs). METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients who presented with subcortical CCMs treated with the BrainPath system...
December 19, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Haiyan Zhang, Jing Yang, Xuenan Wang, Xiaomeng Yao, Hongyu Han, Yunfeng Gao, Hongli Chang, Tianyu Xiang, Shuang Sun, Yanan Wang, Xiusong Wang, Min Wang
The thalamostriatal pathway is implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD); however, PD-related changes in the relationship between oscillatory activity in the centromedian-parafascicular complex (CM/Pf, or the Pf in rodents) and the dorsal striatum (DS) remain unclear. Therefore, we simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFPs) in both the Pf and DS of hemiparkinsonian and control rats during epochs of rest or treadmill walking. The dopamine-lesioned rats showed increased LFP power in the beta band (12 Hz-35 Hz) in the Pf and DS during both epochs, but decreased LFP power in the delta (0...
November 27, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Edgar Díaz-Hernández, Rubén Contreras-López, Asai Sánchez-Fuentes, Luis Rodríguez-Sibrían, Josué O Ramírez-Jarquín, Fatuel Tecuapetla
One of the main inputs driving striatal activity is the thalamostriatal projection. While the hypothesis postulating that the different thalamostriatal projections contribute differentially to shape the functions of the striatum is largely accepted, existing technical limitations have hampered efforts to prove it. Here, through the use of electrophysiological recordings of antidromically photo-identified thalamostriatal neurons and the optogenetic inhibition of thalamostriatal terminals, we identify that the thalamostriatal projections from the parafascicular and the ventroposterior regions of the thalamus contribute to the smooth initiation and the appropriate execution of a sequence of movements...
November 7, 2018: Neuron
Erica J Melief, Jonathan W McKinley, Jonathan Y Lam, Nicole M Whiteley, Alec W Gibson, John F Neumaier, Charles W Henschen, Richard D Palmiter, Nigel S Bamford, Martin Darvas
Parkinson's disease (PD) is primarily associated with the degeneration of midbrain dopamine neurons, but it is now appreciated that pathological processes like Lewy-body inclusions and cell loss affect several other brain regions, including the central lateral (CL) and centromedian/parafascicular (CM/PF) thalamic regions. These thalamic glutamatergic neurons provide a non-cortical excitatory input to the dorsal striatum, a major projection field of dopamine neurons. To determine how thalamostriatal signaling may contribute to cognitive and motor abnormalities found in PD, we used a viral vector approach to generate mice with loss of thalamostriatal glutamate signaling specifically restricted to the dorsal striatum (CAV2Cre - Slc17a6 lox/lox mice)...
2018: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
Yukiko Kano, Natsumi Matsuda, Maiko Nonaka, Miyuki Fujio, Toshiaki Kono, Takanobu Kaido
Here, we assess sensory phenomena (SP) and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in two patients with refractory Tourette syndrome (TS) before and after deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting the centromedian-parafascicular complex (CM-Pfc)-ventral oral nuclei of the bilateral thalami. Based on changes in these clinical features, we also aimed to elucidate useful information regarding the use of DBS in TS. We administered the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) to assess tics, the Premonitory Urge for Tics Scale (PUTS) for premonitory urges, the University of São Paulo Sensory Phenomena Scale (USP-SPS) for broader SP, the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS) for OCS, and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale for global functioning...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Alejandro Monroy-Sosa, Jonathan Jennings, Srikant Chakravarthi, Melanie B Fukui, Juanita Celix, Nathaniel Kojis, Mark Lindsay, Sarika Walia, Richard Rovin, Amin Kassam
BACKGROUND: A number of vertical prolongations of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, which we refer to as the vertical rami (Vr), arise at the level of the supramarginal gyrus, directed vertically toward the parietal lobe. OBJECTIVE: To provide the first published complete description of the white matter tracts (WMT) of the Vr, their relationship to the intraparietal and parieto-occipital sulci (IPS-POS complex), and their importance in neurosurgical approaches to the parietal lobe...
June 5, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Ryoong Huh, In-Uk Song, Moonyoung Chung
The purpose of this study was to evaluate postoperative changes in the neuropsychological function of cervical dystonia patients who had undergone deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) and to investigate how DBS affects neuropsychological function by altering the neural networks of the brain. In 12 cervical dystonia patients, the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) was used to measure the preoperative and postoperative status of cervical dystonia, and the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery was used to gather neuropsychological data...
August 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Shigeki Kato, Ryoji Fukabori, Kayo Nishizawa, Kana Okada, Nozomu Yoshioka, Masateru Sugawara, Yuko Maejima, Kenju Shimomura, Masahiro Okamoto, Satoshi Eifuku, Kazuto Kobayashi
Learning processes contributing to appropriate selection and flexible switching of behaviors are mediated through the dorsal striatum, a key structure of the basal ganglia circuit. The major inputs to striatal subdivisions are provided from the intralaminar thalamic nuclei, including the central lateral nucleus (CL) and parafascicular nucleus (PF). Thalamostriatal neurons in the PF modulate the acquisition and performance of stimulus-response learning. Here, we address the roles of the CL thalamostriatal neurons in learning processes by using a selective neural pathway targeting technique...
February 27, 2018: Cell Reports
Joana I Soares, Ana R Afonso, Gisela H Maia, Nikolai V Lukoyanov
Prior studies showed that epilepsy can be associated with reorganization of the septohippocampal cholinergic fiber system. Using the kainate model of epilepsy, we wished to further examine the structural integrity of the mesopontine tegmental nuclei (pedunculopontine, PPN, and laterodorsal, LDT), which provide the cholinergic input to the thalamus. It was found that the total numbers of the PPN and LDT cells immunoreactive to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter did not differ between control and epileptic rats...
April 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Jia Liu, Helmut Heinsen, Lea T Grinberg, Eduardo Alho, Edson Amaro, Carlos A Pasqualucci, Udo Rüb, Wilfred den Dunnen, Thomas Arzberger, Christoph Schmitz, Maren Kiessling, Benedikt Bader, Adrian Danek
INTRODUCTION: Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) and Huntington's disease (HD) are neurodegenerative conditions that share clinical and neuropathological features, despite their distinct genetic etiologies. METHODS: In order to compare these neuropathologies, serial gallocyanin-stained brain sections from three subjects with ChAc were analyzed and compared with our previous studies of eight HD cases, in addition to three hemispheres from two male controls. RESULTS: Astrogliosis was much greater in the ChAc striatum, as compared to that found in HD, with dramatic increase in total striatal glia numbers and the number of glia per striatal neuron...
April 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Kyuhyun Choi, Elizabeth N Holly, M Felicia Davatolhagh, Kevin T Beier, Marc V Fuccillo
The dorsomedial striatum, a key site of reward-sensitive motor output, receives extensive afferent input from cortex, thalamus and midbrain. These projections are integrated by striatal microcircuits containing both spiny projection neurons and local circuit interneurons. To explore target cell specificity of these projections, we compared inputs onto D1-dopamine receptor-positive spiny neurons, parvalbumin-positive fast-spiking interneurons and somatostatin-positive low-threshold-spiking interneurons, using cell type-specific rabies virus tracing and optogenetic-mediated projection neuron recruitment in mice...
January 23, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Daniele Impieri, Michela Gamberini, Lauretta Passarelli, Marcello G P Rosa, Claudio Galletti
The exposed surface of the superior parietal lobule in macaque brain contains two architectonically defined areas named PEc and PE. The aim of the present study is the characterization of thalamic afferents of these two areas. For this purpose, retrograde neuronal tracers were injected, or placed in crystal form, in areas PEc and PE. We found that the two areas show a similar pattern of thalamic inputs, mainly originating from Lateral Posterior (LP), Pulvinar (Pul), Ventral Posterior Lateral (VPL), and Ventral Lateral (VL) nuclei, all structures known to be involved in visual, somatosensory, and/or sensorimotor processing...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Sara Marceglia, Manuela Rosa, Domenico Servello, Mauro Porta, Sergio Barbieri, Elena Moro, Alberto Priori
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as a novel therapy for the treatment of several movement and neuropsychiatric disorders, and may also be suitable for the treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS). The main DBS targets used to date in patients with TS are located within the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit involved in the pathophysiology of this syndrome. They include the ventralis oralis/centromedian-parafascicular (Vo/CM-Pf) nucleus of the thalamus and the nucleus accumbens. Current DBS treatments deliver continuous electrical stimulation and are not designed to adapt to the patient's symptoms, thereby contributing to unwanted side effects...
December 23, 2017: Brain Sciences
Whitney S Griggs, Hyoung F Kim, Ali Ghazizadeh, M Gabriela Costello, Kathryn M Wall, Okihide Hikosaka
Anatomically distinct areas within the basal ganglia encode flexible- and stable-value memories for visual objects (Hikosaka et al., 2014), but an important question remains: do they receive inputs from the same or different brain areas or neurons? To answer this question, we first located flexible and stable value-coding areas in the caudate head (CDh) and caudate tail (CDt) of two rhesus macaque monkeys, and then injected different retrograde tracers into these areas of each monkey. We found that CDh and CDt received different inputs from several cortical and subcortical areas including temporal cortex, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, amygdala, claustrum and thalamus...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Andreas Hintzen, Esther Annegret Pelzer, Marc Tittgemeyer
Cerebellum and basal ganglia are reciprocally interconnected with the neocortex via oligosynaptic loops. The signal pathways of these loops predominantly converge in motor areas of the frontal cortex and are mainly segregated on subcortical level. Recent evidence, however, indicates subcortical interaction of these systems. We have reviewed literature that addresses the question whether, and to what extent, projections of main output nuclei of basal ganglia (reticular part of the substantia nigra, internal segment of the globus pallidus) and cerebellum (deep cerebellar nuclei) interact with each other in the thalamus...
March 2018: Brain Structure & Function
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