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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767002/overview-of-the-typhoid-conjugate-vaccine-pipeline-current-status-and-future-plans
#1
Sushant Sahastrabuddhe, Tarun Saluja
Typhoid fever remains a common and serious disease in populations that live in low- and middle-income countries. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics, but problems with drug-resistant strains have been increasing in endemic countries, making treatment prolonged and costly. Improved sanitation and food hygiene have been effective in controlling the disease in the industrialized world, but these steps are associated with socioeconomic progress that has been slow in most of the affected areas. Therefore, vaccination is an effective way to prevent the disease for the short to medium term...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763295/recommendations-of-the-advisory-committee-on-immunization-practices-for-use-of-hepatitis-a-vaccine-for-persons-experiencing-homelessness
#2
Mona Doshani, Mark Weng, Kelly L Moore, José R Romero, Noele P Nelson
Hepatitis A (HepA) vaccination is recommended routinely for children at age 12-23 months, for persons who are at increased risk for hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, and for any person wishing to obtain immunity. Persons at increased risk for HAV infection include international travelers to areas with high or intermediate hepatitis A endemicity, men who have sex with men, users of injection and noninjection drugs, persons with chronic liver disease, person with clotting factor disorders, persons who work with HAV-infected primates or with HAV in a research laboratory setting, and persons who anticipate close contact with an international adoptee from a country of high or interme-diate endemicity (1-3)...
February 15, 2019: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761953/design-opportunities-for-organic-waste-recycling-in-urban-restaurants
#3
Kathleen Vinck, Linda Scheelen, Els Du Bois
This research project focuses on the problem of organic (or food waste) waste recycling in Flanders, Belgium. Here, the total amount of organic waste produced annually by restaurants is estimated at 166,000 tonnes. Despite being in the evolution towards a circular economy, more than 61% of the restaurants do not collect organic waste separately from residual waste. Within the research, this problem was explored from a human-centred perspective by analysing existing food-waste collection and processing equipment, and by observing the kitchen workflow and interior design of different urban located restaurants...
January 2019: Waste Management & Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759722/enteric-pathogen-diversity-in-infant-foods-in-low-income-neighborhoods-of-kisumu-kenya
#4
Kevin Tsai, Sheillah Simiyu, Jane Mumma, Rose Evalyne Aseyo, Oliver Cumming, Robert Dreibelbis, Kelly K Baker
Pediatric diarrheal disease remains the second most common cause of preventable illness and death among children under the age of five, especially in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, there is limited information regarding the role of food in pathogen transmission in LMICs. For this study, we examined the frequency of enteric pathogen occurrence and co-occurrence in 127 infant weaning foods in Kisumu, Kenya, using a multi-pathogen PCR diagnostic tool, and assessed household food hygiene risk factors for contamination...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753437/consensus-building-around-nutrition-lessons-from-the-2014-16-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak-in-guinea-and-sierra-leone
#5
Stephen R Kodish, Aline Simen-Kapeu, Jean-Max Beauliere, Ismael Ngnie-Teta, Mohammed B Jalloh, Solade Pyne-Bailey, Helen Schwartz, James P Wirth
There are important lessons learned from the 2014-16 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa. However, there has not been a systematic documentation of nutrition lessons specifically. Therefore, this study sought to generate multiple stakeholder perspectives for understanding the nutrition challenges faced during the Ebola virus disease outbreak, as well as for consensus building around improved response strategies. Participatory workshops with 17 and 19 participants in Guinea and Sierra Leone, respectively, were conducted in February 2017...
February 7, 2019: Health Policy and Planning
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30748122/accelerating-progress-for-complementary-feeding-in-kenya-key-government-actions-and-the-way-forward
#6
Brenda Ahoya, Justine A Kavle, Sarah Straubinger, Constance M Gathi
Optimal complementary feeding practices, a critical component of infant and young child feeding, has been demonstrated to prevent micronutrient deficiencies, stunting, overweight, and obesity. In Kenya, while impressive gains have been made in exclusive breastfeeding, progress in complementary feeding has been slow, and the country has failed to meet targets. Recent 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey reveal that only 22% of Kenyan children, 6-23 months, met criteria for a minimum acceptable diet. This case study describes key actions for complementary feeding put in place by the Kenya Ministry of Health as well as approaches for improving and monitoring complementary feeding within existing health platforms...
January 2019: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30748118/baby-friendly-community-initiative-from-national-guidelines-to-implementation-a-multisectoral-platform-for-improving-infant-and-young-child-feeding-practices-and-integrated-health-services
#7
Justine A Kavle, Brenda Ahoya, Laura Kiige, Rael Mwando, Florence Olwenyi, Sarah Straubinger, Constance M Gathi
The Baby-Friendly Community Initiative (BFCI) is an extension of the 10th step of the Ten Steps of Successful Breastfeeding and the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) and provides continued breastfeeding support to communities upon facility discharge after birth. BFCI creates a comprehensive support system at the community level through the establishment of mother-to-mother and community support groups to improve breastfeeding. The Government of Kenya has prioritized community-based programming in the country, including the development of the first national BFCI guidelines, which inform national and subnational level implementation...
January 2019: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745025/monitoring-cleaning-cycles-of-fouled-ducts-using-ultrasonic-coda-wave-interferometry-cwi
#8
B Chen, D Callens, P Campistron, E Moulin, P Debreyne, G Delaplace
Fouling in heat exchangers is the buildup of deposits on the solid surfaces. These deposits reduce the eco-efficiency of the processing equipment and increase the risk of subsequent surface contamination with the formation of biofilms. In the agro-food and water supplier sectors, which are our main concern, fouling on the hot walls of processing heat exchangers is a common occurrence and requires frequent cleaning cycles to ensure hygiene requirements are met. This results in a considerable ecological footprint...
December 23, 2018: Ultrasonics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740656/optimizing-outcomes-for-children-with-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-by-early-correct-diagnosis-reducing-toxic-death-and-preventing-abandonment
#9
REVIEW
Guillermo Chantada, Catherine G Lam, Scott C Howard
In high-income countries, more than 90% of children with mature B-cell lymphomas are cured with frontline therapy. However, cure requires prompt and correct diagnosis, careful risk stratification, very intense chemotherapy and meticulous supportive care, together with logistical support for patients who live far from the cancer centre or face financial barriers to receiving care. In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), cure rates range from 20% to 70% because of lack of diagnosis, misdiagnosis, abandonment of treatment, toxic death and excess relapse with reduced-intensity regimens...
February 10, 2019: British Journal of Haematology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738785/escherichia-coli-on-the-internet-the-power-of-youtube-to-educate-and-influence-consumer-behavior-regarding-pathogenic-bacteria
#10
Corey H Basch, Miryam Z Wahrman, Sarah A MacLean, Philip Garcia
BACKGROUND: Proper education about food safety and hand hygiene helps to reduce the risk of exposure to Escherichia coli associated disease. The purpose of this study was to describe the 100 most widely viewed YouTube videos on the subject of E. coli to determine what consumers are viewing related to the hazards of, and reducing risk of exposure to, bacteria such as E. coli. METHODS: The search term was conducted using the keywords "E. coli." The 100 videos with the top view counts were included in this study...
February 6, 2019: Infection, disease & health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737115/urban-rural-residence-effect-on-emergency-department-visits-arising-from-food-induced-anaphylaxis
#11
Rie Sakai-Bizmark, Scott M I Friedlander, Karin Oshima, Eliza J Webber, Laurie A Mena, Emily H Marr, Yoshikazu Ohtsuka
BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis is a severe and potentially fatal allergic response. Early-life exposure to rural environments may help protect against allergic reaction. This study assesses urban/rural differences by age and race/ethnicity in emergency department (ED) pediatric visit rates for food-induced anaphylaxis. METHODS: This observational study examined 2009-2014 inpatient and ED data from New York and Florida, using ICD-9-CM diagnostic code (995.6) to identify food-induced anaphylaxis cases <18 y/o...
February 5, 2019: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723752/prevalence-and-associated-factors-of-intestinal-parasitic-infections-among-food-handlers-at-prison-east-and-west-gojjam-ethiopia
#12
Azmeraw Asires, Moges Wubie, Alemayehu Reta
Introduction: One of the top ten major public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia is the intestinal parasitic infection. Most of the time, intestinal parasitic infections do not show clinical signs and symptoms and also have a number of potential carriers, such as food handlers, which makes it too difficult to eradicate and control. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and associated factors of intestinal parasitic infection among food handlers at prison, East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia, 2017...
2019: Advances in Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30716914/food-safety-knowledge-as-gateway-to-cognitive-illusions-of-food-handlers-and-the-different-degrees-of-risk-perception
#13
Rayane Stephanie Gomes de Freitas, Diogo Thimoteo da Cunha, Elke Stedefeldt
Restaurant workers, whether aware of this or not, may be responsible for spreading Foodborne Diseases (FBD) to consumers. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how the knowledge of the risk of FBD can become a gateway to risk perception and cognitive illusions, and how the habitus acts in guiding work practices. The research uses a mixed-methods design with qualitative approach. A study was conducted in six food services during 42 days, which had participatory observation as central method. A Risk Perception Scale and a Locus of Control Questionnaire were applied, helping to obtain data relative to cognitive illusions...
February 2019: Food Research International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707288/isolation-and-molecular-identification-of-free-living-amoebae-from-dishcloths-in-tenerife-canary-islands-spain
#14
María Reyes-Batlle, Inés Hernández-Piñero, Aitor Rizo-Liendo, Atteneri López-Arencibia, Ines Sifaoui, Carlos J Bethencourt-Estrella, Olfa Chiboub, Basilio Valladares, José E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
In this work, the presence of free-living amoebae (FLA) in dishcloths collected from human activity related places was evaluated. Once in the laboratory, 6 cm2 pieces of each dishcloth were cut and washed with Page's Amoeba Solution (PAS) in sterile tubes. After washing, the dishcloth pieces were removed, and the tubes were centrifuged (1500 rpm for 10 min). The obtained pellets were seeded onto 2% non-nutrient agar (NNA) plates, incubated at room temperature and were monitored daily an inverted microscope...
February 1, 2019: Parasitology Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707054/assessment-of-microbial-populations-in-the-manufacture-of-vacuum-packaged-ready-to-eat-roast-beef-and-in-a-related-production-plant
#15
Matteo Paolo Beccalli, Claudia Picozzi, Nicola Mangieri, Ileana Vigentini, Roberto Foschino
Some microbiological criteria were monitored for 6 months in vacuum-packaged roast beef (15 production batches), raw beef (10 batches), and other meat products (12 batches) produced in an Italian small to medium-size enterprise. Fifty-five environmental swab samples also were analyzed. The main bacterial groups were identified by cultural methods according to International Organization for Standardization standards. Listeria monocytogenes was enumerated with the most-probable-number protocol, and species identification was confirmed with a specific PCR assay...
January 2019: Journal of Food Protection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30701982/characteristics-of-viable-but-nonculturable-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-induced-by-nutrient-deficiency-at-cold-temperature
#16
Jae-Hyun Yoon, Sun-Young Lee
Vibrio parahaemolyticus has been consistently found to be involved in the food-borne disease outbreaks every year. Particularly, V. parahaemolyticus can be induced into a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state under cold-starvation conditions. In this physiological state, V. parahaemolyticus losses its colony-forming ability and shows reduced metabolic activities. The subsequent failure of its detection may threaten public health-hygiene practices. Until now, evident information on physiological properties of VBNC V...
January 31, 2019: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30693864/exposure-to-livestock-feces-and-water-quality-sanitation-and-hygiene-wash-conditions-among-caregivers-and-young-children-formative-research-in-rural-burkina-faso
#17
Francis Ngure, Aulo Gelli, Elodie Becquey, Rasmané Ganaba, Derek Headey, Lieven Huybregts, Abdoulaye Pedehombga, Armande Sanou, Abdoulaye Traore, Florence Zongo, Amanda Zongrone
Livestock farming is common in low-income settings as a source of income and animal-sourced food. However, there is growing evidence of the harmful health effects of proximity of animals to infants and young children, especially through exposure to zoonotic pathogens. Poultry ownership is almost universal in rural Burkina Faso. Poultry feces are a significant risk factor for enteric diseases that are associated with child undernutrition. To investigate the extent of exposure to livestock feces among young children and caregivers, we conducted direct observations of 20 caregiver-child dyads for a total of 80 hours (4 hours per dyad) and recorded water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)-related behaviors...
January 28, 2019: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30679412/scientizing-everyday-life-rationalizing-eating-habits-the-rise-of-nutrition-science-in-1910s-1920s-japan
#18
Sookyeong Hong
Historians of science have noted that modern nation-states and capitalism necessitated the systematic creation and implementation of a wide array of knowledge and technologies to produce a more productive and robust population. Commonly labeled as biopolitical practices in Foucauldian sense, such endeavors have often been discussed in the realms of public hygiene, housing, birth control, and child mortality, among others. This article is an attempt to extend the scope of the discussion by exploring a relatively understudied domain of nutrition science as a critical case of social engineering and intervention, specifically during and after World War I in the case of Japan...
December 2018: Ŭi Sahak
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30660142/comparison-of-oral-health-in-children-aged-5-6-years-in-the-czech-republic-and-yemen
#19
Nabil Salah
OBJECTIVE: Dental caries is the most widespread oral disease in the world, with multifactorial aetiology. It hinders not only the ability to eat good food, but also affects perfect speech and well-being. As the disease is almost completely preventable, and at its early stage well treatable, the prevalence of dental caries expresses the lack of public health literacy and skills in dental hygiene, and availability of adequate dental care. Children are especially vulnerable to dental caries, hence the WHO recommends regular monitoring of children's oral health and also appropriate controls for its continual improvement...
December 2018: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30656684/oral-thermosensing-by-murine-trigeminal-neurons-modulation-by-capsaicin-menthol-and-mustard-oil
#20
Sara C M Leijon, Amanda F Neves, Joseph M Breza, Sidney A Simon, Nirupa Chaudhari, Stephen D Roper
KEY POINTS: Orosensory thermal trigeminal afferent neurons respond to cool, warm, and nociceptive hot temperatures with the majority activated in the cool range. Many of these thermosensitive trigeminal orosensory afferent neurons also respond to capsaicin, menthol and/or mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate, AITC) at concentrations found in foods and spices. There is significant but incomplete overlap between afferent trigeminal neurons that respond to heat and to the above chemesthetic compounds...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Physiology
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