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Isabel Matos Medeiros-de-Moraes, Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Angela R M Kurz, Flora Magno de Jesus Oliveira, Victor Hugo Pereira de Abreu, Rafael Carvalho Torres, Vinícius Frias Carvalho, Vanessa Estato, Patrícia Torres Bozza, Markus Sperandio, Hugo Caire de Castro-Faria-Neto, Adriana Ribeiro Silva
The Mediterranean diet, rich in olive oil, is beneficial, reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Olive oil is mostly composed of the monounsaturated fatty acid omega-9. We showed omega-9 protects septic mice modulating lipid metabolism. Sepsis is initiated by the host response to infection with organ damage, increased plasma free fatty acids, high levels of cortisol, massive cytokine production, leukocyte activation, and endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to analyze the effect of omega-9 supplementation on corticosteroid unbalance, inflammation, bacterial elimination, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma expression, an omega-9 receptor and inflammatory modulator...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Jèssica Latorre, José M Moreno-Navarrete, Mónica Sabater, Maria Buxo, José I Rodriguez-Hermosa, Jordi Girones, José M Fort, Ramón Vilallonga, Wifredo Ricart, Rafael Simo, Jose-Manuel Fernandez-Real, Francisco J Ortega
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obesity is characterized by the immune activation that eventually dampens insulin sensitivity and changes metabolism. This study explores the impact of different inflammatory/ anti-inflammatory paradigms on the expression of toll-like receptors (TLR) found in adipocyte cultures, adipose tissue, and blood. METHODS: We evaluated by real time PCR the impact of acute surgery stress in vivo (adipose tissue) and macrophages (MCM) in vitro (adipocytes)...
November 26, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Susana Ceballos, Alis Guillén, Diana Lorena Muñoz, Adriana Castaño, Luis Fernando Echeverri, Sergio Acín, Norman Balcázar
BACKGROUND: Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm (Myrtaceae) is a plant used in traditional medicine to control obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. Chronic adipose tissue inflammation is involved in generating insulin resistance, the greatest risk factor in developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. In the present study, a mixture of triterpenes, as obtained from the starting plant material, was evaluated in inflamed adipose tissue cells models. AIM: Our goal is to advance into the understanding, at the cellular level, of the immunometabolic effects of the triterpene mixes from Eucalyptus tereticornis in in vitro models of mouse and human adipose tissues...
November 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Ju-Hyun An, Woo-Jin Song, Qiang Li, Sang-Min Kim, Ji-In Yang, Min-Ok Ryu, A Ryung Nam, Dong Ha Bhang, Yun-Chan Jung, Hwa-Young Youn
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an intractable autoimmune disease, relatively common in cats, with chronic vomiting and diarrhea. Previous studies have reported that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) alleviate inflammation by modulating immune cells. However, there is a lack of research on cross-talk mechanism between feline adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (fAT-MSCs) and immune cells in IBD model. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of fAT-MSC on mice model of colitis and to clarify the therapeutic mechanism of fAT-MSCs...
November 20, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Yoshimasa Takafuji, Mika Hori, Toshihide Mizuno, Mariko Harada-Shiba
Aims: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vasculature. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exert immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive effects by secreting humoral factors; however, the intravascular MSC administration presents a risk of vascular occlusion. Here, we investigated both the effect of conditioned medium from cultured MSCs (MSC-CM) on atherosclerosis and the underlying mechanism. Methods and Results: Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr-/-) mice were fed a high-fat diet and received intravenous injections of either MSC-CM from adipose tissue-derived MSCs or control medium 2×/week for 13 weeks...
November 2, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Katarzyna Kornicka, Jolanta Szłapka-Kosarzewska, Agnieszka Śmieszek, Krzysztof Marycz
Obesity and endocrine disorders have become prevalent issues in the field of both human and veterinary medicine. Equine metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder involving alternation in metabolism and chronic systemic inflammation. It has been shown that unfavourable microenvironment of inflamed adipose tissue negatively affects adipose stem cell population (ASC) residing within, markedly limiting their therapeutic potential. ASCsEMS are characterized by increased senescence apoptosis, excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondria deterioration and "autophagic flux...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Carl Weidinger, Jörn F Ziegler, Marilena Letizia, Franziska Schmidt, Britta Siegmund
Fat tissue was initially described for its endocrine and metabolic function. Over the last two decades increasing evidence indicated a close interaction with the immune system. Partly responsible for this immune modulatory function are soluble factors released by the fat tissue, most prominently the so-called adipokines. These discoveries led to the question how adipokines influence inflammatory diseases. Linking inflammation and adipose tissue, Crohn's disease, a chronic inflammatory bowel disease, is of particular interest for studying the immune modulatory properties of adipokines since it is characterized by a hyperplasia of the mesenteric fat that subsequently is creeping around the inflamed segments of the small intestine...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ren Mao, Satya Kurada, Ilyssa O Gordon, Mark E Baker, Namita Gandhi, Christine McDonald, J Calvin Coffey, Florian Rieder
Adipose tissue is present in close proximity to various organs in the human body. One prominent example is fat contained in the mesentery that is contiguous with all abdominal digestive organs including the intestine. Despite the fact that mesenteric fat-wrapping around the inflamed gut (so called "creeping fat") was described as a characteristic feature of Crohn's disease (CD) in the early 1930s, the functional implications of creeping fat have received only recent attention. As a potent producer of fatty acids, cytokines, growth factors, and adipokines, creeping fat plays an important role in regulation of immunity and inflammation...
October 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Anja Bosy-Westphal, Wiebke Braun, Viktoria Albrecht, Manfred J Müller
Common obesity-associated hepatic steatosis (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)) and insulin resistance are mainly caused by dysfunctional adipose tissue. This adipose tissue dysfunction leads to increased delivery of NEFA and glycerol to the liver that (i) drives hepatic gluconeogenesis and (ii) facilitates the accumulation of lipids and insulin signaling inhibiting lipid intermediates. Dysfunctional adipose tissue can be caused by impaired lipid storage (overflow hypothesis, characterized by large visceral adipocytes) or increased lipolysis (due to impaired postprandial suppression of lipolysis in inflamed, insulin-resistant adipocytes)...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Irene Pierantonelli, Gianluca Svegliati-Baroni
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a growing cause of chronic liver injury, especially in western countries, where it is becoming the most frequent indication for liver transplantation. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease encompasses a spectrum of diseases that from simple steatosis (pure NAFLD) can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathogenesis of NAFLD and the mechanisms behind its progression to NASH have been extensively studied. However, although the processes that determine fat accumulation are mostly clear, the mechanisms associated with the progression of the disease are not fully characterized...
January 2019: Transplantation
Lea I Kredel, Lisa J Jödicke, Alexander Scheffold, Jörn Gröne, Rainer Glauben, Ulrike Erben, Anja A Kühl, Britta Siegmund
Background & Aims: Creeping fat (CF) is a hyperplasia of adipose tissue adjacent to inflamed intestine in Crohn´s disease (CD). Data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) distinguished Crohn´s colitis from ileal CD and ulcerative colitis (UC). This study analysed the T-cell compartments of ileal and colonic mesenteric fat and corresponding mucosa to provide cellular proof for the suggested GWAS classification. Methods: Samples were obtained from 34 CD or UC patients...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Marco Bauzá-Thorbrügge, Sergio Rodríguez-Cuenca, Antonio Vidal-Puig, Bel M Galmés-Pascual, Miquel Sbert-Roig, Magdalena Gianotti, Isabel Lladó, Ana M Proenza
Obesity is associated with inflammation, dysregulated adipokine secretion, and disrupted adipose tissue mitochondrial function. Estradiol (E2) has been previously reported to increase mitochondrial function and biogenesis in several cell lines, but neither the type of oestrogen receptor (ERα, ERβ and GPER) involved nor the mechanism whereby such effects are exerted have been fully described. Considering the anti-inflammatory activity of E2 as well as its effects in enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis, the aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of ERα, ERβ, and GPER signaling to the E2-mediated enhancement of adipocyte mitochondrial function in a pro-inflammatory situation...
January 2019: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Pamela Mattar, Roberto Bravo-Sagua, Nicolás Tobar, Cecilia Fuentes, Rodrigo Troncoso, Gerda Breitwieser, Sergio Lavandero, Mariana Cifuentes
Obesity is a major current public health problem worldwide due to the severe co-morbid conditions that this disease entails. The development of obesity-related cardiometabolic disorders is in direct association with adipose tissue inflammation that leads to its functional impairment. Activation of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR) in adipose tissue contributes to inflammation and adipose dysfunction. Autophagy, a process of cell component degradation, is closely related to inflammation in many diseases, however, whether autophagy is associated with CaSR-induced inflammation remains unknown...
November 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Francesca Paolella, Cristina Manferdini, Elena Gabusi, Laura Gambari, Giuseppe Filardo, Elizaveta Kon, Erminia Mariani, Gina Lisignoli
Cell-based therapies using adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ADMSCs) have shown promising results for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). In fact, ADMSCs are now indicated as one of the most powerful cell sources through their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. Recently, an innovative one-step closed device was developed to obtain microfragmented adipose tissue (MF) to avoid the need for good manufacturing practices for ADMSCs expansion while maintaining their regenerative potential...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Steven Grinspoon
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) rates are 50% to 100% higher in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. Traditional risks account for only 25% of this excess risk. Excess CVD risk in HIV may relate in part to increases in ectopic adipose depots. CVD in HIV-infection is characterized by atypical highly vulnerable plaque lesions, which are inflamed, in tight relationship to immune, and monocyte activation pathways. Using 18 fluorine-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron-emission tomography imaging techniques, we have shown increased arterial inflammation which persists even after effective antiretroviral therapy...
2018: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
Tetsuo Horimatsu, Aaron S Patel, Rosaria Prasad, Lauren E Reid, Tyler W Benson, Abdalrahman Zarzour, Mourad Ogbi, Thiago Bruder do Nascimento, Eric Belin de Chantemele, Brian K Stansfield, Xin-Yun Lu, Ha Won Kim, Neal L Weintraub
PURPOSE: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds the arterial adventitia and plays an important role in vascular homeostasis. PVAT expands in obesity, and inflamed PVAT can locally promote endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Here, using adipose tissue transplantation, we tested the hypothesis that expansion of PVAT can also remotely exacerbate vascular disease. METHODS: Fifty milligrams of abdominal aortic PVAT was isolated from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed wild-type mice and transplanted onto the abdominal aorta of lean LDL receptor knockout mice...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Sahar I Daas, Balsam R Rizeq, Gheyath K Nasrallah
Cancer cachexia is a complex disorder that is driven by inflammation and metabolic imbalances, resulting in extreme weight loss. Adipose tissue, a main player in cancer cachexia, is an essential metabolic and secretory organ consisting of both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue. Its secretory products, including adipokines and cytokines, affect a wide variety of central and peripheral organs, such as the skeletal muscle, brain, pancreas, and liver. Therefore, a combination of metabolic alterations, and systemic inflammation dysregulation of both anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory modulators contribute toward adipose tissue wasting in cancer cachexia...
January 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Sehyung Pak, Sung Wook Hwang, In Kyong Shim, Sang Mun Bae, Yeon- Mi Ryu, Han-Byul Kim, Eun-Ju Do, Hye-Nam Son, Eun-Ji Choi, Sun-Ha Park, Sang-Yeob Kim, Sang Hyoung Park, Byong Duk Ye, Suk-Kyun Yang, Nobuo Kanai, Masanori Maeda, Teruo Okano, Dong-Hoon Yang, Jeong-Sik Byeon, Seung-Jae Myung
Owing to the recent progress in regenerative medicine technology, clinical trials that harnessed the regeneration and immune modulation potentiality of stem cells for treating IBD have shown promising results. We investigated the feasibility and utility of intraluminal endoscopic transplantation of rat MSC sheets in murine models of experimental colitis for targeted delivery of stem cells to lesions. We isolated adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSC) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) from EGFP-transgenic rats and fabricated the cells in sheet forms using temperature-responsive culture dishes...
July 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yi Li, Yuanyuan Ge, Jianfeng Gong, Weiming Zhu, Lei Cao, Zhen Guo, Lili Gu, Jieshou Li
PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to examine the density of lymphatic vessels in the mesentery and to assess the predictive value of the mesenteric lymphatic vessel density for postoperative clinical recurrence. METHODS: Ileocolonic resection specimens were obtained from 53 patients with Crohn's disease and 10 non-inflammatory bowel disease control subjects. Mesentery adipose tissues adjacent to the bowel wall were used for the histological quantification of lymphatic vessels using immunohistochemistry with the D2-40 antibody...
December 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Xabier Unamuno, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi, Amaia Rodríguez, Sara Becerril, Gema Frühbeck, Victoria Catalán
Obesity, a worldwide epidemic, confers increased risk for multiple serious conditions, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cancer. Adipose tissue is considered one of the largest endocrine organs in the body as well as an active tissue for cellular reactions and metabolic homeostasis rather than an inert tissue for energy storage. The functional pleiotropism of adipose tissue relies on its ability to synthesize and release a large number of hormones, cytokines, extracellular matrix proteins and growth and vasoactive factors, collectively termed adipokines that influence a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes...
September 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
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