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Eleonore L Huang, Ingo G Steffen, Mathias Lukas, Kai Huang, Joerg R Aschenbach, Janet F Eary, Winfried Brenner, Nicola Beindorff
AIM: The aim of this study was to establish normal values for parotid gland (PG) and submandibular-sublingual salivary gland complex (SSC) uptake of 99m technetium pertechnetate (99m TcO4 ) as a function of age, sex and circadian rhythm in mice. METHODS: In 12 female (F) and 12 male (M) C57BL/6N mice, nine consecutive SPECT images of 10 min each were acquired as dynamic acquisitions beginning 5 min after intravenous injection of 80 MBq 99m TcO4 . Each mouse was imaged in follow-up studies at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of age...
February 2019: Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear Medicine
S K Ries, V Piai, D Perry, S Griffin, K Jordan, R Henry, R T Knight, M S Berger
Human language is organized along two main processing streams connecting posterior temporal cortex and inferior frontal cortex in the left hemisphere, travelling dorsal and ventral to the Sylvian fissure. Some views propose a dorsal motor versus ventral semantic division. Others propose division by combinatorial mechanism, with the dorsal stream responsible for combining elements into a sequence and the ventral stream for forming semantic dependencies independent of sequential order. We acquired data from direct cortical stimulation in the left hemisphere in 17 neurosurgical patients and subcortical resection in a subset of 10 patients as part of awake language mapping...
February 11, 2019: Brain and Language
M B Adegboye, I K Kolawole, B O Bolaji
Introduction: The duration of action of sub-arachnoid block is short, and one of the ways to overcome this is the use of oral clonidine. Methods: 108 patients of ASA I and II, aged 18 to 65 years undergoing lower abdominal surgeries under spinal anaesthesia were randomized into three groups.. Control group A (n=36) no oral clonidine pre-medication, Group B (n=36) and group C (n=36) received 100 µg and 200 µg of oral clonidine pre-medication respectively, 1hr before spinal anaesthesia...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
Shiroh Isono, Natsuko Nozaki-Taguchi, Makoto Hasegawa, Shinichiro Kato, Shinsuke Todoroki, Shigemi Masuda, Norihito Iida, Toshiaki Nishimura, Masatoshi Noto, Yasunori Sato
Rate of respiration is a fundamental vital sign. Accuracy and precision of respiratory rate measurements with contact-free load cell sensors under the bed legs were assessed by breath-by-breath comparison with the pneumotachography technique during two different dynamic breathing tasks in 16 awake human adults resting on the bed. The subject voluntarily increased and decreased the respiratory rate between 4 to 16 bpm (n=8), and 10 to 40 bpm (n=8) at every 2 breaths in 6 different lying postures such as supine, left lateral, right lateral, and 30-degree, 45-degree, and 60-degree sitting postures...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Applied Physiology
Eloise Hudry, Jacob Klickstein, Claudia Cannavo, Rosemary Jackson, Alona Muzikansky, Sheetal Gandhi, David Urick, Taylie Sargent, Lauren Wrobleski, Allyson D Roe, Steven S Hou, Kishore V Kuchibhotla, Rebecca A Betensky, Tara Spires-Jones, Bradley T Hyman
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) effects on brain function remain controversial. Removal of APOE not only impairs cognitive functions but also reduces neuritic amyloid plaques in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Can APOE simultaneously protect and impair neural circuits? Here, we dissociated the role of APOE in AD versus aging to determine its effects on neuronal function and synaptic integrity. Using two-photon calcium imaging in awake mice to record visually evoked responses, we found that genetic removal of APOE improved neuronal responses in adult APP/PSEN1 mice (8-10 mo)...
February 2019: Life science alliance
David W Hewson, Frank Worcester, James Sprinks, Murray D Smith, Heather Buchanan, Philip Breedon, Jonathan G Hardman, Nigel M Bedforth
BACKGROUND: The clinical efficacy of effect-site targeted patient-maintained propofol sedation (PMPS) compared to anaesthetist-controlled propofol sedation (ACPS) for patients undergoing awake joint replacement surgery is currently unknown. There is no commercially available medical device capable of delivering PMPS so we have designed and built such a device. We plan a clinical trial to compare PMPS to ACPS and to collect data relating to the safety of our prototype device in delivering sedation...
February 13, 2019: Trials
Yousef Mohammad, Ahmed Almutlaq, Abdullah Al-Ruwaita, Amjad Aldrees, Abdulaziz Alsubaie, Fawaz Al-Hussain
OBJECTIVES: The onset of ischemic stroke symptoms has been established to have a diurnal variation, with a sizeable proportion (8-28%) occurring during sleep. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been established as an important risk factor for ischemic stroke. However, data on the relationship between OSA and wake-up stroke (WUS) has been scarce. The aim of our study is to determine the relationship between OSA and WUS. METHODS: This is a case-control study conducted on acute stroke patients who presented to one of two major medical centers in Riyadh of Saudi Arabia...
February 13, 2019: Neurological Sciences
Marco Buiatti, Elisa Di Giorgio, Manuela Piazza, Carlo Polloni, Giuseppe Menna, Fabrizio Taddei, Ermanno Baldo, Giorgio Vallortigara
Humans are endowed with an exceptional ability for detecting faces, a competence that, in adults, is supported by a set of face-specific cortical patches. Human newborns, already shortly after birth, preferentially orient to faces, even when they are presented in the form of highly schematic geometrical patterns vs. perceptually equivalent nonfacelike stimuli. The neural substrates underlying this early preference are still largely unexplored. Is the adult face-specific cortical circuit already active at birth, or does its specialization develop slowly as a function of experience and/or maturation? We measured EEG responses in 1- to 4-day-old awake, attentive human newborns to schematic facelike patterns and nonfacelike control stimuli, visually presented with slow oscillatory "peekaboo" dynamics (0...
February 12, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Srikant S Chakravarthi, Amin B Kassam, Melanie B Fukui, Alejandro Monroy-Sosa, Nichelle Rothong, Joseph Cunningham, Jonathan E Jennings, Neil Guenther, Jeremy Connelly, Tobias Kaemmerer, Kenneth C Nash, Mark Lindsay, Janie Rissell, Juanita M Celix, Richard A Rovin
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic and microneurosurgical approaches to third ventricular lesions are commonly performed under general anesthesia. OBJECTIVE: To report our initial experience with awake transsulcal parafascicular corridor surgery (TPCS) of the third ventricle and its safety, feasibility, and limitations. METHODS: A total of 12 cases are reviewed: 6 colloid cysts, 2 central neurocytomas, 1 papillary craniopharyngioma, 1 basal ganglia glioblastoma, 1 thalamic glioblastoma, and 1 ependymal cyst...
February 12, 2019: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Vitalie Chiosa, Dumitru Ciolac, Stanislav Groppa, Nabin Koirala, Bogdan Pintea, Anatolie Vataman, Yaroslav Winter, Gabriel Gonzalez-Escamilla, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Sergiu Groppa
Study Objectives: In this study, we aimed to estimate the alterations of brain networks and structural integrity linked to seizure occurrence during sleep and awake states. Methods: Using a graph theory approach to magnetic resonance imaging-derived volumes of cortical and subcortical regions, we investigated the topological organization of structural networks in patients with sleep seizures (n = 13), patients with awake seizures (n = 12), and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 10)...
January 31, 2019: Sleep
Fabien Rech, Guillaume Herbet, Yann Gaudeau, Sophie Mézières, Jean-Marie Moureau, Sylvie Moritz-Gasser, Hugues Duffau
Negative motor responses (NMRs) are defined as movement arrests induced by direct electrical stimulation of the brain. The NMRs manifest themselves after the disruption of a corticosubcortical network involved in motor control, referred to as the 'negative motor network'. At present, the spatial topography of the negative motor areas (NMAs) is poorly known. Hence, the objectives of the present study were to establish the first probabilistic map of the NMAs of the upper limbs and face, identify potential subareas, and investigate the NMAs' relationships with the primary motor cortex...
February 7, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Masaru Yamamoto, Katsunori Okajima, Akira Shimane, Tomoya Ozawa, Itsuro Morishima, Toru Asai, Masahiko Takagi, Atsunobu Kasai, Eitaro Fujii, Ken Kiyono, Eiichi Watanabe, Yukio Ozaki
Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) improve survival in patients who are at risk of sudden death. However, inappropriate therapy is commonly given to ICD recipients, and this situation may be associated with an increased risk of death. This study aimed to construct a risk stratification scheme by using decision tree analysis in patients who received inappropriate ICD therapy.Mortality was calculated from a retrospective data analysis of a multicenter cohort involving 417 ICD recipients. Inappropriate therapy was defined as therapy for nonventricular arrhythmias, including sinus tachycardia, supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation/flutter, oversensing, and lead failure...
February 8, 2019: International Heart Journal
Miguel E Habeych, Pouria Moshayedi, Jon C Rittenberger, Scott R Gunn
A 34-year-old male was brought to the hospital with a chest gunshot wound. Pulseless upon arrival, blood pressure was absent for 10 minutes. A thoracotomy resulted in return of spontaneous circulation. On hospital day 5, with brainstem reflexes present, he was unresponsive to call or pain, exhibited generalized hyperreflexia and bilateral Babinskys. Median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (mSSEPs) and brainstem auditory evoked potentials were obtained. International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology recommendations for mSSEPs and brainstem auditory evoked potentials were followed...
February 12, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine
Joanna Sierpowska, Andreu Gabarrós, Alejandro Fernández-Coello, Àngels Camins, Sara Castañer, Montserrat Juncadella, Clément François, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
In the present study, we aimed to test the association between the correct function of the left ventral white matter pathways and semantic processing (dual stream models for language processing, Hickok & Poeppel, 2004), using a new set of language tasks during intraoperative electrical stimulation at white matter level. Additionally, we evaluated brain regions needed for correct performance on the different semantic tasks using lesion-symptom analyses (voxel lesion-symptom mapping and track-wise lesion analysis) in a sample of 62 candidates for the awake brain surgery...
January 31, 2019: NeuroImage: Clinical
Jae Young Ji, Jin Soo Park, Ji Eun Kim, Dah Hyung Kim, Jin Hun Chung, Hea Rim Chun, Ho Soon Jung, Sie Hyeon Yoo
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane is widely used to anesthetize children because of its rapid action with minimal irritation of the airways. However, there is a high risk of agitation after emergence from anesthesia. Strabismus surgery, in particular, can trigger agitation because patients have their eyes covered in the postoperative period. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not esmolol and lidocaine could decrease emergence agitation in children. METHODS: Eighty-four patients aged 3 to 9 years undergoing strabismus surgery were randomly assigned to a control group (saline only), a group that received intravenous lidocaine 1...
February 5, 2019: Chinese Medical Journal
Kelly A Mills
A variety of neurological procedures, including deep brain stimulation and craniotomies that require tissue removal near elegant cortices, require patients to remain awake and responsive in order to monitor function. Such procedures can produce anxiety and are poorly tolerated in some subjects. In this issue of the JCI, Bijanki and colleagues demonstrate that electrical stimulation of the left dorsal anterior cingulum bundle promoted a positive (mirthful) effect and reduced anxiety, without sedation, in three patients with epilepsy undergoing intracranial electrode monitoring...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Sandra Ackermann, Maren Cordi, Roberto La Marca, Erich Seifritz, Björn Rasch
Sleep disturbances are an important risk factor for stress-related diseases such as burnout or depression. In particular, slow-wave activity (SWA) during sleep might be eminently relevant for optimal maintenance of mental health and cognitive functioning. In spite of the clinical importance and the pertinence of stress-related processes in everyday life, the physiological mechanisms of the association between stress, sleep, and cognition are not well-understood. In the present study, we carefully mapped the time course of the influence of a psychosocial stressor on sleep architecture and sleep-related oscillations during a midday nap...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
Lampros Perogamvros, Hyeong-Dong Park, Laurence Bayer, Aurore A Perrault, Olaf Blanke, Sophie Schwartz
Nightmares are characterized by the experience of strong negative emotions occurring mainly during REM sleep. Some people suffer from nightmare disorder, which is defined by the repeated occurrence of nightmares and by significant distress in wakefulness. Yet, whether frequent nightmares relate to a general increase in emotional reactivity or arousal during sleep remains unclear. To address this question, we recorded heartbeat-evoked potentials (HEPs) during wakefulness, NREM and REM sleep in patients with nightmare disorder and healthy participants...
January 29, 2019: NeuroImage: Clinical
Daisuke Fujisawa, Jennifer S Temel, Joseph A Greer, Areej El-Jawahri, Lara Traeger, Jamie M Jacobs, Stacy Cutrono, William F Pirl
OBJECTIVE: Wearable devices such as a wrist actigraph may have a potential to objectively estimate patients' functioning and may supplement performance status (PS). This proof-of-concept study aimed to evaluate whether actigraphy data are significantly associated with patients' functioning and are predictive of their survival in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. METHOD: We collected actigraphy data for a three-day period in ambulatory patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer...
February 11, 2019: Palliative & Supportive Care
Mohammad Moeini, Xuecong Lu, Samuel Bélanger, Frédéric Picard, David Boas, Ashok Kakkar, Frédéric Lesage
Compromised oxygen supply to cerebral tissue could be an important mechanism contributing to age-related cognition decline. We recently showed in awake mice that resting cerebral tissue pO2 decreases with age, a phenomenon that manifests mainly after middle-age. To extend these findings, here we aimed to study how tissue pO2 response to neuronal stimulation is affected by aging. We used two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy to directly measure the brain tissue pO2 response to whisker stimulation in healthy awake young, middle-aged and old mice...
February 7, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
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