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Traumatic Brain Injury And Long Term Potentiation

Aidan C Smith, Ryan C Holden, Sherry M Rasmussen, Michael R Hoane, Michael J Hylin
Age is a consistent predictor of outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although children and adolescents have the highest rate of hospitalizations and long-term disabilities, few preclinical studies have attempted to model and treat TBI in this population. Studies using nicotinamide (NAM), a soluble B-group vitamin, in older animals (3-6 months) have shown improved functional recovery in experimental models of TBI. The purpose of this study was two-fold: to examine the preclinical efficacy of NAM at different doses on behavioral outcomes in juvenile rats and examine the microglial response over time...
February 13, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Ross C Puffer, John K Yue, Matthew Mesley, Julia B Billigen, Jane Sharpless, Anita L Fetzick, Ava M Puccio, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, David O Okonkwo
INTRODUCTION: Prospects for recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are often underestimated, potentially leading to withdrawal of care in the comatose TBI patient who may ultimately have a favorable outcome with aggressive care. Outcomes and trajectories of recovery in a large series of TBI patients were evaluated at 30, 90 and 180 days post-injury. METHODS: A secondary analysis of the Phase 3 COBRIT was performed analyzing recovery trajectories and long-term outcomes at 30, 90 and 180 days post-injury...
February 11, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Aziz S Alali, Nancy Temkin, Monica S Vavilala, Abhijit V Lele, Jason Barber, Sureyya Dikmen, Randall M Chesnut
OBJECTIVEThe aim of this study was to examine the relationship between early arterial oxygenation thresholds and long-term outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).METHODSIn a post hoc analysis of a randomized trial, adults with severe TBI were classified based on exposure to different levels of arterial oxygenation as measured using the average of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) values obtained within 24 hours of admission. Potentially important PaO2 thresholds were defined a priori. The primary outcome was Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) score at 6 months...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery
Ancor Sanz-Garcia, Miriam Perez-Romero, Jesus Pastor, Rafael G Sola, Lorena Vega-Zelaya, Gema Vega, Fernando Monasterio, Carmen Torrecilla, Paloma Pulido, Guillermo J Ortega
Sedation of neurocritically ill patients is one of the most challenging situation in ICUs. Quantitative knowledge on the sedation effect on brain activity in that complex scenario could help to uncover new markers for sedation assessment. Hence, we aim to evaluate the existence of changes of diverse EEG-derived measures in deeply-sedated (RASS -Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale- -4 and -5) neurocritically ill patients, and also whether sedation doses are related with those eventual changes. 
 Approach: We performed an observational prospective cohort study in the Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital de la Princesa...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Neural Engineering
Buyandelger Batsaikhan, Jing-Ya Wang, Michael T Scerba, David Tweedie, Nigel H Greig, Jonathan P Miller, Barry J Hoffer, Chih-Tung Lin, Jia-Yi Wang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide. Long-term deficits after TBI arise not only from the direct effects of the injury but also from ongoing processes such as neuronal excitotoxicity, inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is known to contribute to these processes. We have previously shown that 3,6'-dithiothalidomide (3,6'-DT), a thalidomide analog that is more potent than thalidomide with similar brain penetration, selectively inhibits the synthesis of TNF-α in cultured cells and reverses behavioral impairments induced by mild TBI in mice...
January 24, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sneha Sagarkar, Nagalakshmi Balasubramanian, Shruti Mishra, Amit G Choudhary, Dadasaheb M Kokare, Amul J Sakharkar
Impaired attention and memory represent some of the major long-term consequences of brain injuries. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms of brain trauma-induced cognitive decline. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the hippocampus are believed to impact learning and memory. Herein, we have induced repeated mild traumatic brain injury (rMTBI) in rats by using weight-drop paradigm, examined the recognition memory using novel object recognition task, and assessed the HDAC activities in the hippocampus post 48 hrs and 30 days of rMTBI...
January 18, 2019: Brain Research
Erik A Fraunberger, Timothy E Shutt, Michael J Esser
OBJECTIVE: To determine if chronic changes in mitochondrial function occur following a mild traumatic brain injury in young rats. RESEARCH DESIGN: Closed-head, weight drop model was used to cause mTBI by applying rotational forces to the brain without surgery. Behavioral battery was used to assess multiple dimensions of impairment across time. Analysis of brain tissue carried out at three-weeks post-injury represents a chronic time point to complement previous work examining acute time points...
January 19, 2019: Brain Injury: [BI]
Flora M Hammond, John D Corrigan, Jessica M Ketchum, James F Malec, Kristen Dams-OʼConnor, Tessa Hart, Thomas A Novack, Jennifer Bogner, Marie N Dahdah, Gale G Whiteneck
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of selected medical and psychiatric comorbidities that existed prior to or up to 10 years following traumatic brain injury (TBI) requiring acute rehabilitation. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Six TBI Model Systems (TBIMS) centers. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 404 participants in the TBIMS National Database who experienced TBI 10 years prior. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Xiaotang Ma, Aswati Aravind, Bryan J Pfister, Namas Chandra, James Haorah
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes a major cause of death, disability, and mental health disorders. Most TBI patients suffer long-term post-traumatic stress disorder, cognitive dysfunction, and disability. The underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of such neuropathology progression in TBI remain elusive. In part, it is due to non-standardized classification of mild, moderate, and severe injury in various animal models of TBI. Thus, a better diagnosis and treatment requires a better understanding of the injury mechanisms in a well-defined severity of mild, moderate, and severe injury in different models that may potentially reflect the various types of human brain injuries...
January 2, 2019: Molecular Neurobiology
Olena Y Glushakova, Alexander V Glushakov, Likun Yang, Ronald L Hayes, Alex Valadka
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often associated with long-term disability and chronic neurological sequelae. One common contributor to unfavorable outcomes is secondary brain injury, which is potentially treatable and preventable through appropriate management of patients in the neurosurgical intensive care unit NICU. Intracranial pressure (ICP) is currently the predominant neurological-specific physiological parameter used to direct the care of severe TBI (sTBI) patients. However, recent clinical evidence has called into question the association of ICP monitoring with improved clinical outcome...
December 29, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Tobias J Krämer, Wasim Sakas, Daniel Jussen, Harald Krenzlin, Oliver Kempski, Beat Alessandri
BACKGROUND: Acute subdural hemorrhage (ASDH) is a severe consequence of traumatic brain injury. The occurrence of subdural blood increases the lethality of these patients independent of the amount of blood or elevated intracranial pressure. Thrombin is one of the potential harmful blood components. Possible harmful effects of thrombin are mediated via the Protease-activated-receptor-1 (PAR1) and thus, translating the acute Thrombin release after ASDH into cell loss. The objectives of the present study were twofold, namely to examine (1) the impact of direct thrombin inhibition in the acute phase after hemorrhage on the long-term histological and functional deficits and (2) the early inhibition of PAR1 activation by thrombin with the selective antagonist SCH79797 on lesion volume at 14 days after ASDH...
December 27, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Nyoman Golden, Tjokorda Gde Bagus Mahadewa, Citra Aryanti, I Putu Eka Widyadharma
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of inflammatory neuronal cell damage will continue after traumatic brain injury in which contributed to subsequent mortality. Serum S100B levels were shown to be an early predictor of mortality due to traumatic brain injury. AIM: This Meta-Analysis will analyse the mean and diagnostic strength of serum S100B levels between survived and died subjects with head injuries based on the various follow-up times of nine studies. METHODS: We conducted a meta-anelysis in accordance with PRISMA guidelines and adhering to Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions...
November 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Junmin Wang, Chao Jiang, Kun Zhang, Xi Lan, Xuemei Chen, Weidong Zang, Zhongyu Wang, Fangxia Guan, Changlian Zhu, Xiuli Yang, Hong Lu, Jian Wang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a principal cause of death and disability worldwide. Melatonin, a hormone made by the pineal gland, is known to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this study, using a weight-drop model of TBI, we investigated the protective effects of ramelteon, a melatonin MT1/MT2 receptor agonist, and its underlying mechanisms of action. Administration of ramelteon (10mg/kg) daily at 10:00 am alleviated TBI-induced early brain damage on day 3 and long-term neurobehavioral deficits on day 28 in C57BL/6 mice...
December 13, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Holly A Kinder, Emily W Baker, Franklin D West
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major contributor of long-term disability and a leading cause of death worldwide. A series of secondary injury cascades can contribute to cell death, tissue loss, and ultimately to the development of functional impairments. However, there are currently no effective therapeutic interventions that improve brain outcomes following TBI. As a result, a number of experimental TBI models have been developed to recapitulate TBI injury mechanisms and to test the efficacy of potential therapeutics...
March 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Mohammad Ali Mirshekar, Alireza Sarkaki, Yaghoub Farbood, Mohammad Kazem Gharib Naseri, Mohammad Badavi, Mohammad Taghi Mansouri, Abbas Haghparast
Objectives: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the main causes of intellectual and cognitive disabilities. Clinically, it is essential to limit the development of cognitive impairment after TBI. In the present study, the neuroprotective effects of gallic acid (GA) on neurological score, memory, long-term potentiation (LTP) from hippocampal dentate gyrus (hDG), brain lipid peroxidation and cytokines after TBI were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two adult male Wistar rats divided randomly into three groups with 24 in each: Veh + Sham, Veh + TBI and GA + TBI (GA; 100 mg/kg, PO for 7 days before TBI induction)...
October 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Chin Lik Tan, Peter J Hutchinson
PURPOSE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of mortality and major disability worldwide. The initial management often depends on the severity of the injury. Pituitary dysfunction can develop as a sequela of TBI, and can have long-term, debilitating impact on the patients. Early identification and prompt intervention of post-traumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP) is essential to prevent or minimize the adverse consequences of this condition. We hereby provide an overview of the current management of TBI from a neurosurgical standpoint...
November 27, 2018: Pituitary
Jeong Bin Lee, Bethann M Affeldt, Yaritxa Gamboa, Mary Hamer, Jeff F Dunn, Andrea C Pardo, Andre Obenaus
Concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is often accompanied by long-term behavioral and neuropsychological deficits. Emerging data suggest that these deficits can be exacerbated following repeated injuries. However, despite the overwhelming prevalence of mTBI in children due to falls and sports-related activities, the effects of mTBI on white matter (WM) structure and its development in children have not been extensively examined. Moreover, the effect of repeated mTBI (rmTBI) on developing WM has not yet been studied, despite the possibility of exacerbated outcomes with repeat injuries...
November 22, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Leslie Wynveen, Miriam Gamble, Josephine Nabulime, Tonny Luggya, Joseph K Kalanzi, Hani Mowafi
Introduction: In Africa, traumatic brain injuries frequently result from road traffic injuries and assaults. Despite limited resources and the high costs of life-saving neurosurgical interventions, secondary brain injury prevention has the potential for improving outcomes. However, nurses and other medical personnel infrequently monitor vital signs, blood sugar, and pulse oximetry and only sporadically re-assess neurological status. Methods: In one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, 27 nurses from Mulago Hospital's emergency centre, a tertiary care trauma hospital in Kampala, Uganda, provided feedback regarding a traumatic brain injury-focused education session and use of a nursing chart for detecting secondary brain injury...
June 2018: African Journal of Emergency Medicine Revue Africaine de la Médecine D'urgence
Shannon B Juengst, Lauren Terhorst, Amy K Wagner
OBJECTIVE: Establish the factor structure of the Behavioral Assessment Screening Tool (BAST), a self-reported emotional/behavioral symptom measure for adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI). SETTING: Community. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling adults with moderate-severe TBI (n = 162; n = 110). DESIGN: Assessment development (cohort study). MAIN MEASURES: Behavioral Assessment Screening Tool...
November 17, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Emily J Nalder, Karl Zabjek, Deirdre R Dawson, Carolina L Bottari, Isabelle Gagnon, Bradford J McFadyen, Anne W Hunt, Suzanne McKenna, Marie-Christine Ouellet, Sylvain Giroux, Nora Cullen, Ewa Niechwiej-Szwedo
OBJECTIVE: This paper reports on a funded summit, which convened a multidisciplinary group of experts to provide consensus on the research priorities necessary for improving long-term community integration of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their caregivers. METHODS: The 2-day summit was directed using the World Café Methodology, to engage stakeholders and collaboratively arrive at a consensus on the problems to be targeted in research. Participants (n=54), drawn from two Canadian provinces, included an interdisciplinary group of researchers, clinicians, representatives from brain injury associations, individuals with TBI, and caregivers...
November 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
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