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information sciences

Ling-Na Zheng, Rong-Liang Ma, Qian Li, Yuan-Bo Sang, Hai-Long Wang, Bing Wang, Qi-Qi Yan, Dong-Liang Chen, Meng Wang, Wei-Yue Feng, Yu-Liang Zhao
Chemical composition in fingermarks could provide useful information for forensic studies and applications. Here, we evaluate the feasibility of analysis and imaging of fingermarks via elements by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) and commercial X-ray fluorescence (XRF). As a proof of concept, we chose four brands of sunscreens to make fingermarks on different substrates, including plastic film, glass, paper, and silicon wafer. We obtained an evident image of fingermarks via zinc and titanium by XRF methods...
March 16, 2019: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Irene Gómez-Gómez, Emma Motrico, Patricia Moreno-Peral, Alina Rigabert, Sonia Conejo-Cerón, Manuel Ortega-Calvo, José-Ignacio Recio, Juan A Bellón
INTRODUCTION: Many studies have explored the impact of lifestyle interventions on depression. However, little is known about the effectiveness of complex multiple-risk lifestyle interventions in reducing symptoms of depression. Our objective is to assess the effectiveness of complex multiple-risk lifestyle interventions in reducing depressive symptoms in the adult population by the acquisition of at least two healthy habits-healthy diet, physical activity and/or smoking cessation. For such purpose, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials will be conducted...
March 15, 2019: BMJ Open
G Brooke Anderson, Elizabeth A Barnes, Michelle L Bell, Francesca Dominici
In the coming decades, climate change is expected to dramatically affect communities worldwide, altering the patterns of many ambient exposures and disasters, including extreme temperatures, heat waves, wildfires, droughts, and floods. These exposures in turn can affect risks for a variety of human diseases and health outcomes. Climate epidemiology plays an important role in informing policy related to climate change and its threats to public health. Climate epidemiology leverages deep, integrated collaborations between epidemiologists and climate scientists to understand the current and potential future impacts of climate-related exposures on human health...
March 16, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
Radosław W Piast, Radosław Piast
The quest for defining life has lasted since the beginning of modern science. During the last century, we have reached a lot of milestones toward the understanding of life and its molecular basis. Also, as living creatures, we have imprinted awareness about what is life and what is not. It seems like we have everything we need to formulate the definition of life. If so, why has one, that would satisfy everybody, not yet been announced? What is holding us back? Although we seem to know what life is, our understanding of its edges is still blurry...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Kristina Hagenström, Matthias Augustin, Ingrid Köster, Kerstin Protz, Jana Petersen, Jochen Schmitt, Ingrid Schubert
OBJECTIVE: There are still few epidemiological data on patients with chronic wounds (leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers and pressure ulcers). Statutory health insurance (SHI) data is increasingly being used for questions relating to healthcare science. When using this data, which is primarily collected for billing purposes, the methodological procedure for defining cases must be presented transparently. Here, it must be checked whether the target group can be validly defined using the coded diagnoses and, if necessary, further information from routine data...
March 12, 2019: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
Mengjiao Wu, Yan Wang, Di Yang, Ying Gong, Feng Rao, Rui Liu, Yeerken Danna, Jinting Li, Jiawen Fan, Jie Chen, Weimin Zhang, Qimin Zhan
BACKGROUND: Targeting PLK1 has recently been proven as a viable therapeutic strategy against oesophageal squamous cell carcinom (ESCC). Therefore, this study aimed to explore whether the PLK1 inhibitor BI2536 is able to sensitize ESCC cells to cisplatin (DDP) and determine the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Viability, clonogenicity, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were assessed in ESCC cells treated with BI2536 or DDP alone or in combination. Checkpoint activation was examined by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry...
March 12, 2019: EBioMedicine
Sara López-Sanz, Francisco J Guzmán Bernardo, Rosa C Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, Ángel Ríos
Nanoscience and nanotechnology have emerged in recent years as revolutionary trends in almost all fields of activity. Their impact has taken place in the analytical science, too. Firstly, because the use of nanomaterials as analytical tools is more and more frequent and secondly, because the analytical control of nanomaterials in a wide variety of samples is required. In both aspects, analytical metrology for nanomaterials is involved as the scientific discipline responsible for providing reliable information (based on experimental measurements) to end users...
June 20, 2019: Analytica Chimica Acta
Hui Yang, Shilei Li, Qian Zhang, Zhenpeng Wang, Na Li, Chao Han, Qing Huo, Zhenwen Zhao
In fingerprint recognition, besides the physical shape information afforded by fingerprint enhancement techniques (FET), in recent years, more and more efforts are focused on researching the chemical composition of a fingerprint residue. In this work, electrospray deposition method was elaborately used to softly and homogenously deposit the physical enhancers of FET, TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), onto fingerprints. The results showed that this type of deposition was nondestructive to the fingerprint morphology and provided the physical shape information containing all level features...
June 1, 2019: Talanta
Mohammad Ali Abbasi-Moghaddam, Ehsan Zarei, Rafat Bagherzadeh, Hossein Dargahi, Pouria Farrokhi
BACKGROUND: Measuring patients' perception from health service quality as an important element in the assessment of service quality has attracted much attention in recent years. Therefore, this study was conducted to find out how the patients evaluated service quality of clinics at teaching hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Tehran in 2017 and 400 patients were randomly selected from four hospitals...
March 15, 2019: BMC Health Services Research
Yessica Sáez, José Muñoz, Francisco Canto, Antony García, Héctor Montes
For a significant number of people with visual impairments, public transport plays an important role in productivity, community participation, and independence, since it may be the only feasible mobility option to participate in their education, work, medical care, food, and to attend many other places in their community. To use the public bus system safely, effectively, and autonomously, these people need to collect information about their physical environment and visible information at stops and terminals, such as timetables, routes, etc...
March 14, 2019: Sensors
Brett O Gardner, Sharon Kelley, Daniel C Murrie, Kellyn N Blaisdell
Emerging research documents the ways in which task-irrelevant contextual information may influence the opinions and decisions that forensic analysts reach regarding evidence (e.g., Dror and Cole, 2010; National Academy of Sciences, 2009; President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, 2016). Consequently, authorities have called for forensic analysts to rely solely on task-relevant information-and to actively avoid task-irrelevant information-when conducting analyses (National Commission on Forensic Science, 2015)...
February 11, 2019: Forensic Science International
Elias A Halabi, Dorothea Pinotsi, Pablo Rivera-Fuentes
Photoswitchable molecules have multiple applications in the physical and life sciences because their properties can be modulated with light. Fluxional molecules, which undergo rapid degenerate rearrangements in the electronic ground state, also exhibit switching behavior. The stochastic nature of fluxional switching, however, has hampered its application in the development of functional molecules and materials. Here we combine photoswitching and fluxionality to develop a fluorophore that enables very long (>30 min) time-lapse single-molecule localization microscopy in living cells with minimal phototoxicity and no apparent photobleaching...
March 15, 2019: Nature Communications
Heqing Wang, Hao Li, Lixing You, Yong Wang, Lu Zhang, Xiaoyan Yang, Weijun Zhang, Zhen Wang, Xiaoming Xie
Fast and high efficiency single-photon detectors have important applications in the fields of life science and quantum information. We report, herein, a serially connected two superconducting nanowire avalanche photon detector (SC2-SNAP) fabricated on a dielectric mirror aiming to 630 nm wavelength. This detector shows system detection efficiency (SDE) of 84.8% at a dark count rate of 10 Hz and offers fast detection speed while maintaining a high SDE, where the counting rate reaches 53.9 MHz at an SDE of 60%...
March 10, 2019: Applied Optics
Corinna L Koch Dandolo, Maxime Lopez, Kaori Fukunaga, Yoshimi Ueno, Ruven Pillay, David Giovannacci, Yann Le Du, Xueshi Bai, Michel Menu, Vincent Detalle
Terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) are two techniques capable of providing 3D datasets from which depth profiles and cross-sectional images of an object can be derived. They are novel photonics technologies of particular relevance to the field of heritage science, for which the comprehension of the stratigraphic structure of a cultural heritage object may help in the understanding of its artistic technology and state of preservation. The differences in imaging depth, field of view, and axial/lateral resolutions of the two imaging techniques provide different but complementary information of the same scene...
February 10, 2019: Applied Optics
Antony Matsika, Kusum Nathoo, Margaret Borok, Thokozile Mashaah, Felix Madya, Susan Connors, Thomas Campbell, James G Hakim
BACKGROUND: Major challenges are being experienced in medical education in sub-Saharan African Universities. These include emigration of faculty, infrequent curriculum review, inadequate training in medical education, poor investments in infrastructure and lack of faculty development programs. The USA government committed funding to improve the quality of medical education and research capacity in sub-Saharan Africa through the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI). OBJECTIVES: This article describes the implementation of faculty development at the University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences (UZCHS), a recipient of a MEPI award...
April 30, 2018: Annals of Global Health
Christopher Harms, Daniël Lakens
Being able to interpret 'null effects?is important for cumulative knowledge generation in science. To draw informative conclusions from null-effects, researchers need to move beyond the incorrect interpretation of a non-significant result in a null-hypothesis significance test as evidence of the absence of an effect. We explain how to statistically evaluate null-results using equivalence tests, Bayesian estimation, and Bayes factors. A worked example demonstrates how to apply these statistical tools and interpret the results...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Research
Yan Li, Meizhi He, Yaoyao Zhou, Chen Yang, Shuyi Wei, Xiaohui Bian, Odong Christopher, Lang Xie
Background: Studies evaluating the prognostic significance of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) are limited and remain controversial. This meta-analysis was conducted in order to evaluate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of PD-L1 expression in CRC patients. Methods: A comprehensive search was performed against the Medline/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus databases. Data were extracted with name of the first author, year of publication, country of origin, tumor type, number of cases, staining method, cut-off values, PD-L1 positive expression, clinicopathological parameters, outcome, and quality assessment score, and statistical analysis was conducted using Review Manager Version 5...
2019: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Joseph Emil Amegadzie, Oluwatosin Badejo, John-Michael Gamble, Mark Wright, Jamie Farrell, Brooke Jackson, Kirin Sultana, Maimoona Hashmi, Zhiwei Gao
INTRODUCTION: Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap (ACO) is characterised by patients presenting symptoms of both asthma and COPD. Many efforts have been made to validate different methods of identifying asthma-COPD overlap cases based on symptoms, spirometry and medical history in epidemiological studies using healthcare databases. There are various coding algorithm strategies that can be used and selection depends on targeted validation. The primary objectives of this systematic review are to identify validated methods (or algorithms) that identify patients with ACO from healthcare databases and summarise the reported validity measures of these methods...
March 13, 2019: BMJ Open
Sören Wengerowsky, Siddarth Koduru Joshi, Fabian Steinlechner, Julien R Zichi, Sergiy M Dobrovolskiy, René van der Molen, Johannes W N Los, Val Zwiller, Marijn A M Versteegh, Alberto Mura, Davide Calonico, Massimo Inguscio, Hannes Hübel, Liu Bo, Thomas Scheidl, Anton Zeilinger, André Xuereb, Rupert Ursin
Quantum entanglement is one of the most extraordinary effects in quantum physics, with many applications in the emerging field of quantum information science. In particular, it provides the foundation for quantum key distribution (QKD), which promises a conceptual leap in information security. Entanglement-based QKD holds great promise for future applications owing to the possibility of device-independent security and the potential of establishing global-scale quantum repeater networks. While other approaches to QKD have already reached the level of maturity required for operation in absence of typical laboratory infrastructure, comparable field demonstrations of entanglement-based QKD have not been performed so far...
March 14, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Gavin Tsang, Xianghua Xie, Shangming Zhou
Dementia is a chronic and degenerative condition affecting millions globally. The care of patients with dementia presents an ever continuing challenge to healthcare systems in the 21st century. Medical and health sciences have generated unprecedented volumes of data related to health and wellbeing for patients with dementia due to advances in information technology, such as genetics, neuroimaging, cognitive assessment, free texts, routine electronic health records etc. Making the best use of these diverse and strategic resources will lead to high quality care of patients with dementia...
March 12, 2019: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
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