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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30873187/interactive-regimes-of-reduced-irrigation-and-salt-stress-depressed-tomato-water-use-efficiency-at-leaf-and-plant-scales-by-affecting-leaf-physiology-and-stem-sap-flow
#1
Hui Yang, Manoj K Shukla, Xiaomin Mao, Shaozhong Kang, Taisheng Du
Interactive effects of reduced irrigation and salt stress on leaf physiological parameters, biomass accumulation, and water use efficiency (WUE) of tomato plants at leaf and whole plant scales were investigated in a field experiment during 2016 and a greenhouse experiment during 2017. Experiment utilized two irrigation regimes (full, 2/3 of full irrigation) and four soil salt regimes (0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9% in 2016 season; and 0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4% in 2017 season). Three salts, sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate, and calcium sulfate (mass ratio of 2:2:1), were homogeneously mixed with soil prior to packing into containers (0...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30810562/solar-uv-radiation-in-a-changing-world-roles-of-cryosphere-land-water-atmosphere-interfaces-in-global-biogeochemical-cycles
#2
B Sulzberger, A T Austin, R M Cory, R G Zepp, N D Paul
Global change influences biogeochemical cycles within and between environmental compartments (i.e., the cryosphere, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and the atmosphere). A major effect of global change on carbon cycling is altered exposure of natural organic matter (NOM) to solar radiation, particularly solar UV radiation. In terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, NOM is degraded by UV and visible radiation, resulting in the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide, as well as a range of products that can be more easily degraded by microbes (photofacilitation)...
February 27, 2019: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776553/environmental-sustainability-of-anaerobic-digestion-of-household-food-waste
#3
Peter C Slorach, Harish K Jeswani, Rosa Cuéllar-Franca, Adisa Azapagic
Consumers are the leading producers of food waste (FW) in developed countries and the majority of household FW is still embedded in general waste where it is incinerated or landfilled. There is increasing awareness in the value of collecting FW as a separate waste stream for production of compost or recovery of energy through anaerobic digestion (AD). This study focuses on AD to evaluate the life cycle environmental sustainability of recovering energy and fertilisers from household FW in the UK. The analysis is carried out for two different functional units: i) treatment of 1 tonne of FW, which is compared to incineration and landfilling; and ii) generation of 1 MWh of electricity, which is compared to other electricity generation options...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767519/electro-and-solar-driven-fuel-synthesis-with-first-row-transition-metal-complexes
#4
Kristian E Dalle, Julien Warnan, Jane J Leung, Bertrand Reuillard, Isabell S Karmel, Erwin Reisner
The synthesis of renewable fuels from abundant water or the greenhouse gas CO2 is a major step toward creating sustainable and scalable energy storage technologies. In the last few decades, much attention has focused on the development of nonprecious metal-based catalysts and, in more recent years, their integration in solid-state support materials and devices that operate in water. This review surveys the literature on 3d metal-based molecular catalysts and focuses on their immobilization on heterogeneous solid-state supports for electro-, photo-, and photoelectrocatalytic synthesis of fuels in aqueous media...
February 15, 2019: Chemical Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746115/a-bio-inspired-approach-to-ligand-design-folding-single-chain-peptoids-to-chelate-a-multimetallic-cluster
#5
Andy I Nguyen, Ryan K Spencer, Christopher L Anderson, Ronald N Zuckermann
Synthesis of biomimetic multimetallic clusters is sought after for applications such as efficient storage of solar energy and utilization of greenhouse gases. However, synthetic efforts are hampered by a dearth of ligands that are developed for multimetallic clusters due to current limitations in rational design and organic synthesis. Peptoids, a synthetic sequence-defined oligomer, enable a biomimetic strategy to rapidly synthesize and optimize large, multifunctional ligands by structural design and combinatorial screening...
December 21, 2018: Chemical Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744749/photocatalytic-conversion-of-co%C3%A2-into-oxygenate-fuels-chemicals-using-efficient-eco-friendly-titania-hematite-based-nanostructured-solar-energy-materials
#6
Mohsen Lashgari, Sanaz Soodi
Photocatalytic hydrogenation of carbon dioxide (CO₂), using water feedstock (H source), sunlight and appropriate semiconducting low-cost/eco-friendly/solar-energy materials, is a promising route for sequestration of this greenhouse gas and its conversion into value-added oxygenate fuels (compounds). Herein, by employing three hematite-based nanostructured photocatalyst/solar-energy materials, the CO₂ photoreduction (hydrogenation) process was carried out inside a water photosplitting reactor, and various oxygenate (C/H/O) products [including ethanol, methanol and formaldehyde as well as oxalic, acetic and formic acids] were synthesized in the reaction medium...
June 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723826/absorption-coefficient-of-water-vapor-across-atmospheric-troposphere-layer
#7
Peng-Sheng Wei, Hsuan-Han Chiu, Yin-Chih Hsieh, Da-Lun Yen, Chieh Lee, Yi-Cheng Tsai, Te-Chuan Ting
Absorption coefficient of water vapor proposed to be responsible for an increase in temperature in the troposphere layer with altitude less than 10 km is systematically presented in this work. Since global warming plays an important role in affecting the human life, a confirmative and detailed study of global warming is essentially need. Solar irradiation within short wavelength range can be extinguished from absorption and scattering by the atmosphere, and absorbed and reflected by the Earth's surface. Radiative within high wavelength range from the Earth's surface can be absorbed by atmospheric water vapor, carbon dioxide and other gases...
January 2019: Heliyon
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30698961/quantum-yields-and-n-2-o-formation-from-photolysis-of-solid-films-of-neonicotinoids
#8
Weihong Wang, Kifle Z Aregahegn, Simone T Andersen, Anton Z Ni, Andrea F Rohrbacher, Ole John Nielsen, Barbara J Finlayson-Pitts
Neonicotinoids (NN), first introduced in 1991, are found on environmental surfaces where they undergo photolytic degradation. Photolysis studies of thin films of NN were performed using two approaches: (1) transmission FTIR, in which solid films of NN and the gas-phase products were analyzed simultaneously, and (2) attenuated-total-reflectance FTIR combined with transmission FTIR, in which solid films of NN and the gas-phase products were probed in the same experiment but not at the same time. Photolysis quantum yields using broadband irradiation centered at 313 nm were (2...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30588212/why-and-how-to-create-nighttime-warming-treatments-for-ecological-field-experiments
#9
REVIEW
Cori J Speights, Carter L Wolff, Martha E Barton, Brandon T Barton
While average global temperatures are increasing, a disproportionate amount of warming can be attributed to increasing nighttime temperatures rather than increasing daytime temperatures. Theory predicts that the timing of warming can generate different effects on organisms and their interactions within ecosystems. This occurs because an organism's response to warming depends on the current temperature. For example, warming when temperatures are low may have positive effects on an organism, while warming when temperatures are already high may have negative effects on an organism...
December 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30546916/ultrathin-film-titania-photocatalyst-on-nanocavity-for-co-2-reduction-with-boosted-catalytic-efficiencies
#10
Haomin Song, Wei Wu, Jian-Wei Liang, Partha Maity, Yuying Shu, Nam Sun Wang, Omar F Mohammed, Boon S Ooi, Qiaoqiang Gan, Dongxia Liu
Photocatalytic CO2 reduction with water to hydrocarbons represents a viable and sustainable process toward greenhouse gas reduction and fuel/chemical production. Development of more efficient catalysts is the key to mitigate the limits in photocatalytic processes. Here, a novel ultrathin-film photocatalytic light absorber (UFPLA) with TiO2 films to design efficient photocatalytic CO2 conversion processes is created. The UFPLA structure conquers the intrinsic trade-off between optical absorption and charge carrier extraction efficiency, that is, a solar absorber should be thick enough to absorb majority of the light allowable by its bandgap but thin enough to allow charge carrier extraction for reactions...
November 2018: Global Challenges
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30500748/drip-fertigation-significantly-reduces-nitrogen-leaching-in-solar-greenhouse-vegetable-production-system
#11
Haofeng Lv, Shan Lin, Yafang Wang, Xiaojuan Lian, Yiming Zhao, Yingjie Li, Jiuyue Du, Zhengxiang Wang, Jingguo Wang, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl
Vegetable production in solar greenhouses in northern China results in the excessive use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers and water via flooding irrigation. Both factors result in low N use efficiency and high environmental costs because groundwater becomes contaminated with nitrate (NO3 - ). Four consecutive tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) cropping seasons were tested whether drip fertigation and/or the incorporation of maize straw (S) may significantly reduce NO3 - and dissolved organic N (DON) leaching while increasing the water-use efficiency (WUE) and partial factor productivity of applied N (PFPN ) of the tomatoes...
November 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30397145/sustainable-hydropower-in-the-21st-century
#12
Emilio F Moran, Maria Claudia Lopez, Nathan Moore, Norbert Müller, David W Hyndman
Hydropower has been the leading source of renewable energy across the world, accounting for up to 71% of this supply as of 2016. This capacity was built up in North America and Europe between 1920 and 1970 when thousands of dams were built. Big dams stopped being built in developed nations, because the best sites for dams were already developed and environmental and social concerns made the costs unacceptable. Nowadays, more dams are being removed in North America and Europe than are being built. The hydropower industry moved to building dams in the developing world and since the 1970s, began to build even larger hydropower dams along the Mekong River Basin, the Amazon River Basin, and the Congo River Basin...
November 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30340284/satellite-based-regional-warming-hiatus-in-china-and-its-implication
#13
Long Li, Yong Zha
The slowdown in global warming since 1998, often termed the global warming hiatus. Reconciling the "hiatus" is a main focus in the 2013 climate change conference. Accurately characterizing the spatiotemporal trends in surface air temperature (SAT) is helps to better understand the "hiatus" during the period. This article presents a satellite-based regional warming simulation to diagnose the "hiatus" for 2001-2015 in China. Results show that the rapid warming is mainly in western and southern China, such as Yunnan (mean ± standard deviation: 0...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30333580/ceramic-metal-composites-for-heat-exchangers-in-concentrated-solar-power-plants
#14
M Caccia, M Tabandeh-Khorshid, G Itskos, A R Strayer, A S Caldwell, S Pidaparti, S Singnisai, A D Rohskopf, A M Schroeder, D Jarrahbashi, T Kang, S Sahoo, N R Kadasala, A Marquez-Rossy, M H Anderson, E Lara-Curzio, D Ranjan, A Henry, K H Sandhage
The efficiency of generating electricity from heat using concentrated solar power plants (which use mirrors or lenses to concentrate sunlight in order to drive heat engines, usually involving turbines) may be appreciably increased by operating with higher turbine inlet temperatures, but this would require improved heat exchanger materials. By operating turbines with inlet temperatures above 1,023 kelvin using closed-cycle high-pressure supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2 ) recompression cycles, instead of using conventional (such as subcritical steam Rankine) cycles with inlet temperatures below 823 kelvin1-3 , the relative heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency may be increased by more than 20 per cent...
October 2018: Nature
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30302408/absorption-coefficient-of-carbon-dioxide-across-atmospheric-troposphere-layer
#15
Peng-Sheng Wei, Yin-Chih Hsieh, Hsuan-Han Chiu, Da-Lun Yen, Chieh Lee, Yi-Cheng Tsai, Te-Chuan Ting
Absorption coefficient affected by carbon dioxide concentration and optical path length responsible for temperature or global warming across the troposphere layer, which is less than the altitude of 10 km in the atmosphere, is systematically presented in this work. Solar irradiation within a short wavelength range can be absorbed, scattered and transmitted by the atmosphere, and absorbed and reflected by the Earth's surface. Radiative emission in high wavelength ranges from the Earth's surface at low temperature can be absorbed by atmospheric water vapor, carbon dioxide and other gases...
October 2018: Heliyon
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30297463/tropical-land-carbon-cycle-responses-to-2015-16-el-ni%C3%A3-o-as-recorded-by-atmospheric-greenhouse-gas-and-remote-sensing-data
#16
Emanuel Gloor, Chris Wilson, Martyn P Chipperfield, Frederic Chevallier, Wolfgang Buermann, Hartmut Boesch, Robert Parker, Peter Somkuti, Luciana V Gatti, Caio Correia, Lucas G Domingues, Wouter Peters, John Miller, Merritt N Deeter, Martin J P Sullivan
The outstanding tropical land climate characteristic over the past decades is rapid warming, with no significant large-scale precipitation trends. This warming is expected to continue but the effects on tropical vegetation are unknown. El Niño-related heat peaks may provide a test bed for a future hotter world. Here we analyse tropical land carbon cycle responses to the 2015/16 El Niño heat and drought anomalies using an atmospheric transport inversion. Based on the global atmospheric CO2 and fossil fuel emission records, we find no obvious signs of anomalously large carbon release compared with earlier El Niño events, suggesting resilience of tropical vegetation...
October 8, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30294693/reducing-electric-energy-consumption-in-linear-fresnel-collector-solar-fields-coupled-to-thermal-desalination-plants-by-optimal-mirror-defocusing
#17
Mohamed Alhaj, Sami G Al-Ghamdi
In many parts of the world, desalination is the only viable and economic solution to the problem of fresh water shortage. The current commercial desalination technologies rely on fossil fuels and are thus associated with high greenhouse gas emissions that are a major cause of climatic changes. Solar thermal-driven multi-effect distillation with thermal vapor compression is a clean alternative to conventional desalination technologies. To comprehend this process, as well as its features and limitations, extensive modeling is required...
September 2018: Heliyon
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30194324/coal-with-carbon-capture-and-sequestration-is-not-as-land-use-efficient-as-solar-photovoltaic-technology-for-climate-neutral-electricity-production
#18
James Gunnar Groesbeck, Joshua M Pearce
Avoiding climate destabilization caused by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, requires climate-neutral electricity sources. It has been proposed that the GHG emissions from coal-fired power plants can be offset by carbon capture and sequestration or bio-sequestration. However, solar photovoltaic (PV) technology has recently declined so far in costs it now offers both technical and economic potential to offset all of coal-fired electricity use. PV only emits GHGs during fabrication and not during use. To determine which technical solution to climate-neutral electricity generation should be preferred, this study aggregates and synthesizes life cycle analysis studies for exergy, GHG emissions and land transformation for climate-neutral electricity...
September 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30153622/assessment-of-new-functional-units-for-agrivoltaic-systems
#19
Ai Leon, Keiichi N Ishihara
In agrivoltaic systems, photovoltaic (PV) modules are ground-mounted between crops replacing a part of greenhouse or are set below or above the cover film of greenhouse; these can provide solutions with respect to land competition and climate change mitigation. These systems have certain additional functions, namely, sunlight sharing, land sharing and power generation, as compared to the conventional agricultural production systems. These new functions are not adequately performed by traditionally used functional units (FUs), such as the mass- or the area-based FU, in agricultural life cycle assessment (LCA)...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30133143/nitrous-oxide-from-chemodenitrification-a-possible-missing-link-in-the-proterozoic-greenhouse-and-the-evolution-of-aerobic-respiration
#20
Chloe L Stanton, Christopher T Reinhard, James F Kasting, Nathaniel E Ostrom, Joshua A Haslun, Timothy W Lyons, Jennifer B Glass
The potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2 O) may have been an important constituent of Earth's atmosphere during Proterozoic (~2.5-0.5 Ga). Here, we tested the hypothesis that chemodenitrification, the rapid reduction of nitric oxide by ferrous iron, would have enhanced the flux of N2 O from ferruginous Proterozoic seas. We empirically derived a rate law, <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"> <mml:mrow> <mml:mfrac> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>d</mml:mi> <mml:mfenced> <mml:msub> <mml:mi>N</mml:mi> <mml:mn>2</mml:mn> </mml:msub> <mml:mi>O</mml:mi> </mml:mfenced> </mml:mrow> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>d</mml:mi> <mml:mi>t</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> </mml:mfrac> <mml:mo>=</mml:mo> <mml:mn>7...
November 2018: Geobiology
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