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Luca Pompermaier, Stefan Schwaiger, Monizi Mawunu, Thea Lautenschlaeger, Hermann Stuppner
Thonnigia sanguinea is a plant widely used in traditional African medicine against a variety of diseases. The obligate parasite is growing throughout tropical African forests and utilizes a large variety of hosts. Dihydrochalcone glucoside derivatives isolated from the subaerial parts of this plant were identified as potential antidiabetic lead compounds. In this study, an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatographic method coupled with a photodiode array detector was developed for the quantitation of six major dihydrochalcone derivatives...
March 22, 2019: Planta Medica
Diamond McGehee, Mohammad Alimohammadi, Maria V Khodakovskaya
Carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) were previously described as regulators of plant cell division. Here, we demonstrated the ability of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and graphene to enhance biomass production in callus culture of the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus cultivated in dark conditions. Furthermore, both tested CBNs were able to stimulate biosynthesis of total produced alkaloids in CBN-exposed callus culture of Catharanthus. In one case, total alkaloids in CBN-exposed Catharanthus were double that of unexposed Catharanthus...
March 22, 2019: Nanotechnology
Jean Carlos Correia Peres Costa, Sara Bover-Cid, Araceli Bolívar, Gonzalo Zurera, Fernando Pérez-Rodríguez
The objective of this work was to quantitatively evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus sakei CTC494 (sakacin-producing bioprotective strain) against Listeria monocytogenes in fish juice and to apply and validate three microbial interaction models (Jameson, modified Jameson and Lotka Volterra models) through challenge tests with gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fillets under modified atmosphere packaging stored at isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. L. sakei CTC494 inhibited L. monocytogenes growth when simultaneously present in the matrix (fish juice and fish fillets) at different inoculation ratios pathogen:bioprotector (i...
March 6, 2019: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Yuelin Zhang, Xin Li
Salicylic acid (SA) has emerged as a key plant defense hormone with critical roles in different aspects of plant immunity. Analysis of Arabidopsis mutants revealed complex regulation of pathogen-induced SA biosynthesis. Studies on SA-insensitive mutants led to the identification of the SA receptors and how SA regulates defense gene expression. Consistent with its critical roles in plant immunity, SA is required for the assembly of a normal root microbiome and various pathogen effectors have evolved to target components of SA biosynthesis or signaling...
March 19, 2019: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Andrew J Tague, Papanin Putsathit, Melanie L Hutton, Katherine A Hammer, Steven M Wales, Daniel R Knight, Thomas V Riley, Dena Lyras, Paul A Keller, Stephen G Pyne
Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile is a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterial pathogen that causes severe gastrointestinal infection in humans. The current chemotherapeutic options are vastly inadequate, expensive and limited; this results in an exorbitant medical and financial burden. New, inexpensive chemotherapeutic treatments for C. difficile infection with improved efficacy are urgently needed. A streamlined synthetic pathway was developed to allow access to 38 novel mono- and di-cationic biaryl 1,2,3-triazolyl peptidomimetics with increased synthetic efficiency, aqueous solubility and enhanced antibacterial efficacy...
March 1, 2019: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Ean-Jeong Seo, Sabine M Klauck, Thomas Efferth, Alexander Panossian
BACKGROUND: Cancer chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairments are apparently associated with harmful effects on physiological functions of brain cells. Adaptogens, are known to exhibit neuroprotective effects and to increase cognitive functions in clinical studies. In our previous study (Seo et al., 2018), we demonstrated that selected adaptogenic extracts significantly attenuate cytostatic-induced regulation of more than 100 genes involved in the activation of neuronal death and inhibiting neurogenesis...
November 6, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Cengiz Kaya, Mustafa Okant, Ferhat Ugurlar, Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Muhammad Ashraf, Parvaiz Ahmad
Two independent trials were conducted to examine the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in MT-mediated tolerance to Cd toxicity in wheat plants. Cadmium toxicity considerably led to a decrease in plant growth, total chlorophyll, PSII maximum efficiency (Fv/Fm), leaf water potential, potassium (K+ ) and calcium (Ca2+ ). Simultaneously, it caused an increase in levels of leaf malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), electron leakage (EL), cadmium (Cd) and nitric oxide (NO) compared to those in control plants...
March 6, 2019: Chemosphere
Chunmiao Wang, Jianwei Yu, Qingyuan Guo, Daolin Sun, Ming Su, Wei An, Yu Zhang, Min Yang
Swampy/septic odors are one of the most important odor types in drinking water. However, few studies have specifically focused on it compared to the extensive reported musty/earthy odor problems, even though the former is much more offensive. In this study, an investigation covering the odor characteristics, algal distribution and possible odorants contributing to swampy/septic odor, including dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), diisopropyl sulfide (DIPS), dipropyl sulfide (DPS), dibutyl sulfide (DBS), 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) and geosmin (GSM), was performed in source and finished water of 56 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in 31 cities across China...
March 14, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Bunushree Behera, P Balasubramanian
The study investigated the ability of plant based natural coagulants from Azadirachta indica; Ficus indica; Moringa oleifera; Citrus sinensis; Punica granatum and Musa acuminata to harvest the microalgal biomass. Influence of eluent type (water and NaCl) and concentration (1-5 N) on coagulant extraction; coagulant dosage (1-5 g) and volume (20-100 ml); pH (6-12) and algal concentration (0.1-1 g l-1 ) on harvesting were analyzed. The results obtained were compared with alum and chitosan. FTIR and biochemical analysis confirmed the presence of bioactive compounds to aid coagulation...
March 14, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Zuzana Lukacova, Renata Svubova, Simona Janikovicova, Zuzana Volajova, Alexander Lux
The effect of silicon (Si) on tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) development and dodder (Cuscuta europaea) - tobacco interaction were studied. Three Si application approaches were tested: tobacco seed priming (2.5 mM Si and 5 mM Si; 2.5S, 5S), watering tobacco plants with Si solution (2.5 mM Si and 5 mM Si; 2.5W, 5W) and foliar application (1 mM Si and 2.5 mM Si; 1F, 2.5F). Dodder was not able to infect the host plant in almost all Si treatments. Only in the control and 2.5W treatments was dodder able to infect its host...
March 8, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Lluis Quintana-Murci
Pathogen-imposed selection pressures have been paramount during human evolution. Detecting such selection signatures in ancient and modern human genomes can thus help us to identify genes of temporal and spatial immunological relevance. Admixture with ancient hominins and between human populations has been a source of genetic diversity open to selection by infections. Furthermore, cultural transitions, such as the advent of agriculture, have exposed humans to new microbial threats, with impacts on host defense mechanisms...
March 21, 2019: Cell
Ana Prohaska, Fernando Racimo, Andrew J Schork, Martin Sikora, Aaron J Stern, Melissa Ilardo, Morten Erik Allentoft, Lasse Folkersen, Alfonso Buil, J Víctor Moreno-Mayar, Thorfinn Korneliussen, Daniel Geschwind, Andrés Ingason, Thomas Werge, Rasmus Nielsen, Eske Willerslev
Identifying the causes of similarities and differences in genetic disease prevalence among humans is central to understanding disease etiology. While present-day humans are not strongly differentiated, vast amounts of genomic data now make it possible to study subtle patterns of genetic variation. This allows us to trace our genomic history thousands of years into the past and its implications for the distribution of disease-associated variants today. Genomic analyses have shown that demographic processes shaped the distribution and frequency of disease-associated variants over time...
March 21, 2019: Cell
Martin Laforest, Katherine Bisaillon, Marie Ciotola, Melanie Cadieux, Pierre-Olivier Hebert, Vicky Toussaint, Antonet Svircev
Erwinia amylovora and Pseudomonas syringae are bacterial phytopathogens responsible for considerable yield losses in commercial pome fruit production. The pathogens, if left untreated, can compromise tree health and economically impact entire commercial fruit productions. Historically, the choice of effective control methods has been limited. The use of antibiotics was proposed as an effective control method. The identification of these pathogens and screening for the presence of antibiotic resistance is paramount in the adoption and implementation of the disease control methods...
March 22, 2019: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Laura D Porturas, Thomas J Anneberg, Anne E Curé, Shengpei Wang, David M Althoff, Kari A Segraves
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Polyploidy, or whole genome duplication (WGD), is common in plants despite theory suggesting that polyploid establishment is challenging and polyploids should be evolutionarily transitory. There is renewed interest in understanding the mechanisms that could facilitate polyploid establishment and explain their pervasiveness in nature. In particular, premating isolation from their diploid progenitors is suggested to be a crucial factor. To evaluate how changes in assortative mating occur, we need to understand the phenotypic effects of WGD on reproductive traits...
March 22, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Kristen Peach, Susan J Mazer
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Wild plant species that require the services of pollen-feeding insects for reliable pollination may evolve features that attract and reward their mutualistic partners. Heterantherous species have been proposed to exhibit a "division of labor" whereby "feeding anthers" (which produce pollen that may be consumed by an insect) are distinguished from "reproductive anthers" (which produce pollen more likely to contribute to reproduction)...
March 22, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Ryan S Fuller, Mitchell E McGlaughlin
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Climate cycles of the Quaternary have impacted plants at a global scale, leaving behind a complex genetic legacy. Species of the northern Rocky Mountains of North America were exposed to more uniform glacial patterns than the central and southern ranges, where synergistic relationships between temperature and precipitation caused differences in the timing and extent of glacier onset. We examined the genetic impacts of climate oscillations on Calochortus gunnisonii (Liliaceae) in the central and southern Rocky Mountains...
March 22, 2019: American Journal of Botany
Femke van Diggelen, Dean Hrle, Mihaela Apetri, Gunna Christiansen, Gerhard Rammes, Armand Tepper, Daniel Erik Otzen
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease for which there currently is no cure. Aggregation of the pre-synaptic protein α-synuclein (aSN) into oligomers (αSOs) is believed to play a key role in PD pathology, but little is known about αSO formation in vivo and how they induce neurodegeneration. Both the naturally occurring polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), strongly upregulated during ROS conditions, stimulate the formation of αSOs, highlighting a potential role in PD...
2019: PloS One
Steven McFarlane, Anne Orr, Ashley P E Roberts, Kristen L Conn, Victor Iliev, Colin Loney, Ana da Silva Filipe, Katherine Smollett, Quan Gu, Neil Robertson, Peter D Adams, Taranjit Singh Rai, Chris Boutell
Host innate immune defences play a critical role in restricting the intracellular propagation and pathogenesis of invading viral pathogens. Here we show that the histone H3.3 chaperone HIRA (histone cell cycle regulator) associates with promyelocytic leukaemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) to stimulate the induction of innate immune defences against herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection. Following the activation of innate immune signalling, HIRA localized at PML-NBs in a Janus-Associated Kinase (JAK), Cyclin Dependent Kinase (CDK), and Sp100-dependent manner...
March 22, 2019: PLoS Pathogens
Juliana M Ansari, Christine Colasacco, Elli Emmanouil, Scott Kohlhepp, Olivia Harriott
Probiotic products are becoming more prevalent as awareness of the role of beneficial microbes in health increases. Ingredient labels of these products often omit identifications at the strain level, making it difficult to track down applicable published research. In this study, we investigated whether products labeled with the same species name contained different strains of those species. From 21 commercially available probiotic supplements and beverages, we cultured five main species: Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and the yeast Saccharomyces boulardii...
2019: PloS One
Federica Bianchi, Sara Flisi, Maria Careri, Nicolò Riboni, Silvia Resimini, Andrea Sala, Virna Conti, Monica Mattarozzi, Simone Taddei, Costanza Spadini, Giuseppina Basini, Stefano Grolli, Clotilde Silvia Cabassi, Roberto Ramoni
The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and the yeast Candida albicans (CA) are pathogens that cohabit the mucosa of the respiratory tracts of animals and humans. Their virulence is largely determined by chemical communication driven by quorum sensing systems (QS), and the cross perception of their quorum sensing molecules (QSM) can modulate the prevalence of one microorganism over the other. Aiming to investigate whether some of the protein components dissolved in the mucus layering the respiratory mucosa might interfere with virulence and cross-communication of these, and eventually other microorganisms, ligand binding assays were carried out to test the scavenging potential of the bovine and porcine forms of the Lipocalin odorant binding protein (OBP) for several QSMs (farnesol, and acylhomoserine lactones), and for pyocyanin, a toxin produced by PA...
2019: PloS One
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