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precision medication

Eline Marin, Jean-Baptiste Watelet, Philippe Gevaert, Thibaut Van Zele
PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical profile and outcomes of different treatment strategies in patients hospitalized for spontaneous severe epistaxis. METHODS: This is a retrospective descriptive study of a case series of patients hospitalized for epistaxis in the University Hospital of Ghent between 2005 and 2012. RESULTS: 124 patients with, respectively, 132 episodes were included. 64% were male. The mean age was 65 years. 73% had comorbidities of which arterial hypertension was the most common...
March 19, 2019: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Md Arifuzzaman, Paul W Millhouse, Yash Raval, Thomas B Pace, Caleb J Behrend, Shayesteh Beladi Behbahani, John D DesJardins, Tzuen-Rong J Tzeng, Jeffrey N Anker
A biomedical sensor was developed to measure local pH near orthopedic implants to detect and study implant-associated infection. The sensor is read using plain radiography, a technique which is noninvasive, inexpensive, ubiquitously available in medical facilities, and routinely used in diagnosis and follow-up. The sensor comprises a radiopaque tungsten indicator pin embedded within a chemically responsive hydrogel that exhibits a pH-dependent swelling. A stainless steel well holds this hydrogel and attaches to an orthopedic plate...
March 19, 2019: Analyst
Desen Cao, Deyu Li, Zhengbo Zhang, Xiaoli Liu, Hong Liang, Maoqing He, Mengsun Yu
To achieve continuously physiological monitoring on hospital inpatients, a ubiquitous and wearable physiological monitoring system SensEcho was developed. The whole system consists of three parts: a wearable physiological monitoring unit, a wireless network and communication unit and a central monitoring system. The wearable physiological monitoring unit is an elastic shirt with respiratory inductive plethysmography sensor and textile electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes embedded in, to collect physiological signals of ECG, respiration and posture/activity continuously and ubiquitously...
February 25, 2019: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
David F Kisor, Christopher L Farrell
Background: As pharmacogenomics (PGx), a component of genetics/genomics and precision medicine, gains traction in the clinical setting, education of health care providers and health professions students must be made broadly available to improve accessibility of such services to patients. As medication experts with education in pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics, pharmacists must further their education to include pharmacogenomics. Currently, few opportunities exist to gain this type of education, and therefore, these services are not yet broadly available to the public...
January 2019: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
Annalisa De Angelis, Maria Antonietta Ferrara, Gianfranco Coppola, Loredana Di Matteo, Laura Siani, Brian Dale, Giuseppe Coppola, Anna Chiara De Luca
Raman microspectroscopy (RM) and polarization sensitive digital holographic imaging (PSDHI) are valuable analytical tools in biological and medical research, allowing the detection of both biochemical and morphological variations of the sample without labels or long sample preparation. Here, using this multi-modal approach we analyze in vitro human sperm capacitation and the acrosome reaction induced by heparin. The multimodal microscopy provides morphofunctional information that can assess the sperms ability to respond to capacitation stimuli (sperm function)...
March 18, 2019: Scientific Reports
Ayataka Fujimoto, Yosuke Masuda, Naoki Ichikawa, Keishiro Sato, Shimpei Baba, Shinji Itamura, Mitsuyo Nishimura, Hideo Enoki, Tohru Okanishi
BACKGROUND: Using a stereotaxic technique, surgeons can accurately place a depth electrode (DE), but sometimes the DE deviates from the intended target due to movement of the electrode or leakage of cerebrospinal fluid when placing the electrode. If DEs can be anchored before removing the catheter insertion guide pipe, more accurate placement may be possible. METHODS: We made a side slit guide pipe. When the DEs were anchored to the dura or the edge of the burr hole, the DE did not move when the guide pipe was removed...
March 15, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Wei Li, Yi Wu, Mali Wan, Yang Chu, Xiangyang Wang, Shuming Li, Zuhui Liu, Xue Chen, Navaneethakrishnan Polachi, Shuiping Zhou, He Sun
As one of the main constituents of Compound Danshen Dripping Pills (CDDP), Panax notoginseng (PN) plays a pivotal role in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Numerous researches have proved that the dammarane type saponins including notoginsenoside R1 (NR1), ginsenoside Rg1 (GRg1) and ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1) are the main bioactive components of PN in CDDP. An efficient, realiable and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis method for simultaneously detecting NR1, GRg1 and GRb1 in human plasma was established and applied to the pharmacokinetics study of the three PN saponins after oral administration of CDDP...
March 5, 2019: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Fatemeh Abdolali, Reza Aghaeizadeh Zoroofi, Yoshito Otake, Yoshinobu Sato
PURPOSE: The objective of medical content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is to assist clinicians in decision making by retrieving the most similar cases to a given query image from a large database. Herein, a new method for content-based image retrieval of cone beam CT (CBCT) scans is presented. METHODS: The introduced framework consists of two main phases: training database construction and querying. The goal of the training phase is database construction, which consists of three main steps...
March 14, 2019: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Tom Koch
For more than two decades, classes on "professionalism" have been the dominant platform for the non-technical socialization of medical students. It thus subsumes elements of previous foundation courses in bioethics and "medicine and society" in defining the appropriate relation between practitioners, patients, and society-at-large. Despite its importance, there is, however, no clear definition of what "professionalism" entails or the manner in which it serves various purported goals...
March 14, 2019: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
Jérémy Pinguet, Nicolas Kerckhove, Teuta Eljezi, Céline Lambert, Emmanuel Moreau, Lise Bernard, Benoit Boeuf, Bertrand Decaudin, Stéphanie Genay, Morgane Masse, Laurent Storme, Valérie Sautou, Damien Richard
DiEthylHexylPhthalate (DEHP) can leach out of plasticized PVC medical devices (MD) and may enter into contact with patients. This phthalate is known for its reprotoxic and endocrine disrupting effects. Its use in medical devices (MD) has been restricted and alternative plasticizers have been developed. Nevertheless, no published clinical studies exist concerning patient exposure to these alternative plasticizers during medical care. This is particularly worrisome when high-risk populations, such as newborns, are exposed to these new plasticizers in intensive care units...
June 1, 2019: Talanta
Silviu Ioan Bejinariu, Hariton Costin
Computational Intelligence Re-meets Medical Image Processing Analysis of Machine Learning Algorithms for Diagnosis of Diffuse Lung Diseases BACKGROUND:  In the last decades, new optimization methods based on the nature's intelligence were developed. These metaheuristics can find a nearly optimal solution faster than other traditional algorithms even for high-dimensional optimization problems. All these algorithms have a similar structure, the difference being made by the strategies used during the evolutionary process...
November 2018: Methods of Information in Medicine
Carlos Pérez-Ruixo, Bart Remmerie, Juan José Peréz-Ruixo, An Vermeulen
Non-adherence to antipsychotic medication is a primary factor in disease relapse in schizophrenic patients. We sought to evaluate if plasma concentrations of the antipsychotic risperidone can be used as a predictor of treatment adherence and to identify the optimal plasma concentration threshold to reliably distinguish between adherent and non-adherent patients. A population pharmacokinetic model was used to simulate plasma risperidone steady-state trough concentrations in 1000 virtual patients, where 60% of the patients were 100% adherent to their medication, while 40% of the patients were non-adherent to their medication...
March 14, 2019: AAPS Journal
Yun-Ju Chuang, Kuo-Yung Hung, Yi-Wei Tsai
In this research, a novel multidimensional prism with three distinct 45°, 135°, and 225° inclined optical surfaces were realized by using inclined exposure technology and SU-8 polymer. To obtain a smooth surface, the solvent loss percentage and temperature of post-exposure bake (PEB) are two key factors that need to be well controlled during fabrication. The experimental results showed that surface roughness can achieve 42.9±7.6  nm, which is one-tenth of high-precision machining or molding processes, under the processes parameter combinations of PEB temperature, and solvent loss percentage is 95°C and 82...
February 20, 2019: Applied Optics
Jiahao Lin, Lie Ma, Di Zhang, Jiafeng Gao, Yipeng Jin, Zhihai Han, Degui Lin
In recent years, with the increase in cancer mortality caused by metastasis, and with the development of individualized and precise medical treatment, early diagnosis with precision becomes the key to decrease the death rate. Since detecting tumour biomarkers in body fluids is the most non-invasive way to identify the status of tumour development, it has been widely investigated for the usage in clinic. These biomarkers include different expression or mutation in microRNAs (miRNAs), circulating tumour DNAs (ctDNAs), proteins, exosomes and circulating tumour cells (CTCs)...
March 14, 2019: Cell Proliferation
Reza Sadeghi, Tanvi Banerjee, William Romine
Early hospital mortality prediction is critical as intensivists strive to make efficient medical decisions about the severely ill patients staying in intensive care units (ICUs). As a result, various methods have been developed to address this problem based on clinical records. However, some of the laboratory test results are time-consuming and need to be processed. In this paper, we propose a novel method to predict mortality using features extracted from the heart signals of patients within the first hour of ICU admission...
December 2018: Smart Health
Osamu Ichikawa, Benjamin S Glicksberg, Nicholas Genes, Brian A Kidd, Li Li, Joel T Dudley
Lyme disease (LD) is the most common tick-borne illness in the United States. Although appropriate antibiotic treatment is effective for most cases, up to 20% of patients develop post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). There is an urgent need to improve clinical management of LD using precise understanding of disease and patient stratification. We applied machine-learning to electronic medical records to better characterize the heterogeneity of LD and developed predictive models for identifying medications that are associated with risks of subsequent comorbidities...
March 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Vivienne J Zhu, Leslie A Lenert, Brian E Bunnell, Jihad S Obeid, Melanie Jefferson, Chanita A Hughes-Halbert
BACKGROUND: Social isolation is an important social determinant that impacts health outcomes and mortality among patients. The National Academy of Medicine recently recommended that social isolation be documented in electronic health records (EHR). However, social isolation usually is not recorded or obtained as coded data but rather collected from patient self-report or documented in clinical narratives. This study explores the feasibility and effectiveness of natural language processing (NLP) strategy for identifying patients who are socially isolated from clinical narratives...
March 14, 2019: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Piero Perucca, Emilio Perucca
The last decade saw impressive advances not only in the discovery of gene mutations causing epilepsy, but also in unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical manifestations of the disease. Increasing evidence is emerging that understanding these mechanisms is relevant for selection of the most appropriate treatment in the affected individual(s). The present article discusses the therapeutic implications of epilepsy-causing variants affecting a broad range of targets, from ion channels to genes controlling cellular metabolism and cell signaling pathways...
March 4, 2019: Epilepsy Research
Sara H Katsanis, Elaine Huang, Amanda Young, Victoria Grant, Elizabeth Warner, Sharon Larson, Jennifer K Wagner
OBJECTIVE: Healthcare providers have key roles in the prevention of, detection of, and interventions for human trafficking. Yet caring for trafficked persons is particularly challenging: patients whose identities are unknown, unreliable, or false could receive subpar care from providers delivering care in a vacuum of relevant information. The application of precision medicine principles and integration of biometric data (including genetic information) could facilitate patient identification, enable longitudinal medical records, and improve continuity and quality of care for this vulnerable patient population...
2019: PloS One
Azmat Ali, Awais Saeed Abbasi, Tehrim Amjad, Fyza Saleem
BACKGROUND: The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are frequently requested investigations that aid health professionals in precisely diagnosing and following a number of complicated disease conditions. The aim of this study is to ascertain whether a rise in any of these acute phase reactants has predilection for an acute illness versus chronic disease.. METHODS: Current study includes 144 patients admitted to Medical ward and Intensive care unit of Khan Research Laboratory (KRL) Hospital Islamabad from January to April 2017...
January 2019: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
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