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breast cancer therapy

Faezeh Ghasemi, Parisa Zia Sarabi, Seyyed Shamsadin Athari, Abdulreza Esmaielzadeha
Breast cancer is known as a most prevalent cancer and second deadly cancer, among women worldwide. Due to the high incidence rate of breast cancer and limitations of conventional therapy it seemed essential to look for new targets in cancer cells and directly target them such as target therapy on breast cancer stem cells. In this review we indicate some of therapeutic uses of cancer stem cells in breast cancer. Some strategies are targeting surface specific markers and activated signaling pathways in their microenvironment such as Notch, Hedgehog, Wnt/b-catenin, PI3K/Akt, NF-kB, BMP and TGF-β and their maintenance and drug resistance, using various miRNAs, enhancement of CSCs apoptosis, differentiation therapy, blocking epithelial to mesenchymal transition and using different natural compounds...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Nuworza Kugbey, Anna Meyer-Weitz, Kwaku Oppong Asante
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the direct and indirect influences of health literacy and access to health information on the quality of life among 205 women living with breast cancer in Ghana. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey design was employed. The interviewer-administered instrument included the health literacy scale, questions on access and satisfaction with healthcare information, depression and anxiety scale, and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast Cancer...
February 11, 2019: Patient Education and Counseling
Antonio Ríos, Jose Manuel Rodríguez, Noelia Ibañez, Antonio Piñero, Pascual Parrilla
INTRODUCTION: There is no standard procedure for the detection of the sentinel node (SN) in thyroid disease. However, the recent detection of the SN using a paramagnetic tracer is proving to be useful in breast cancer and melanoma. The objective was to assess the utility of super paramagnetic iron oxide tracer for the intraoperative detection of the SN in patients with papillary thyroid cancer without nodal involvement in the preoperative study. METHOD: A single center, prospective pilot study of a class IIa medical device (a paramagnetic tracer)...
February 13, 2019: Cirugía Española
Madeleine C Strach, Thiru Prasanna, Youlia M Kirova, Severine Alran, Sandra O'Toole, Jane M Beith, Philip Poortmans, Catriona M McNeil, Susan Carroll
Modern breast cancer care is a complex multidisciplinary undertaking in which the integrated function of multiple constituent parts is critical, and where changes to one therapeutic component may profoundly influence the delivery and outcomes of another. Oncoplastic and reconstructive breast surgery has evolved in the era of longer survival rates for women with breast cancer and aims to enhance oncological and cosmetic outcomes. However, concurrently there has been an expansion in the indications for post-mastectomy radiation therapy (Abdulkarim et al...
February 2019: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Angelena Crown, Ruby Laskin, Flavio G Rocha, Janie Grumley
INTRODUCTION: Presence of multiple lesions and/or tumor span ≥5 cm are traditional indications for mastectomy. Patient desire for breast conservation has increased the interest in extreme oncoplastic breast conserving surgery (EOBCS) to avoid mastectomy; however, perioperative outcomes in this population have not been well described. METHODS: This is an observational cohort of breast cancer patients with multiple lesions and disease span ≥5 cm who underwent EOBCS...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Surgery
Hsin-Hung Chen, I-Lin Lu, Te-I Liu, Yuan-Chung Tsai, Wen-Hsuan Chiang, Sung-Chyr Lin, Hsin-Cheng Chiu
To overcome low therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy against multidrug resistance (MDR) breast cancer, a combination therapy system based upon functionalized polymer nanoparticles comprising poly(γ-glutamic acid)-g-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (γ-PGA-g-PLGA) as the major component was developed. The NPs were loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) and indocyanine green (ICG) for dual modality cancer treatment and coated with cholesterol-PEG (C-PEG) for MDR abrogation in treatment of human MDR breast cancer. The in vitro cellular uptake of the DOX/ICG loaded nanoparticles (DI-NPs) by MDR cancer cells was significantly enhanced owing to effective inhibition of the P-gp activity by C-PEG and γ-PGA receptor-mediated endocytosis...
February 5, 2019: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Weijing Liao, Cheng Li, Yulan Tang, Fan Huang, Huimin Kuang, Shuolin Liang, Yi Yang
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). A typical finding on spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of NMOSD is longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). However, patients with NMOSD presenting with short-segment transverse myelitis (STM) during myelitis attacks associated with breast cancer are uncommon. We report a case of a 35-year-old woman with STM and left eye optic neuritis. The patient was positive for serum aquaporin-4 antibodies (AQP4-IgG), and a biopsy of the left breast showed invasive ductal carcinoma...
February 8, 2019: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Yueting Peng, Zhongyuan Chen, Yu Chen, Shun Li, Ying Jiang, Hong Yang, Chunhui Wu, Fengming You, Chuan Zheng, Jie Zhu, Youhua Tan, Xiang Qin, Yiyao Liu
Tumors are characterized by extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and stiffening. The importance of ECM stiffness in cancer is well known. However, the biomechanical behavior of tumor cells and the underlying mechanotransduction pathways remain unclear. Here, we used polyacrylamide (PAA) substrates to simulate tissue stiffness at different progress stages of breast cancer in vitro, and we observed that moderate substrate stiffness promoted breast cancer cell motility. The substrate stiffness directly activated integrin β1 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which accelerate focal adhesion (FA) maturation and induce the downstream cascades of intracellular signals of the RhoA/ROCK pathway...
February 13, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Sharad S Singhal, Ravi Salgia, Sulabh Singhal, David Horne, Sanjay Awasthi
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Due to its complexity in nature, effective BC treatment can encounter many challenges. The human RALBP1 gene encodes a 76-kDa splice variant protein, RLIP (ral-binding protein1, RalBP1), a stress-protective mercapturic acid pathway (MAP) transporter protein, that also plays a key role in regulating clathrin-dependent endocytosis (CDE) as a Ral effector. Growing evidence shows that targeting RLIP may be an effective strategy in cancer therapy, as RLIP is over-expressed in multiple cancers and is known to induce resistance to apoptosis and chemotherapeutic drugs...
February 13, 2019: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Reviews on cancer
Kamal Ahmed, Alexey Koval, Jiabin Xu, Alexandre Bodmer, Vladimir L Katanaev
Wnt signaling is overactivated in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and several other cancers, and its suppression emerges as an effective anticancer treatment. However, no drugs targeting the Wnt pathway exist on the market nor in advanced clinical trials. Here we provide a comprehensive body of preclinical evidence that an anti-leprotic drug clofazimine is effective against TNBC. Clofazimine specifically inhibits canonical Wnt signaling in a panel of TNBC cells in vitro. In several mouse xenograft models of TNBC, clofazimine efficiently suppresses tumor growth, correlating with in vivo inhibition of the Wnt pathway in the tumors...
February 13, 2019: Cancer Letters
Masuyo Miyake, Akimitsu Yamada, Kentaro Miyake, Itaru Endo
BACKGROUND: The esophageal metastasis of breast cancer is rare. Moreover, it is extremely unusual for patients to experience the symptoms of esophageal metastasis during their lifetimes. We present a case of dysphagia caused by esophageal metastasis after a long interval following a primary mastectomy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 77-year-old woman with a history of heterochronous bilateral breast cancer and under treatment for pleural dissemination recurrence originating from right breast cancer complained of dysphagia...
February 15, 2019: Surgical Case Reports
Arrvind Raghunath, Kunal Desai, Manmeet S Ahluwalia
In the past, the standard of care for treatment of BM was whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and surgery. There has been a greater role for medical therapies in the last two decades due to the discovery of driver mutations and corresponding targeted therapies. These innovations have dramatically altered the approach to treating these patients. Some of the important mutations include epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) mutations in small cell lung cancer, human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) mutation in breast cancer, and BRAF mutation in melanoma...
February 15, 2019: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Kehong Zheng, Zetao Chen, Haizhan Feng, Ying Chen, Cheng Zhang, Jinlong Yu, Yunfeng Luo, Liang Zhao, Xiancheng Jiang, Fujun Shi
Breast cancer is the most common type of carcinoma in women worldwide, but the mechanisms underlying tumour development and progression remain unclear. Sphingomyelin synthase 2 (SGMS2) is a crucial regulator involved in ceramide (Cer) and sphingomyelin (SM) homoeostasis that is mostly studied for its role in lipid metabolism. Our primary study indicated that high SGMS2 expression is associated with breast cancer metastasis. Gain- and loss-of-function assays in vitro and in vivo revealed that SGMS2 promotes cancer cell proliferation by suppressing apoptosis through a Cer-associated pathway and promotes cancer cell invasiveness by enhancing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) initiation through the TGF-β/Smad signalling pathway...
February 15, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
Cecilia Roux, Soode Moghadas Jafari, Rahul Shinde, Gordon Duncan, David W Cescon, Jennifer Silvester, Mandy F Chu, Kelsey Hodgson, Thorsten Berger, Andrew Wakeham, Luis Palomero, Mar Garcia-Valero, Miguel A Pujana, Tak W Mak, Tracy L McGaha, Paola Cappello, Chiara Gorrini
The combination of immune checkpoint blockade with chemotherapy is currently under investigation as a promising strategy for the treatment of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the most prominent component of the breast cancer microenvironment because they influence tumor progression and the response to therapies. Here we show that macrophages acquire an immunosuppressive phenotype and increase the expression of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) when treated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) inducers such as the glutathione synthesis inhibitor, buthionine sulphoximine (BSO), and paclitaxel...
February 15, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yusuf A Haggag, Kyle B Matchett, Robert A Falconer, Mohammad Isreb, Jason Jones, Ahmed Faheem, Paul McCarron, Mohamed El-Tanani
The delivery of anticancer agents to their subcellular sites of action is a significant challenge for effective cancer therapy. Peptides, which are integral to several oncogenic pathways, have significant potential to be utilised as cancer therapeutics due to their selectivity, high potency and lack of normal cell toxicity. Novel Ras protein-Regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (Ran-RCC1) inhibitory peptides designed to interact with Ran, a novel therapeutic target in breast cancer, were delivered by entrapment into polyethylene glycol-poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) PEG-PLGA polymeric nanoparticles (NPs)...
February 14, 2019: Cancers
Carmen Criscitiello, Giulia Viale, Giuseppe Curigliano
The immune system plays a dual role of host-protecting and tumor-promoting, as elegantly expressed by the 'cancer immunoediting' hypothesis. Although breast cancer has not been traditionally considered to be immunogenic, recently there is accumulating and solid evidence on the association between immune system and breast cancer. To mount an effective anti-tumor response, host immunosurveillance must recognize tumor-specific epitopes, thus defining the antigenicity of a tumor. Neoantigens are mutant cancer peptides that arise as terminal products of the expression of somatic cancer mutations...
February 7, 2019: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Longbing Ling, Muhammad Ismail, Yawei Du, Chen Yao, Xinsong Li
Liposomes have emerged as a fascinating nanocarriers for the delivery of cancer therapeutics. However, their efficacy for cancer therapy is reduced because of the serum-instability and incomplete drug release. In this study, a novel disulfide cross-linked liposomes (CLs) assembled from dimeric lipoic acid-derived glycerophosphorylcholine (di-LA-PC) conjugate was developed. The conjugate was synthesized by a facial esterification of lipoic acid (LA) and glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC) and characterized by MS, 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Chunlai Feng, Haisheng Zhang, Jiaming Chen, Siqi Wang, Yuanrong Xin, Yang Qu, Qi Zhang, Wei Ji, Fumiyoshi Yamashita, Mengjie Rui, Ximing Xu
Combination therapy is a promising treatment for certain advanced drug-resistant cancers. Although effective inhibition of various tumor cells was reported in vitro, combination treatment requires improvement in vivo due to uncontrolled ratiometric delivery. In this study, a tumor-targeting lipodisk nanoparticle formulation was developed for ratiometric loading and the transportation of two hydrophobic model drugs, doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PTX), in one single platform. Furthermore, a slightly acidic pH-sensitive peptide (SAPSP) incorporated into lipodisks effectively enhanced the tumor-targeting and cell internalization...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Pratheeba Palasuberniam, Daniel Kraus, Matthew Mansi, Alexander Braun, Richard Howley, Kenneth A Myers, Bin Chen
Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a prodrug that is metabolized in the heme biosynthesis pathway to produce protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) for tumor fluorescence detection and photodynamic therapy (PDT). The iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO) has been widely used to enhance PpIX accumulation by inhibiting the iron-dependent bioconversion of PpIX to heme, a reaction catalyzed by ferrochelatase (FECH). Tumor response to DFO treatment is known to be highly variable and some tumors even show no response. Given the fact that tumors often exhibit reduced FECH expression/enzymatic activity, we examined how reducing FECH level affected the DFO enhancement effect...
February 15, 2019: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Yi-Xin Jiang, Yan Chen, Yue Yang, Xiao-Xia Chen, Dan-Dan Zhang
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) with M2 phenotype play an essential role in tumor microenvironment (TME) during the progression and development of numerous cancers and associated with poor prognosis. Thus, regulation of TAMs polarization emerged as a new strategy for tumor immune therapy. According to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory, herbs with Qi-tonifying character are involved in improving the defense capacity of immune system. In this study, we screened extracts and ingredients from five Qi-tonifying herbs exhibiting an inhibitory effect on M2 polarization of murine macrophages RAW264...
2019: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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