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Peipei Zhang, Shuangshuang Li, Pengcheng Zhao, Zhenfei Guo, Shaoyun Lu
The role of nitric oxide (NO) signaling in the cold acclimation of forage legumes was investigated in this study. Medicago sativa subsp. falcata (L.) Arcang. (hereafter M. falcata ) is a forage legume with a higher cold tolerance than Medicago truncatula , a model legume. Cold acclimation treatment resulted in increased cold tolerance in both M. falcata and M. truncatula , which was suppressed by pretreatment with tungstate, an inhibitor of nitrate reductase (NR), and 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO), a scavenger of NO...
March 19, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ningbo Zeng, Zhijian Yang, Zhifei Zhang, Longxing Hu, Liang Chen
Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa ) is the most widely grown and most important forage crop in the world. However, alfalfa is susceptible to waterlogging stress, which is the major constraint for its cultivation area and crop production. So far, the molecular mechanism of alfalfa response to the waterlogging is largely unknown. Here, comparative transcriptome combined with proteomic analyses of two cultivars (M12, tolerant; M25, sensitive) of alfalfa showing contrasting tolerance to waterlogging were performed to understand the mechanism of alfalfa in response to waterlogging stress...
March 18, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Na Guo, Dawei Yang, Changxi Liu, Han Yan, Xiaofang Yang, Xiaoqin Wang, Bin Fan
The main purpose of our study was to identify and compare secondary metabolites due to different mowing in order to make better use of Huaiyang Medicago polymorpha. The metabolite profiling of Huaiyang Medicago polymorpha with two mowing crops was performed using a rapid resolution liquid chromatography system with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (RRLC-QTOFMS) followed by multivariate statistical analyses. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) results showed a clear distinction between two mowing crops...
March 19, 2019: Natural Product Research
Carlos Sanchez-Arcos, Marco Kai, Aleš Svatoš, Jonathan Gershenzon, Grit Kunert
The pea aphid ( Acyrthosiphon pisum ), a phloem-sucking insect, has undergone a rapid radiation together with the domestication and anthropogenic range expansion of several of its legume host plants. This insect species is a complex of at least 15 genetically different host races that can all develop on the universal host plant Vicia faba . However, each host race is specialized on a particular plant species, such as Medicago sativa , Trifolium pratense , or Pisum sativum , which makes it an attractive model insect to study ecological speciation...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Vasiliki Skiada, Antonella Faccio, Nektarios Kavroulakis, Andrea Genre, Paola Bonfante, Kalliope K Papadopoulou
Plant cellular responses to endophytic filamentous fungi are scarcely reported, with the majority of described colonization processes in plant-fungal interactions referring to either pathogens or true symbionts. Fusarium solani strain K (FsK) is a root endophyte of Solanum lycopersicum, which protects against root and foliar pathogens. Here, we investigated the association of FsK with two legumes (Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula) and report on colonization patterns and plant responses during the establishment of the interaction...
March 11, 2019: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Zafar Iqbal Khan, Hareem Safdar, Kafeel Ahmad, Kinza Wajid, Humayun Bashir, Ilker Ugulu, Yunus Dogan
The irrigation with sewage water can be useful if it has no negative effects on food crop yield, soil pollution, and health of humans. However, it includes various types of contaminants like heavy metals that pollute the soil and crops. In this regard, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible health risks of heavy metals in forages. Forages both of summer and winter were grown with different water treatments (sewage water and tap water) in Department of Botany, University of Sargodha. The concentration of iron (Fe) in water, soil, and plant samples was determined...
March 12, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Li Wen, Yuanling Chen, Elise Schnabel, Ashley Crook, Julia Frugoli
Background: Tissue culture transformation of plants has an element of art to it, with protocols passed on between labs but often not directly compared. As Medicago truncatula has become popular as a model system for legumes, rapid transformation is critical, and many protocols exist, with varying results. Results: The M. truncatula ecotypes, R108 and A17, were utilized to compare the effect of a modification to a previously used protocol based on shoot explants on the percentage of transformed plants produced from calli...
2019: Plant Methods
Izabela Sańko-Sawczenko, Barbara Łotocka, Jakub Mielecki, Hanna Rekosz-Burlaga, Weronika Czarnocka
Drought is one of the major environmental factors limiting biomass and seed yield production in agriculture. In this research, we focused on plants from the Fabaceae family, which has a unique ability for the establishment of symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and are relatively susceptible to water limitation. We have presented the changes in nitrogenase activity and global gene expression occurring in Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus root nodules during water deficit. Our results proved a decrease in the efficiency of nitrogen fixation, as well as extensive changes in plant and bacterial transcriptomes, shortly after watering cessation...
March 9, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Liming Lai, Lijun Chen, Mingqing Zheng, Lianhe Jiang, Jihua Zhou, Yuanrun Zheng, Hideyuki Shimizu
Due to significant decreases in precipitation in northern China, knowledge of the response of seed germination and plant growth characteristics to key limiting factors is essential for vegetation restoration. We examined seed germination under different temperatures and water potentials, and we examined seedling growth under different amounts of water supply. Experiments were carried out in automatic temperature-, humidity-, and light-controlled growth chambers. Under low water potentials, the final germination percentages of four herbaceous species were high, while seed germination of the shrub species Caragana microphylla was significantly inhibited...
February 2019: Ecology and Evolution
Neji Mahmoudi, Cristina Cruz, Mosbah Mahdhi, Mohamed Mars, Maria F Caeiro
Mycorrhizal symbioses are considered indicators of ecosystem biodiversity. However, their diversity and relevance in arid and semi-arid ecosystems are poorly understood. This study addressed this subject, the main objective being to evaluate arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) diversity and heterogeneity in a semi-arid region. Samples of bulk and rhizosphere soil and fine roots of Medicago truncatula were collected at four different sites with the same aridity index (6.1), in Bou-Hedma National Park, Tunisia, a semi-arid ecosystem...
2019: PeerJ
Butuo Zhu, Hui Li, Yifeng Hou, Pengcheng Zhang, Xiuzhi Xia, Na Wang, Hui Wang, Kirankumar S Mysore, Jiangqi Wen, Yanxi Pei, Lifang Niu, Hao Lin
Angiosperms integrate a multitude of endogenous and environmental signals to control floral development, thereby ensuring reproductive success. Here, we report the identification of AGAMOUS AND TERMINAL FLOWER (AGTFL), a novel regulator of floral development in Medicago truncatula. Mutation of AGTFL led to the transformation of carpels and stamens into numerous sepals and petals and altered primary inflorescence identity. AGTFL encodes a nucleus-localized protein containing a putative Myb/SANT-like DNA-binding domain and a PKc kinase domain...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Florian Philippe, Isabelle Verdu, Marie-Christine Morère-Le Paven, Anis M Limami, Elisabeth Planchet
Early stages of plant development are highly susceptible to environmental cues, and seedlings have to develop sophisticated mechanisms to sense and respond to abiotic stresses. We have previously identified that abscisic acid (ABA), nitric oxide (NO) and modulation of nitrogen metabolism are involved in adaptive responses in Medicago truncatula seedlings under water deficit stress. Here, we investigated whether glutamate receptor-like channels (GLRs) played a role in the developmental physiological processes of Medicago seedlings during post-germination after a short-term water deficit stress...
February 26, 2019: Journal of Plant Physiology
Debapriya Rajlakshmi Das, Beatrix Horváth, Anindya Kundu, Péter Kaló, Maitrayee DasGupta
Root nodule symbiosis in legumes is established following interaction of compatible rhizobia that activates an array of genes, commonly known as symbiotic-pathway, resulting in nodule development. In model legumes, bacterial entry mainly occurs through infection thread involving the expression of transcription factor CYCLOPS/IPD3. Here we show the functional analysis of AhCYCLOPS in Arachis hypogaea where bacteria invade roots through epidermal cracks. Exploiting significant cross-species domain conservation, trans-complementation experiments involving ectopic expression of AhCYCLOPS in transgenic hairy-roots of Medicago truncatula ipd3 mutants resulted in functional complementation of Medicago nodules...
April 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Patrícia M B G Maia Campos, Carolina G Benevenuto, Lívia S Calixto, Maísa O Melo, Karina C Pereira, Lorena R Gaspar
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The selection of suitable raw materials in the cosmetic research and development is a key point, not only in order to obtain the expected results but also to avoid undesirable side effects. This study evaluated the in vitro toxicity potential of four different plant extracts and their in vivo acceptability studies. METHODS: Spirulina, Palmaria palmata, Cichorium intybus, and Medicago sativa extracts were analysed alone or in combination and added in cosmetic formulations...
March 1, 2019: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Gennaro Carotenuto, Veronica Volpe, Giulia Russo, Mara Politi, Ivan Sciascia, Janice de Almeida-Engler, Andrea Genre
The intracellular accommodation of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is a paradigmatic feature of this plant symbiosis that depends on the activation of a dedicated signaling pathway and the extensive reprogramming of host cells, including striking changes in nuclear size and transcriptional activity. By combining targeted sampling of early root colonization sites, detailed confocal imaging, flow cytometry and gene expression analyses, we demonstrate that local, recursive events of endoreduplication are triggered in the Medicago truncatula root cortex during AM colonization...
February 27, 2019: New Phytologist
Ibtissem Aroua, Ghassen Abid, Fatma Souissi, Khdiri Mannai, Houcem Nebli, Sabrine Hattab, Ziad Borgi, Moez Jebara
Plant-microbe interactions such as rhizobacteria legumes are interesting in organic farming that has undergone significant expansion in the world. The organic agriculture is as an environment-friendly technique and a sustainable alternative to intensive agricultural system. Three types of soil were chosen, organic (ORG), conventional (CON), and fallow land (NA) to isolate soil bacteria-nodulating Medicago sativa, in order to develop microbial inoculants for use in agricultural sustainable system. Soil analysis revealed significant higher amounts of total nitrogen, organic carbon, total phosphorus, and matter detected in ORG...
March 2019: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Johanne Brunet, Yang Zhao, Murray K Clayton
Foraging behaviors that impact gene flow can guide the design of pollinator strategies to mitigate gene flow. Reduced gene flow is expected to minimize the impact of genetically engineered (GE) crops on feral and natural populations and to facilitate the coexistence of different agricultural markets. The goal of this study is to link foraging behavior to gene flow and identify behaviors that can help predict gene flow for different bee species. To reach this goal, we first examined and compared the foraging behaviors of three distinct bee species, the European honey bee, Apis mellifera L...
2019: PloS One
Grzegorz Fiutak, Magdalena Michalczyk, Magda Filipczak-Fiutak, Leszek Fiedor, Krzysztof Surówka
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of selected types of LED (light emitting diodes) lighting on the quality of alfalfa sprouts. In the experiment, cold white, warm white and multicolour: (red, green, blue-RGB) LEDs were applied, and dispersed sunlight was used as a control. The product was examined for the yield and the contents of dry matter, total polyphenols, ascorbic acid, chlorophylls, β-carotene, lutein, neoxanthin and violaxanthin. Cotyledons' mass in the whole plant increased under LED illumination and was up to 50% greater for sprouts grown in RGB light compared to those cultivated in dispersed sunlight...
July 1, 2019: Food Chemistry
Anna V Tsyganova, Elena V Seliverstova, Nicholas J Brewin, Viktor E Tsyganov
Infection of host cells by nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria, known as rhizobia, involves the progressive remodelling of the plant-microbe interface. This process was examined by using monoclonal antibodies to study the subcellular localisation of pectins and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) in wild-type and ineffective nodules of Pisum sativum and Medicago truncatula. The highly methylesterified homogalacturonan (HG), detected by monoclonal antibody JIM7, showed a uniform localisation in the cell wall, regardless of the cell type in nodules of P...
February 22, 2019: Protoplasma
Camille Fonouni-Farde, Ambre Miassod, Carole Laffont, Halima Morin, Abdelhafid Bendahmane, Anouck Diet, Florian Frugier
The root system displays a remarkable plasticity that enables plants to adapt to changing environmental conditions. This plasticity is tightly linked to the activity of root apical meristems (RAMs) and to the formation of lateral roots, both controlled by related hormonal crosstalks. In Arabidopsis thaliana, gibberellins (GAs) were shown to positively control RAM growth and the formation of lateral roots. However, we showed in Medicago truncatula that GAs negatively regulate root growth and RAM size as well as the number of lateral roots depending at least on the MtDELLA1 protein...
February 20, 2019: Scientific Reports
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