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Plasma Sodium

Vanessa L Z Gordon-Dseagu, Andriy Derkach, Qian Xiao, Ishmael Williams, Joshua Sampson, Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon
INTRODUCTION: Sleep is increasingly being viewed as an issue of public health concern, yet few epidemiologic studies have explored associations between sleep habits and metabolomic profile. OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between sleep and blood metabolites. METHODS: We examined the association between sleep and 891 fasting plasma metabolites in a subgroup of 106 participants from the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-Sodium feeding trial (1997-1999)...
March 16, 2019: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Zahra Abolghasemi-Fakhri, Mohammad Amjadi, Jamshid L Manzoori
Gold nanostar@reduced graphene oxide (GNS@rGO) nanocomposite was used as a catalyst in a chemiluminescence (CL) reaction. Composites with different sizes of gold nanostars were prepared without any surfactant, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. We showed that GNS@rGO can strongly enhance the intensity of luminol‑sodium periodate CL system and the larger the GNS size, the greater the enhancing effect. This effect results from the unique catalytic action of GNS@rGO, which leads to the acceleration of reactive oxygen species generation...
March 7, 2019: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Tina Kauss, Marie-Hélène Langlois, Alice Guyonnet-Dupérat, Thida Phoeung, Xiao Yu Xie, Anthony Cartwright, Nicholas White, Melba Gomes, Karen Gaudin
Current paediatric antibiotic therapies often use oral and parenteral routes of administration. Neither are suitable for treating very sick neonates who cannot take oral medication and may be several hours away from hospital in developing countries. Here, we report on the development of rectal forms of ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin, along with an absorption enhancer, sodium chenodeoxycholate. Recto-dispersible tablets and capsules were developed and successfully passed 6-month accelerated stability tests...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Fusayo Io, Emi Gunji, Hiroko Koretsune, Koji Kato, Mami Sugisaki-Kitano, Lisa Okumura-Kitajima, Kayo Kimura, Saeko Uchida, Koji Yamamoto
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) is the primary transporter for glucose absorption from digested nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal SGLT1 inhibition reduces post-prandial hyperglycemia and enhances the increase of plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. SGL5213 is a novel and potent intestinal SGLT1 inhibitor. This study characterizes the pharmacological profiles of SGL5213 in rodents. Orally administered SGL5213 was hardly absorbed and its distribution was restricted to the gastrointestinal lumen...
March 13, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
A Ram Hong, Bo Kyung Koo, Sang Wan Kim, Ka Hee Yi, Min Kyong Moon
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in Korean patients who had inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in real-world clinical practice. METHODS: We included 410 patients who started SGLT2 inhibitors (empagliflozin or dapagliflozin) as add-on therapy or switch therapy between February 2015 and June 2017. The primary efficacy endpoint was a change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) from baseline to week 12...
February 28, 2019: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Amanda R Vest, Michael Chan, Anita Deswal, Michael M Givertz, Carolyn Lekavich, Terry Lennie, Sheldon E Litwin, Lauren Parsly, Jo Ellen Rodgers, Michael W Rich, P Christian Schulze, Aaron Slader, Akshay Desai
Dietary guidance for patients with heart failure (HF) has traditionally focused on sodium and fluid intake restriction, but dietary quality is frequently poor in patients with HF and may contribute to morbidity and mortality. Restrictive dietary counselling can lead to inadequate intake of macronutrients and micronutrients by patients with HF, with the potential for deficiencies of calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, thiamine, vitamins D, E, K, and folate. Although inadequate intake and low plasma levels of micronutrients have been associated with adverse clinical outcomes, evidence supporting therapeutic repletion is limited...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Cardiac Failure
Graziella Bonetti, Davide Giavarina, Mariarosa Carta
Background Plasma glucose levels provide the cornerstone of diabetes evaluation, and so it is crucial that clinical laboratories provide accurate and reliable plasma glucose results. To prevent in vitro glycolysis, citrate is used. Here, we present the first study on the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) using the currently available new citrate-containing tubes in liquid and granular forms and the previous sodium fluoride (NaF) for the diagnosis of carbohydrate metabolism disorders and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines...
March 15, 2019: Diagnosis
Justin K Murray, Bin Wu, Christopher M Tegley, Thomas E Nixey, James R Falsey, Brad Herberich, Li Yin, Kelvin Sham, Jason Long, Jennifer Aral, Yuan Cheng, Chawita Netirojjanakul, Liz Doherty, Charles Glaus, Tayo Ikotun, Hongyan Li, Linh Tran, Marcus Soto, Hossein Salimi-Mossavi, Joseph Ligutti, Shanti Amagasu, Kristin L Andrews, Xuhai Be, Min-Hwa Jasmine Lin, Robert S Foti, Christopher P Ilch, Beth Youngblood, Thomas J Kornecook, Margaret Karow, Kenneth W Walker, Bryan D Moyer, Kaustav Biswas, Les P Miranda
Drug discovery research on new pain targets with human genetic validation, including the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7, is being pursued to address the unmet medical need for chronic pain and the rising opioid epidemic. As part of early research efforts on this front, we have previously developed NaV1.7 inhibitory peptide-antibody conjugates with tarantula venom-derived GpTx-1 toxin peptides with extended half-life (80 h) in rodents but only moderate in vitro activity (hNaV1.7 IC50 = 250 nM) and without in vivo activity...
March 15, 2019: ACS Chemical Biology
Naresh Chandra, Yan Liu, Jing-Xia Liu, Lars Frängsmyr, Nian Wu, Lisete M Silva, Mona Lindström, Wengang Chai, Fatima Pedrosa Domellöf, Ten Feizi, Niklas Arnberg
Glycans on plasma membranes and in secretions play important roles in infection by many viruses. Species D human adenovirus type 37 (HAdV-D37) is a major cause of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) and infects target cells by interacting with sialic acid (SA)-containing glycans via the fiber knob domain of the viral fiber protein. HAdV-D37 also interacts with sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), but the outcome of this interaction remains unknown. Here, we investigated the molecular requirements of HAdV-D37 fiber knob:GAG interactions using a GAG microarray and demonstrated that fiber knob interacts with a broad range of sulfated GAGs...
March 12, 2019: Viruses
Rana Bozorgmanesh, K Gary Magdesian, Julie W Sutton-Burges, Sean D Owens, Fern Tablin
BACKGROUND: Development of equine platelet concentrate (PC) would aid management of cases requiring transfused platelets (PLTs), where adminstration of whole-blood or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) might be contraindicated. OBJECTIVES: To test and validate a method for production of an equine PRP-PC product. ANIMALS: Six healthy Thoroughbred geldings from a research herd. METHODS: In this prospective experimental study, whole blood was collected and processed through multiple centrifugation steps to yield 120 mL of PC...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Renhong Yan, Xin Zhao, Jianlin Lei, Qiang Zhou
The L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1; also known as SLC7A5) catalyses the cross-membrane flux of large neutral amino acids in a sodium- and pH-independent manner1-3 . LAT1, an antiporter of the amino acid-polyamine-organocation superfamily, also catalyses the permeation of thyroid hormones, pharmaceutical drugs, and hormone precursors such as L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine across membranes2-6 . Overexpression of LAT1 has been observed in a wide range of tumour cells, and it is thus a potential target for anti-cancer drugs7-11 ...
March 13, 2019: Nature
Beat Knechtle, Jonah Bamert, Thomas Rosemann, Pantelis T Nikolaidis
Background and objective : The increased participation in endurance sports such as marathon running has attracted scientific interest especially with regard to adult athletes. However, few studies have examined the impact of a marathon race on children and adolescents. Therefore, the aim of the present case study was two-fold: first, to describe pacing during a marathon race, and second, to examine acute responses of blood physiology and biochemistry parameters during the race (i.e., pre- and post-race) as well as five consecutive days after the race...
March 7, 2019: Medicina
Aylin R Rodan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the role of intracellular chloride in regulating transepithelial ion transport in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) in response to perturbations in plasma potassium homeostasis. RECENT FINDINGS: Low dietary potassium increases the phosphorylation and activity of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) in the DCT, and vice versa, affecting sodium-dependent potassium secretion in the downstream aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron...
March 6, 2019: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Van-Long Truong, Min Ji Bak, Woo-Sik Jeong
Our previous studies have demonstrated antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of red ginseng oil (RGO). However, the role of RGO in models of intestinal inflammation has not been elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the chemopreventive effect of RGO in a mouse model of azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS)-induced colitis and explored its underlying mechanisms. Male C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of AOM (10 mg/kg), followed by 1.5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days to produce colon carcinogenesis...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Medicinal Food
Gregory Blass, Christine A Klemens, Michael W Brands, Oleg Palygin, Alexander Staruschenko
Recent studies have suggested that postprandial increases in insulin directly contribute to reduced urinary sodium excretion. An abundance of research supports the ability of insulin to augment epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) transport. This study hypothesized that ENaC contributes to the increase in renal sodium reabsorption following a meal. To test this, we used fasted or 4 hour postprandial Sprague Dawley rats to analyze ENaC expression and activity. We also assessed total expression of additional sodium transporters (Na+ -Cl- cotransporter (NCC), Na+ -K+ -2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC2), and Na+ -K+ -ATPase (NKA)) and circulating hormones involved in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)...
March 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
Ioannis-Dimosthenis S Adamakis, Eleftherios P Eleftheriou
Previous studies have shown that excess tungsten (W), a rare heavy metal, is toxic to plant cells and may induce a kind of programmed cell death (PCD). In the present study we used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to investigate the subcellular malformations caused by W, supplied as 200 mg/L sodium tungstate (Na₂WO₄) for 12 or 24 h, in root tip cells of Pisum sativum (pea), The objective was to provide additional evidence in support of the notion of PCD induction and the presumed involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
March 11, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Kerri D Pryce, Rasheen Powell, Dalia Agwa, Katherine M Evely, Garrett D Sheehan, Allan Nip, Danielle L Tomasello, Sushmitha Gururaj, Arin Bhattacharjee
Voltage-dependent sodium (NaV ) 1.8 channels regulate action potential generation in nociceptive neurons, identifying them as putative analgesic targets. Here, we show that NaV 1.8 channel plasma membrane localization, retention, and stability occur through a direct interaction with the postsynaptic density-95/discs large/zonula occludens-1-and WW domain-containing scaffold protein called membrane-associated guanylate kinase with inverted orientation (Magi)-1. The neurophysiological roles of Magi-1 are largely unknown, but we found that dorsal root ganglion (DRG)-specific knockdown of Magi-1 attenuated thermal nociception and acute inflammatory pain and produced deficits in NaV 1...
March 12, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Stefania Lamponi, Anna Maria Aloisi, Claudia Bonechi, Marco Consumi, Alessandro Donati, Gemma Leone, Claudio Rossi, Gabriella Tamasi, Luana Ghiandai, Ersilia Ferrini, Paolo Fiorenzani, Ilaria Ceccarelli, Agnese Magnani
OBJECTIVE: In vitro cell and blood compatibility of three dietary supplements, comprised of multiple plant extracts, Pneumo Go (PG), Green active (GA) and Equistasi (Eq), and their main component, the phytocomplex Matrix U.B.® (Union Bio S.r.l.) (M), were evaluated. Moreover, preliminary in vivo tests were performed on GA in order to assess its ability to reduce pain in an animal model. METHODS: Cell compatibility was determined using fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and primary adult human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECad) and the neutral red uptake test...
February 27, 2019: Journal of Integrative Medicine
Tibor Fülöp, Lajos Zsom, Rafael D Rodríguez, Jorge O Chabrier-Rosello, Mehrdad Hamrahian, Christian A Koch
Cerebral edema and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) are common complications of acute brain injury. Hypertonic solutions are routinely used in acute brain injury as effective osmotic agents to lower ICP by increasing the extracellular fluid tonicity. Acute kidney injury in a patient with traumatic brain injury and elevated ICP requiring renal replacement therapy represents a significant therapeutic challenge due to an increased risk of cerebral edema associated with intermittent conventional hemodialysis...
March 8, 2019: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Nimrit Goraya, Jan Simoni, Lauren N Sager, Nicolaos E Madias, Donald E Wesson
Acid (H+ ) retention appears to contribute to progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), including some patients without metabolic acidosis. Identification of patients with H+ retention but without metabolic acidosis could facilitate targeted alkali therapy; however, current methods to assess H+ retention are invasive and have little clinical utility. We tested the hypothesis that urine excretion of the pH-sensitive metabolite citrate can identify H+ retention in patients with reduced GFR but without overt metabolic acidosis...
March 1, 2019: Kidney International
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