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Abhirami Visvanathan, Vikas Patil, Shibla Abdulla, Jörg D Hoheisel, Kumaravel Somasundaram
Despite recent advances in N ⁶-methyladenosine (m⁶A) biology, the regulation of crucial RNA processing steps by the RNA methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) in glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) remains obscure. An integrated analysis of m⁶A-RIP (RNA immunoprecipitation) and total RNA-Seq of METTL3-silenced GSCs identified that m⁶A modification in GSCs is principally carried out by METTL3. The m⁶A-modified transcripts showed higher abundance compared to non-modified transcripts. Further, we showed that the METTL3 is essential for the expression of GSC-specific actively transcribed genes...
February 13, 2019: Genes
Mei-Fang Chen, Fang Gong, Yuan Yuan Zhang, Chengyong Li, Chunxia Zhou, Pengzhi Hong, Shengli Sun, Zhong-Ji Qian
According to a previous study, YGDEY from tilapia fish skin gelatin hydrolysates has strong free radical scavenging activity. In the present study, the protective effect of YGDEY against oxidative stress induced by ethanol in HepG2 cells was investigated. First, cells were incubated with YGDEY (10, 20, 50, and 100 μM) to assess cytotoxicity, and there was no significant change in cell viability. Next, it was established that YGDEY decreased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Western blot results indicated that YGDEY increased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) and decreased the expression of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in HepG2 cells...
February 13, 2019: Nutrients
Kevin Honeychurch
Carbon rod electrodes (CREs) were obtained from recycled zinc⁻carbon batteries and were used without further modification for the measurement of trace concentrations of lead (Pb). The electrochemical behavior of Pb at these electrodes in a variety of supporting electrolytes was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The anodic peaks obtained on the reverse scans were indicative of Pb being deposited as a thin layer on the electrode surface. The greatest signal⁻to⁻noise ratios were obtained in organic acids compared to mineral acids, and acetic acid was selected as the supporting electrolyte for further studies...
February 13, 2019: Sensors
Jung Keun Lee, Mi Jin Choi
The external acceleration of a fast-moving body induces uncertainty in attitude determination based on inertial measurement unit (IMU) signals and thus, frequently degrades the determination accuracy. Although previous works adopt acceleration-compensating mechanisms to deal with this problem, they cannot completely eliminate the uncertainty as they are, inherently, approaches to an underdetermined problem. This paper presents a novel constraint-augmented Kalman filter (KF) that eliminates the acceleration-induced uncertainty for a robust IMU-based attitude determination when IMU is attached to a constrained link...
February 13, 2019: Sensors
Osamu Takyu, Keiichiro Shirai, Mai Ohta, Takeo Fujii
As the applications of the internet of things are becoming widely diversified, wireless sensor networks require real-time data reception, accommodation of access from several sensors, and low power consumption. In physical wireless parameter conversion sensor networks (PhyC-SN), all the sensors use frequency shift keying as the modulation scheme and then access the channel to the fusion center, simultaneously. As a result, the fusion center can recognize the statistical tendency of all the sensing results at a time from the frequency spectrum of the received signal...
February 13, 2019: Sensors
Mohd Farhan, Mohammad Fahad Ullah, Mohd Faisal, Ammad Ahmad Farooqi, Uteuliyev Yerzhan Sabitaliyevich, Bernhard Biersack, Aamir Ahmad
Numerous studies support the potent anticancer activity of resveratrol and its regulation of key oncogenic signaling pathways. Additionally, the activation of sirtuin 1, a deacetylase, by resveratrol has been known for many years, making resveratrol perhaps one of the earliest nutraceuticals with associated epigenetic activity. Such epigenetic regulation by resveratrol, and the mechanism thereof, has attracted much attention in the past decade. Focusing on methylation and acetylation, the two classical epigenetic regulations, we showcase the potential of resveratrol as an effective anticancer agent by virtue of its ability to induce differential epigenetic changes...
February 13, 2019: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Carlos Caro, Pedro Quaresma, Eulália Pereira, Jaime Franco, Manuel Pernia Leal, Maria Luisa García-Martín, Jose Luis Royo, Jose Maria Oliva-Montero, Patrick Jacques Merkling, Ana Paula Zaderenko, David Pozo, Ricardo Franco
Progress in the field of biocompatible SERS nanoparticles has promising prospects for biomedical applications. In this work, we have developed a biocompatible Raman probe by combining anisotropic silver nanoparticles with the dye rhodamine 6G followed by subsequent coating with bovine serum albumin. This nanosystem presents strong SERS capabilities in the near infrared (NIR) with a very high (2.7 × 10⁷) analytical enhancement factor. Theoretical calculations reveal the effects of the electromagnetic and chemical mechanisms in the observed SERS effect for this nanosystem...
February 13, 2019: Nanomaterials
Satoru Matsuda, Yuka Ikeda, Mutsumi Murakami, Yukie Nakagawa, Ai Tsuji, Yasuko Kitagishi
Psychiatric illnesses may be qualified to the cellular impairments of the function for survival or death in neurons, which may consequently appear as abnormalities in the neuroplasticity. The molecular mechanism has not been well understood, however, it seems that PI3K, AKT, GSK3, and their downstream molecules have crucial roles in the pathogenesis. Through transducing cell surviving signal, the PI3K/AKT/GSK3 pathway may organize an intracellular central network for the action of the synaptic neuroplasticity...
February 13, 2019: Diseases (Basel)
Małgorzata Kiełkiewicz, Anna Barczak-Brzyżek, Barbara Karpińska, Marcin Filipecki
In natural and agricultural conditions, plants are attacked by a community of herbivores, including aphids and mites. The green peach aphid and the two-spotted spider mite, both economically important pests, may share the same plant. Therefore, an important question arises as to how plants integrate signals induced by dual herbivore attack into the optimal defensive response. We showed that regardless of which attacker was first, 24 h of infestation allowed for efficient priming of the Arabidopsis defense, which decreased the reproductive performance of one of the subsequent herbivores...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alakananda Basu
Protein kinase C (PKC), a multi-gene family, plays critical roles in signal transduction and cell regulation. Protein kinase C-eta (PKCη) is a unique member of the PKC family since its regulation is distinct from other PKC isozymes. PKCη was shown to regulate cell proliferation, differentiation and cell death. It was also shown to contribute to chemoresistance in several cancers. PKCη has been associated with several cancers, including renal cell carcinoma, glioblastoma, breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and acute myeloid leukemia...
February 13, 2019: Cancers
Jiang Wu, Bin Wen, Yu Zhou, Qi Zhang, Shuiting Ding, Farong Du, Shuguang Zhang
Blade tip clearance (BTC) measurement and active clearance control (ACC) are becoming crucial technologies in aero-engine health monitoring so as to improve the efficiency and reliability as well as to ensure timely maintenance. Eddy current sensor (ECS) offers an attractive option for BTC measurement due to its robustness, whereas current approaches have not considered two issues sufficiently. One is that BTC affects the response time of a measurement loop, the other is that ECS signal decays with increasing speed...
February 13, 2019: Sensors
Ding-Hui Dai, Izhar Hyder Qazi, Ming-Xia Ran, Kai Liang, Yan Zhang, Ming Zhang, Guang-Bin Zhou, Christiana Angel, Chang-Jun Zeng
Due to lower farrowing rate and reduced litter size with frozen-thawed semen, over 90% of artificial insemination (AI) is conducted using liquid stored boar semen. Although substantial progress has been made towards optimizing the cryopreservation protocols for boar sperm, the influencing factors and underlying mechanisms related to cryoinjury and freeze tolerance of boar sperm remain largely unknown. In this study, we report the differential expression of mRNAs and miRNAs between fresh and frozen-thawed boar sperm using high-throughput RNA sequencing...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rebecca Heß, Michael Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann, Dennis Lapuente, Andre Maaske, Carsten Kirschning, Jürgen Ruland, Bernd Lepenies, Drew Hannaman, Matthias Tenbusch, Klaus Überla
The envelope protein (Env) is the only surface protein of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and as such the exclusive target for protective antibody responses. Experimental evidences from mouse models suggest a modulating property of Env to steer antibody class switching towards the less effective antibody subclass IgG1 accompanied with strong TH2 helper responses. By simple physical linkage we were able to imprint this bias, exemplified by a low IgG2a/IgG1 ratio of antigen-specific antibodies, onto an unrelated antigen, namely the HIV capsid protein p24...
February 13, 2019: Viruses
Arinjay Banerjee, Darryl Falzarano, Noreen Rapin, Jocelyne Lew, Vikram Misra
Insectivorous bats are speculated to be ancestral hosts of Middle-East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (CoV). MERS-CoV causes disease in humans with thirty-five percent fatality, and has evolved proteins that counteract human antiviral responses. Since bats experimentally infected with MERS-CoV do not develop signs of disease, we tested the hypothesis that MERS-CoV would replicate less efficiently in bat cells than in human cells because of its inability to subvert antiviral responses in bat cells. We infected human and bat ( Eptesicus fuscus ) cells with MERS-CoV and observed that the virus grew to higher titers in human cells...
February 13, 2019: Viruses
Jialin Li, Xueyi Li, David He, Yongzhi Qu
Research on data-driven fault diagnosis methods has received much attention in recent years. The deep belief network (DBN) is a commonly used deep learning method for fault diagnosis. In the past, when people used DBN to diagnose gear pitting faults, it was found that the diagnosis result was not good with continuous time domain vibration signals as direct inputs into DBN. Therefore, most researchers extracted features from time domain vibration signals as inputs into DBN. However, it is desirable to use raw vibration signals as direct inputs to achieve good fault diagnosis results...
February 13, 2019: Sensors
Mohd Farhan, Arshi Malik, Mohammad Fahad Ullah, Sarah Afaq, Mohd Faisal, Ammad Ahmad Farooqi, Bernhard Biersack, Rainer Schobert, Aamir Ahmad
Garcinol, a dietary factor obtained from Garcinia indica , modulates several key cellular signaling pathways as well as the expression of miRNAs. Acquired resistance to standard therapies, such as erlotinib and cisplatin, is a hallmark of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells that often involves miRNA-regulated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We used A549 cells that were exposed to transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), resulting in A549M cells with mesenchymal and drug resistant phenotype, and report that garcinol sensitized resistant cells with mesenchymal phenotype to erlotinib as well as cisplatin with significant decrease in their IC50 values...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jens Trogh, Wout Joseph, Luc Martens, David Plets
A major burden of signal strength-based fingerprinting for indoor positioning is the generation and maintenance of a radio map, also known as a fingerprint database. Model-based radio maps are generated much faster than measurement-based radio maps but are generally not accurate enough. This work proposes a method to automatically construct and optimize a model-based radio map. The method is based on unsupervised learning, where random walks, for which the ground truth locations are unknown, serve as input for the optimization, along with a floor plan and a location tracking algorithm...
February 13, 2019: Sensors
Ufuk Tan Timur, Marjolein Caron, Guus van den Akker, Anna van der Windt, Jenny Visser, Lodewijk van Rhijn, Harrie Weinans, Tim Welting, Pieter Emans, Holger Jahr
During standard expansion culture (i.e., plasma osmolarity, 280 mOsm) human articular chondrocytes dedifferentiate, making them inappropriate for autologous chondrocyte implantation to treat cartilage defects. Increasing the osmolarity of culture media to physiological osmolarity levels of cartilage (i.e., 380 mOsm), increases collagen type II ( COL2A1 ) expression of human articular chondrocytes in vitro , but the underlying molecular mechanism is not fully understood. We hypothesized that TGF-β superfamily signaling may drive expression of COL2A1 under physiological osmolarity culture conditions...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xiaopeng Mu, Xiaoyan Cui, Ranran Liu, Qinghe Li, Maiqing Zheng, Guiping Zhao, Changrong Ge, Jie Wen, Yaodong Hu, Huanxian Cui
Ovariectomy results in improved meat quality (growth rate, tenderness, and flavor) of broilers. However, some negative effects increased (abdominal fat (AF) deposition, low feed conversion, etc.) have also been reported. In this study, the gene expression profiles of AF tissue in ovariectomized and sham-operated chickens were determined to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and pathways to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying AF accumulation. Comparing the ovariectomized group and the sham-operated group, the abdominal fat weight (AFW) and abdominal fat percentage (AFP) were increased significantly ( p < 0...
February 18, 2019: Genes
Ji Hye Han, Yong Sun Lee, Jun Hyung Im, Young Wan Ham, Hee Pom Lee, Sang Bae Han, Jin Tae Hong
Astaxanthin (AXT), a xanthophyll carotenoid compound, has potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are significant in the pathogenesis and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we studied whether AXT could alleviate neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and memory loss in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administered mice model. Additionally, we investigated the anti-oxidant activity and the anti-neuroinflammatory response of AXT in LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells...
February 18, 2019: Marine Drugs
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