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performance psychology

M C Van Remmerden, L Hoogland, S E Mous, B Dierckx, M Coesmans, H A Moll, K Lubbers, C R Lincken, A M Van Eeghen
Little is known about care needs of young adults with Fragile X Syndrome (FXS). Patient-driven information is needed to improve understanding and support of young adults with FXS. A qualitative study was performed in 5 young adult patients (aged 18-30), and 33 parents of young adults. Concerns and care needs were categorized using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Results indicated concerns on 14 domains for males, and 13 domains for females, including physical, psychological and socio-economical issues...
March 16, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Stefano Benítez-Flores, André R Medeiros, Fabrício Azevedo Voltarelli, Eliseo Iglesias-Soler, Kenji Doma, Herbert G Simões, Thiago Santos Rosa, Daniel A Boullosa
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the combined effects of resistance and sprint training, with very short efforts (5 s), on aerobic and anaerobic performances, and cardiometabolic health-related parameters in young healthy adults. METHODS: Thirty young physically active individuals were randomly allocated into four groups: resistance training (RTG), sprint interval training (SITG), concurrent training (CTG), and control (CONG). Participants trained 3 days/week for 2 weeks in the high-intensity interventions that consisted of 6-12 "all out" efforts of 5 s separated by 24 s of recovery, totalizing ~ 13 min per session, with 48-72 h of recovery between sessions...
March 16, 2019: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Nicolás Alessandroni, Ana Moreno-Núñez, Cintia Rodríguez, María Jesús Del Olmo
Research of the last 30 years showed the importance of music for psychological development. Communicative musicality studies described musical organisations in dyadic interactions (adult-baby). However, other perspectives proposed that, from the beginning of life, there are early triadic interactions (adult-object-baby) that should also be analysed. Following previous research, we hypothesised that early triadic interactions have a structured musical organisation. We recorded a 2-month-old child interacting with his mother and an object in their home and performed a microgenetic quantitative-qualitative analysis...
March 16, 2019: Psychological Research
Keith E Stanovich, Maggie E Toplak
Actively open-minded thinking (AOT) is measured by questionnaire items that tap the willingness to consider alternative opinions, the sensitivity to evidence contradictory to current beliefs, the willingness to postpone closure, and reflective thought. AOT has been found to be a strong predictor of performance on heuristics and biases tasks and of the avoidance of reasoning traps such as superstitious thinking and belief in conspiracy theories. Recently, several studies that have employed short forms of the AOT scale have shown startlingly high negative correlations with religiosity (in the range of -0...
March 12, 2019: Cognition
Aikaterini Giazkoulidou, Lampros Messinis, Grigorios Nasios
Cognitive decline has been widely reported in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) despite its clinical heterogeneity, at all stages and in all subtypes of the disease. Deficits are most commonly present in attention, processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency and executive function. However, MS patients also show decreased performance in tasks related to social cognition, i.e. mental operations thatdrive interpersonal skills such as social perception, empathy and theory of mind. Social cognitive deficits are an underestimated but important aspect of impairment in MS, reflecting how people process, store, and apply information in social interactions...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Laura Marciano, Anne-Linda Camerini, Peter J Schulz
BACKGROUND: Empirical evidence on how health literacy affects diabetes outcomes is inconsistent. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to quantitatively summarize the findings on the associations between health literacy and diabetes knowledge, self-care activities, and glycemic control as disease-related outcomes, with specific focus on the type of health literacy assessment. DATA SOURCES: Nine databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Communication and Mass Media Complete, PsychInfo, PsychArticles, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, ERIC, Sociology, Embase) were searched for peer-reviewed original research articles published until 31 March 2018...
March 15, 2019: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Marta H Hernández, Conxita Mestres, Pilar Modamio, Jaume Junyent, Lluís Costa-Tutusaus, Cecilia F Lastra, Eduardo L Mariño
Older people usually present with adverse drug events (ADEs) with nonspecific symptoms such as cognitive decline, recurrent falls, reduced mobility, and/or major deterioration. The aims of this study were to assess the ADEs of patients with dementia and presenting neuropsychiatric/behavioral, and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD) and to categorize and identify the principal factors that allow to prevent ADEs, and separately ADEs that result in falls. To that end, a one-year prospective study in a psychogeriatric ward (July 2015 to July 2016) was performed...
March 15, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Silvia Lai, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Paola Andreozzi, Alessandro Sgreccia, Sabrina De Leo, Sandro Mazzaferro, Anna Paola Mitterhofer, Marzia Pasquali, Paolo Protopapa, Alessandra Spagnoli, Maria Ida Amabile, Alessio Molfino
OBJECTIVE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition with high cardiovascular mortality associated with emerging risk factors, including sarcopenia. Several mechanisms can affect muscle mass, such as vitamin D deficiency, low protein intake, physical inactivity, metabolic acidosis, and inflammation leading to a worsening of cardiovascular outcomes and cognitive function. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of sarcopenia in CKD patients on conservative and replacement therapy and the associations between sarcopenia and markers of atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, psychological and cognitive function...
December 11, 2018: Nutrition
Moti Tolera Jalu, Abdurehman Ahmed, Abdiwahab Hashi, Alula Tekilu
INTRODUCTION: Health-seeking behaviours are influenced by internal and external contributing factors. Internal factors include attitudes, beliefs and core values, life adaptation skills, psychological disposition whereas external factors include social support, media, socio-cultural, political, economic and biological aspects, health care systems, environmental stressors and societal laws and regulations. This study was meant to explore factors affecting health-seeking behaviors in the Somali regional state of Ethiopia...
2019: PloS One
Kimberly Zoberi, Jane Tucker
With declining mortality rates, the number of breast cancer survivors is increasing. Ongoing care after breast cancer treatment is often provided by primary care physicians. This care includes surveillance for cancer recurrence with a history and physical examination every three to six months for the first three years after treatment, every six to 12 months for two more years, and annually thereafter. Mammography is performed annually. Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast is not indicated unless patients are at high risk of recurrence, such as having a hereditary cancer syndrome...
March 15, 2019: American Family Physician
Francisco Ayala, Alejandro López-Valenciano, Jose Antonio Gámez Martín, Mark De Ste Croix, Francisco J Vera-Garcia, Maria Del Pilar García-Vaquero, Iñaki Ruiz-Pérez, Gregory D Myer
Hamstring strain injury (HSI) is one of the most prevalent and severe injury in professional soccer. The purpose was to analyze and compare the predictive ability of a range of machine learning techniques to select the best performing injury risk factor model to identify professional soccer players at high risk of HSIs. A total of 96 male professional soccer players underwent a pre-season screening evaluation that included a large number of individual, psychological and neuromuscular measurements. Injury surveillance was prospectively employed to capture all the HSI occurring in the 2013/2014 season...
March 14, 2019: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Seval Gündemir, Ashley E Martin, Astrid C Homan
We present a review of the diversity ideologies literature from the target's perspective. In particular, we focus on how diversity ideologies-beliefs or organizational practices with regards to how to approach diversity-affect racial minorities' and women's self-perceptions and experiences at work. This review suggests that a diversity aware ideology (i.e., multiculturalism) is more beneficial than a diversity blind ideology (i.e., colorblindness) for racial-ethnic minorities (e.g., better performance outcomes; more psychological engagement, inclusion, and workplace satisfaction; more positive leadership self-perceptions; and reduced perceptions of bias and turnover intentions)...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
Manabu Kinoshita, Hiroyuki Nakashima, Masahiro Nakashima, Minori Koga, Hiroyuki Toda, Kazuki Koiwai, Yuji Morimoto, Hiromi Miyazaki, Daizoh Saitoh, Hiroaki Suzuki, Shuhji Seki
The incisive evaluation of psychological stress may be required to determine the exercise performance of stressed hosts. We investigated objective markers of psychological stress that reflect exercise performance, focusing on the neutrophil function. We used murine water-immersion restraint (WIR) stress for our assessments. After receiving WIR for 1 or 2 h, mice were exercised on an airtight treadmill that monitors their respiratory exchange ratio. The neutrophil function was analyzed after WIR stress. Although the control mice (without WIR) showed good combustion of both carbohydrates and lipids as energy sources during treadmill exercise, mice that underwent 2-h WIR did not combust carbohydrates or lipids effectively, drastically reducing their performance...
March 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Gianluca Franceschini, Alba Di Leone, Daniela Terribile, Martin Alessandro Sanchez, Riccardo Masetti
Aim of this paper is to allows to analyze a topic of great relevance and media interest such as the role of prophylactic mastectomy in healthy women with BRCA mutation proposing to the surgeons some useful informations for decision-making. Less than 15% of all breast cancers are associated with germline genetic mutations. The majority of hereditary breast tumors are due to mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes that are responsible for only one third of hereditary cases. The risk estimates are extremely heterogeneous with a mean cumulative lifetime breast cancer risk of approximately 72% in BRCA1 and 69% in BRCA2 by age 80...
2019: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
Yin Zhang, Yuan Yao, Xiaolei Shi, Jun Fan, Taohong Huang, Jun Wen, Tingting Zhou
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Zhi-zi-chi Decoction(ZZCD), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, has been reported its potential protective effect on psychological sub-health diseases. However, there still remains a lack of molecular mechanism interpretation. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was aimed at investigating the mechanism of glutamate-induced toxicity in PC12 cells and the neuroprotective effect of ZZCD based on a novel strategy of the combination of cell metabolomics and pharmacology...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Marie-Annick Gagné, Carl-Ardy Dubois, Alexandre Prud'Homme, Roxane Borgès Da Silva
BACKGROUND: Nurses play a significant role in healthcare systems. Their workplace experience can have an impact not only on nurses themselves, but also on patients and organizations, particularly in terms of quality of care and performance. Despite the importance of this experience, it remains an ambiguous concept with varying interpretations. Current studies do not fully capture its complexity, as its multiple dimensions are often considered in isolation. As such, developing a portrait of nurses' workplace experience that integrates its multiple dimensions can provide decision-makers with better indications regarding what levers can be mobilized to generate positive results for nurses, patients, and organizations...
March 14, 2019: Human Resources for Health
Amanda Hellström, Peter Hagell, Anders Broström, Martin Ulander, Annemarie I Luik, Colin A Espie, Kristofer Årestedt
BACKGROUND: Insomnia symptoms are common among young adults and affect about 5% to 26% of 19 to 34-year-olds. In addition, insomnia is associated with poor mental health and may affect daily performance. In research, as well as in clinical practice, sleep questionnaires are used to screen for and diagnose insomnia. However, most questionnaires are not developed according to current DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. An exception is the recently developed Sleep Condition Indicator (SCI), an eight-item scale screening for insomnia...
2019: PloS One
Steffen Knopke, Sophia Häussler, Stefan Gräbel, David Wetterauer, Manuel Ketterer, Andreas Fluger, Agnieszka J Szczepek, Heidi Olze
INTRODUCTION: Increasing number of older adults undergo cochlear implantation (CI). Accumulating evidence implicates that the outcome of implantation may not only depend on physical and psychological health status of patients but also on their age. In the present work, we analyzed the elderly (70-80) and very old (80+) patients who underwent CI regarding their hearing abilities, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and psychological comorbidities. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-six patients were included in this prospective study...
April 2019: Otology & Neurotology
Sophia M Häußler, Steffen Knopke, Philipp Wiltner, Manuel Ketterer, Stefan Gräbel, Heidi Olze
OBJECTIVE: Cochlear implantation (CI) is a common treatment modality for unilaterally and bilaterally deafened patients as well as patients with severe to profound hearing loss. The aim of our study is the complex evaluation of the improvement and influence of health related quality of life (HRQoL) and auditory performance in cochlear implant patients during a long-term follow-up. METHODS: Sixty-one bilaterally, postlingually deafened patients with unilateral CI were included in this prospective study...
April 2019: Otology & Neurotology
Andrew N Garman, Melanie P Standish, Joyce Anne Wainio
BACKGROUND: As the pace of health sector transformation accelerates, the importance of leadership continues to grow across all health professions. Advances in a variety of disciplines can inform effective leadership development. However, at present, most health sector leadership competency models do not incorporate these advances and are instead developed using consensus-based methods within specific professions. An interprofessional approach to leadership competencies could help incorporate these advances and support better interdisciplinary leadership development...
March 11, 2019: Health Care Management Review
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