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Mediodorsal nucleus

Jessica M Phillips, Lesenia R Fish, Niranjan A Kambi, Michelle J Redinbaugh, Sounak Mohanta, Steven R Kecskemeti, Yuri B Saalmann
Our ability to act flexibly, according to goals and context, is known as cognitive control. Hierarchical levels of control, reflecting different levels of abstraction, are represented across prefrontal cortex (PFC). Although the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) is extensively interconnected with PFC, the role of MD in cognitive control is unclear. Tract tracer studies in macaques, involving subsets of PFC areas, have converged on coarse MD-PFC connectivity principles; but proposed finer-grained topographic schemes, which constrain interactions between MD and PFC, disagree in many respects...
January 31, 2019: NeuroImage
Lihang Zhang, Juan Xu, Jinchao Gao, Peiqing Chen, Ming Yin, Wenjuan Zhao
Background: Apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) and ageing are the most important known risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we determined the alterations of IgG, CD19, and Aβ in various brain regions of uninfected male and female APOE3- and APOE4-TR mice at the age of 3 and 10 months to elucidate impacts of AD risk factors on alterations of brain IgG. Results: Positive staining for IgG was distributed across the brain, including neocortex, entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and cerebellum...
2019: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
Motohiro Okada, Kouji Fukuyama, Yasuhiro Kawano, Takashi Shiroyama, Yuto Ueda
Deficiencies in N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)/glutamate receptor (NMDAR) signaling have been considered central to the cognitive impairments of schizophrenia; however, an NMDAR antagonist memantine (MEM) improves cognitive impairments of Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. These mechanisms of paradoxical clinical effects of NMDAR antagonists remain unclear. To explore the mechanisms by which MK801 and MEM affect thalamocortical transmission, we determined interactions between local administrations of MK801, MEM, system xc- (Sxc), and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) on extracellular glutamate and GABA levels in the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MDTN) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) using dual-probe microdialysis with ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography...
February 2019: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Pen-Li Lu, Meng-Li Tsai, Fu-Shan Jaw, Chen-Tung Yen
Mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) is a critical relay of nociception. This study recorded responses of MD neurons to noxious mechanical and thermal stimuli in isoflurane anesthetized rats. We found the threshold of noxious mechanical stimulation was 141 gw and that of noxious heat stimulation was 46 °C. A significantly higher percentage of noxious inhibitory neurons were found in the medial and central part of the MD, whereas a higher percentage of noxious excitatory neurons were found in the lateral part of the MD and adjacent intralaminar nuclei...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Takeshi Asami, Haruhisa Yoshida, Masao Takaishi, Ryota Nakamura, Asuka Yoshimi, Thomas J Whitford, Yoshio Hirayasu
The thalamus is believed to play crucial role in processing viscero-sensory information, and regulating the activity of amygdala in patients with panic disorder (PD). Previous functional neuroimaging studies have detected abnormal activation in the thalamus in patients with PD compared with healthy control subjects (HC). Very few studies, however, have investigated for volumetric abnormalities in the thalamus in patients with PD. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, no previous study has investigated for shape abnormalities in the thalamus in patients with PD...
2018: PloS One
Emmanuelle Courtiol, Michelle Neiman, Gloria Fleming, Catia M Teixeira, Donald A Wilson
A growing body of evidence shows that olfactory information is processed within a thalamic nucleus in both rodents and humans. The mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MDT) receives projections from olfactory cortical areas including the piriform cortex (PCX) and is interconnected with the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Using electrophysiology in freely moving rats, we recently demonstrated the representation of olfactory information in the MDT and the dynamics of functional connectivity between the PCX, MDT and OFC...
December 1, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Kouji Fukuyama, Toshiki Hasegawa, Motohiro Okada
To explore pathophysiology of schizophrenia, this study analyzed the regulation mechanisms that are associated with cystine/glutamate antiporter (Sxc), group-II (II-mGluR), and group-III (III-mGluR) metabotropic glutamate-receptors in thalamo-cortical glutamatergic transmission of MK801-induced model using dual-probe microdialysis. L-glutamate release in medial pre-frontal cortex (mPFC) was increased by systemic- and local mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MDTN) administrations of MK801, but was unaffected by local administration into mPFC...
November 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mingyu Yang, Nikos K Logothetis, Oxana Eschenko
Forming reliable memories requires coordinated activity within distributed brain networks. At present, neural mechanisms underlying systems-level consolidation of declarative memory beyond the hippocampal-prefrontal interactions remain largely unexplored. The mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) is reciprocally connected with the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and also receives inputs from parahippocampal regions. The MD may thus modulate functional connectivity between the hippocampus (HPC) and the mPFC at different stages of information processing...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Kelly E Fredericksen, Kelsey A McQueen, Chad L Samuelsen
The mediodorsal thalamus is a higher-order thalamic nucleus critical for many cognitive behaviors. Defined by its reciprocal connections with the prefrontal cortex, the mediodorsal thalamus receives strong projections from chemosensory cortical areas for taste and smell, gustatory cortex and piriform cortex. Recent studies indicate the mediodorsal thalamus is involved in experience-dependent chemosensory processes, including olfactory attention and discrimination and the hedonic perception of odor-taste mixtures...
November 2, 2018: Chemical Senses
Laura A Bradfield, Genevra Hart, Bernard W Balleine
Although studies examining orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) often treat it as though it were functionally homogeneous, recent evidence has questioned this assumption. Not only are the various subregions of OFC (lateral, ventral, and medial) hetereogeneous, but there is further evidence of heterogeneity within those subregions. For example, several studies in both humans and monkeys have revealed a functional subdivision along the anterior-posterior gradient of the medial OFC (mOFC). Given our previous findings suggesting that, in rats, the mOFC is responsible for inferring the likelihood of unobservable action outcomes (Bradfield, Dezfouli, van Holstein, Chieng, & Balleine, 2015), and given the anterior nature of the placements of our prior manipulations, we decided to assess whether the rat mOFC also differs in connection and function along its anteroposterior axis...
September 19, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Giulio Pergola, Lola Danet, Anne-Lise Pitel, Giovanni A Carlesimo, Shailendra Segobin, Jérémie Pariente, Boris Suchan, Anna S Mitchell, Emmanuel J Barbeau
The function of the human mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) has so far eluded a clear definition in terms of specific cognitive processes and tasks. Although it was at first proposed to play a role in long-term memory, a set of recent studies in animals and humans has revealed a more complex, and broader, role in several cognitive functions. The MD seems to play a multifaceted role in higher cognitive functions together with the prefrontal cortex and other cortical and subcortical brain areas. Specifically, we propose that the MD is involved in the regulation of cortical networks especially when the maintenance and temporal extension of persistent activity patterns in the frontal lobe areas are required...
November 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
KuangHua Guo, Naoki Yamawaki, Karel Svoboda, Gordon M G Shepherd
The anterolateral motor cortex (ALM) and ventral medial (VM) thalamus are functionally linked to support persistent activity during motor planning. We analyzed the underlying synaptic interconnections using optogenetics and electrophysiology in mice (female/male). In cortex, thalamocortical (TC) axons from VM thalamus excited VM-projecting pyramidal tract (PT) neurons in layer 5B of ALM. These axons also strongly excited layer 2/3 neurons (which strongly excite PT neurons, as previously shown) but not VM-projecting corticothalamic (CT) neurons in layer 6...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Elisabet Kádár, Eva Vico Varela, Laura Aldavert-Vera, Gemma Huguet, Ignacio Morgado-Bernal, Pilar Segura-Torres
BACKGROUND: Intracranial Self-Stimulation (ICSS) of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) is a deep brain stimulation procedure, which has a powerful enhancement effect on explicit and implicit memory. However, the downstream synaptic plasticity events of MFB-ICSS in memory related areas have not been described thoroughly. This study complements previous work studying the effect of MFB-ICSS on the expression of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated (Arc) protein, which has been widely established as a synaptic plasticity marker...
August 8, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Subhojit Chakraborty, Zakaria Ouhaz, Stuart Mason, Anna S Mitchell
Distributed brain networks govern adaptive decision-making, new learning and rapid updating of information. However, the functional contribution of the rhesus macaque monkey parvocellular nucleus of the mediodorsal thalamus (MDpc) in these key higher cognitive processes remains unknown. This study investigated the impact of MDpc damage in cognition. Preoperatively, animals were trained on an object-in-place scene discrimination task that assesses rapid learning of novel information within each session. Bilateral neurotoxic (NMDA and ibotenic acid) MDpc lesions did not impair new learning unless the monkey had also sustained damage to the magnocellular division of the MD (MDmc)...
July 18, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Francisco M Mouro, Joaquim A Ribeiro, Ana M Sebastião, Neil Dawson
Elucidating how cannabinoids affect brain function is instrumental for the development of therapeutic tools aiming to mitigate 'on target' side effects of cannabinoid-based therapies. A single treatment with the cannabinoid receptor agonist, WIN 55,212-2, disrupts recognition memory in mice. Here, we evaluate how prolonged, intermittent (30 days) exposure to WIN 55,212-2 (1 mg/kg) alters recognition memory and impacts on brain metabolism and functional connectivity. We show that chronic, intermittent treatment with WIN 55,212-2 disrupts recognition memory (Novel Object Recognition Test) without affecting locomotion and anxiety-like behaviour (Open Field and Elevated Plus Maze)...
October 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Sung Ho Jang, Seong Ho Kim, Sang Seok Yeo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Peipei Wang, Xiuqin Jia, Miao Zhang, Yanxiang Cao, Zhilian Zhao, Yi Shan, Qingfeng Ma, Tianyi Qian, Jingjuan Wang, Jie Lu, Kuncheng Li
The mechanisms of motor functional recovery after pontine infarction (PI) remain unclear. Here, we assessed longitudinal changes in gray matter volume (GMV) and examined the relationship between GMV and clinical outcome. Fifteen patients with unilateral PI underwent magnetic resonance imaging and neurological exams five times during a period of 6 months. Another 15 healthy participants were enrolled as the normal control (NC) group and were examined with the same protocol. The MR exam included routine protocol and a 3D T1-weighted magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo scan...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Mihai Avram, Felix Brandl, Josef Bäuml, Christian Sorg
Schizophrenia is characterized by hypoconnectivity or decreased intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) between prefrontal-limbic cortices and thalamic nuclei, as well as hyperconnectivity or increased iFC between primary-sensorimotor cortices and thalamic nuclei. However, cortico-thalamic iFC overlaps with larger, structurally defined cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical (CSPTC) circuits. If such an overlap is relevant for intrinsic hypo-/hyperconnectivity, it suggests (i) that patterns of cortico-subcortical hypo-/hyperconnectivity extend consistently from thalamus to basal ganglia nuclei; and (ii) such consistent hypo-/hyperconnectivity might link distinctively but consonant with different symptom dimensions, namely cognitive and psychotic impairments...
April 12, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Hannah F Waguespack, Ludise Málková, Patrick A Forcelli, Janita Turchi
The capacity to adjust actions based on new information is a vital cognitive function. An animal's ability to adapt behavioral responses according to changes in reward value can be measured using a reinforcer devaluation task, wherein the desirability of a given object is reduced by decreasing the value of the associated food reinforcement. Elements of the neural circuits serving this ability have been studied in both rodents and nonhuman primates. Specifically, the basolateral amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and mediodorsal thalamus have each been shown to play a critical role in the process of value updating, required for adaptive goal selection...
June 21, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Maria Amat-Foraster, Anders A Jensen, Niels Plath, Kjartan F Herrik, Pau Celada, Francesc Artigas
BACKGROUND: Sub-anesthetic doses of the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) antagonist ketamine evoke transient psychotomimetic effects, followed by persistent antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depressed patients and rodents through still poorly understood mechanisms. Since phencyclidine (PCP) disinhibits thalamo-cortical networks by blocking NMDA-Rs on GABAergic neurons of the reticular thalamic nucleus (RtN), we examined ketamine's actions in the same areas...
July 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
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