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Helena Posch, Katharina Erb-Eigner
Today, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the diagnostic tool of choice for eye and orbital pathologies. In this article, the MR image characteristics of relevant pathologies are illustrated with case-based examples in the context of clinical findings. Vascular pathologies (such as capillary and cavernous hemangioma), inflammatory diseases (such as endocrine orbitopathy), and neoplasms (such as lymphoma, uveal melanoma, retinoblastoma, and ocular/orbital metastasis) are described. Additionally, the role of MRI in the acute clinical setting and in trauma are discussed...
February 18, 2019: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Ivan Vladimirov Iotzov, Lucas C Parra
Speech signals have a remarkable ability to entrain brain activity to the rapid fluctuations of speech sounds. For instance, one can readily measure a correlation of the sound amplitude with the evoked responses of the electroencephalogram (EEG), and the strength of this correlation is indicative of whether the listener is attending to the speech. In this study we asked whether this stimulus-response correlation is also predictive of speech intelligibility. We hypothesized that when a listener fails to understand the speech in adverse hearing conditions, attention wanes and stimulus-response correlation also drops...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Neural Engineering
Claire Feeley, Gill Thomson, Soo Downe
INTRODUCTION: Women can face opposition when exerting autonomous decision-making regarding their birth choices, particularly when the decisions involve going against medical advice and/or outside of national guidelines. Termed 'unconventional birth choices', some research has explored women's reasons and experiences of making such choices, but less is known about the midwives caring for them. OBJECTIVES: To synthesize existing qualitative literature on the views, attitudes, and experiences of midwives caring for women who make unconventional birth choices...
February 10, 2019: Midwifery
Leon O H Kroczek, Thomas C Gunter, Anna U Rysop, Angela D Friederici, Gesa Hartwigsen
Sentence comprehension requires the rapid analysis of semantic and syntactic information. These processes are supported by a left hemispheric dominant fronto-temporal network, including left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) and posterior superior temporal gyrus/sulcus (pSTG/STS). Previous electroencephalography (EEG) studies have associated semantic expectancy within a sentence with a modulation of the N400 and syntactic gender violations with increases in the LAN and P600. Here, we combined focal perturbations of neural activity by means of short bursts of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with simultaneous EEG recordings to probe the functional relevance of pIFG and pSTG/STS for sentence comprehension...
January 28, 2019: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Stéphane Lopes-Paciencia, Emmanuelle Saint-Germain, Marie-Camille Rowell, Ana Fernández Ruiz, Paloma Kalegari, Gerardo Ferbeyre
The senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) defines the ability of senescent cells to express and secrete a variety of extracellular modulators that includes cytokines, chemokines, proteases, growth factors and bioactive lipids. The role of the SASP depends on the context. The SASP reinforces the senescent cell cycle arrest, stimulates the immune-mediated clearance of potentially tumorigenic cells, limits fibrosis and promotes wound healing and tissue regeneration. On the other hand, the SASP can mediate chronic inflammation and stimulate the growth and survival of tumor cells...
February 15, 2019: Cytokine
Tom J Barry, Wing Yan Sze, Filip Raes
The tendency to recall events from one's past in a non-specific and overgeneral way has been found to predict the onset and severity of a range of emotional disorders. Memory Specificity Training (MeST) was devised a decade ago in order to target and modify this tendency so as to reduce the symptoms of emotional disorder or to reduce the risk that such disorders might emerge over time. We present a meta-analytical review of research into the effects of MeST on autobiographical memory specificity in the context of emotional disorders (k = 13)...
February 2, 2019: Behaviour Research and Therapy
R Gelly, Z Fekiacova, A Guihou, E Doelsch, P Deschamps, C Keller
Sourcing and understanding the fate of anthropogenic metals in a historical contamination context is challenging. Here we combined elemental and isotopic (Pb, Zn, Cu) analyses with X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) measurements (Zn) to trace the fate, in undisturbed soil profiles, of historical metal contamination emitted by a 167-year-old Pb-Ag smelter decommissioned 100 years ago located in the Calanques National Park (Marseilles, France). Lead isotopic measurements show that entire soil profiles were affected by 74 years of Pb emissions up to ~7 km from the smelter under the main NNW wind, and indicate particulate transfer down to 0...
February 8, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Kannan Govindan, P C Jha, Vernika Agarwal, Jyoti Dhingra Darbari
The Indian electronics industry is facing immense pressure to include sustainability practices in order to meet customer expectations, comply with legislation and create an edge over competitors. This growing need for inclusion of sustainability is driving original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to collaborate with third-party reverse logistics providers (3PRLPs) to sustainably manage returns. Collaboration with 3PRLP will put OEMs in a stronger position regarding compliance with government legislation, improving upon their corporate image and customer satisfaction...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Brenda Happell, Chris Platania-Phung, Brett Scholz, Julia Bocking, Aine Horgan, Fionnuala Manning, Rory Doody, Elisabeth Hals, Arild Granerud, Mari Lahti, Jarmo Pullo, Annaliina Vatula, Heikki Ellilä, Kornelis Jan van der Vaart, Jerry Allon, Martha Griffin, Siobhan Russell, Liam MacGabhann, Einar Bjornsson, Pall Biering
BACKGROUND: Understanding student attitudes towards people diagnosed with mental illness is central to realising evidence-based nursing education and policy at an international level. Redressing stigmatised views can assist in preparing nursing students to work in mental health settings and support the active involvement of consumers in all aspects of mental health service delivery (known as: consumer participation) at individual and systemic levels. Accurate research on nursing student attitudes is dependent on the availability of valid and reliable measures...
February 12, 2019: Nurse Education Today
Carole Mackavey, Stan Cron
INTRODUCTION: The struggle to maintain quality education in the online environment has brought about the redesign for the family nurse practitioner courses. BACKGROUND: The family nurse practitioner program uses graduate Health Education Systems Incorporated examination as a quality indicator and program benchmark. A downward trend in Health Education Systems Incorporated examination scores stimulated a need for change. Two strategies were implemented to enhance engagement and improve synthesis of clinical information...
January 26, 2019: Nurse Education Today
Amanda C Marshall, Antje Gentsch, Anna-Lucia Blum, Christina Bröring, Simone Schütz-Bosbach
Interoceptive signalling has been shown to contribute to action regulation and action experience. Here, we assess whether motor behaviour can be influenced by anticipated homeostatic feeling states induced through different predictable contexts. Participants performed a reward incentive paradigm in which accurate responses increased (gain) or avoided the depletion (averted loss) of a credit score. Across two types of blocks, we varied the predictability of the outcome state. In predictable blocks, a cue signalled a gain, loss or control trial (motor response did not affect the credit score)...
February 16, 2019: NeuroImage
Andreas Coors, Marcel Brosch, Evelyn Kahl, Radwa Khalil, Birgit Michels, Annegret Laub, Katrin Franke, Bertram Gerber, Markus Fendt
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The plant arctic root (Rhodiola rosea, L.) is growing in northern regions of Europe, Asia and North America. Extracts of R. rosea are used in traditional medicine for various conditions related to nervous system function. According to scientific studies from the last decades, the plant might have potential for use in the treatment of memory impairments, stress and depression, but reports concerning other neuropsychiatric disorders are scarce. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this context, our study aimed to examine potential antipsychotic-like effects of R...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Andrew Winter, Rebecca Ahlbrand, Renu Sah
Individuals with fear-associated conditions such as panic disorder (PD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) display increased emotional responses to interoceptive triggers, such as CO2 inhalation, that signal a threat to physiological homeostasis. Currently, effector systems and mechanisms underlying homeostatic modulation of fear memory are not well understood. In this regard, the renin angiotensin system (RAS), particularly the angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R), a primary homeostatic regulatory target, has gained attention...
February 15, 2019: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Jaan Tulviste, Elkhonon Goldberg, Kenneth Podell, Mariliis Vaht, Jaanus Harro, Talis Bachmann
Making decisions when an objectively correct option is not obvious, involves different neurobiological mechanisms than "veridical" decision making. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) exhibits a distinct pattern of prefrontal activation in non-veridical cognition, but little is known about the role of underlying neurobiological endophenotypes. A functional polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, causing a valine (Val) to methionine (Met) amino acid substitution at codon 66, has been shown to be associated with structural and functional changes in DLPFC and affect veridical decision making...
February 15, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Afsaneh Lavasanifar, Cierra N Sharp, Erik A Korte, Tyler Yin, Keivan Hosseinnijad, Saeed A Jortani
Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 (LINE-1) are DNAs that compromise 17% of our genome. LINE-1 expression is triggered by environmental stressors and accomplished through its demethylation leading to genomic instability. Expression of LINE-1 is regulated in adult somatic tissues through several endogenous defensive mechanisms but is found to be associated with tumorigenesis in several cancers. This finding, has inspired the use of different indicators of LINE-1 activation, as biomarkers in cancer diagnostics and even therapeutic targets in recent years...
February 15, 2019: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Mariano L Alcañiz, Elena Olmos-Raya, Luis Abad
To date, the diagnostic tools for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been mostly based on qualitative criteria from observational information in contexts with low ecological validity. We are witnessing a growing scientific activity that proposes the use of implicit measures for the evaluation and diagnosis of ASD. These measures are based on processes of a biological and unconscious nature, underlying the capacity of human cognition, and are obtained through the acquisition and treatment of brain, physiological and behavioral responses in order to obtain the behavioral structure of the ASD patient facing a stimulus...
2019: Medicina
Gonzalo Pin Arboledas
Adequate sleep is of critical need for a typical synaptic development and brain maturation, a poor quality sleep can have detrimental effects on children's' cognitive attention, memory, mood regulation, and behavior functions. Great concern has been voiced out regarding the high prevalence of poor sleep in children worldwide, the effects of poor sleep may be even more pronounced in children with neurodevelopmental disorders; these children often have difficulties with falling and staying asleep and with night awakenings, this has a strong association with daytime behavior problems...
2019: Medicina
Álvaro Mira, Carmen Berenguer, Inmaculada Baixauli, Belén Roselló, Ana Miranda
Families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be differentiated according to sociodemographics and environmental risk factors characterized by stress parental, the use of coping strategies and social support. The aim of this study was to analyze the behavioral, emotional and social manifestations of children with ASD, related to different types of families characterized according risk factors as families with "high risk", with "moderated risk" and with "low risk"...
2019: Medicina
Nour-Eddine Ghermani
In this paper, the molecular electrostatic potential energy V is first estimated from the electric field generated by an experimental electron density. Once the high resolution X-ray diffraction data are fitted against the Hansen-Coppens multipole model, the electric field E is analytically computed on every point inside and around the molecule by using our own software FIELD. The potential energy is then obtained by a numerical and robust integration of E2/2. The topological analysis of the electric field is carried out to reveal the specific contribution of atoms in a molecule...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
W Scott Persons, Philip J Currie
The femoral fourth trochanter is the attachment site of the caudofemoralis musculature, which is the primary hindlimb retractor in most non-avian dinosaurs. Early ornithischian dinosaurs are uniquely characterized by a fourth trochanter with a prominent pendant process. Throughout the evolution of ornithischians, the fourth trochanter repeatedly converged on two major morphological changes: (1) the distal migration of the trochanter down the femoral shaft and (2) the loss of the pendant process. Both changes, as well as the original evolution of the pendant form, relate to a single major functional shift emphasising caudofemoral leverage...
February 18, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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