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Coronary imaging

Sherin Nawaito, Pramod Sahadevan, Marie-Élaine Clavet-Lanthier, Philippe Pouliot, Fatiha Sahmi, Yanfen Shi, Marc-Antoine Gillis, Frédéric Lesage, Matthias Gaestel, Martin G Sirois, Angelino Calderone, Jean-Claude Tardif, Bruce G Allen
MK5 is a protein serine/threonine kinase activated by p38, ERK3, and ERK4 MAPKs. MK5 mRNA and immunoreactivity are detected in mouse cardiac fibroblasts and MK5-haplodeficiency attenuates the increase in collagen 1-a1 mRNA evoked by pressure overload. The present study examined the effect of MK5 haplodeficiency on reparative fibrosis following myocardial infarction (MI). Twelve-week-old MK5+/- and wild-type littermate (MK5+/+ ) mice underwent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LADL). Surviving mice were sacrificed 8- or 21-days post-MI...
March 22, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Jonathan D Dawkins, Ari M Cedars, Jeffrey M Schussler
The use of alternative arterial access and advanced imaging is not only applicable to mainstream adult cardiology, but helpful and sometimes necessary in taking care of adult patients with complex congenital heart disease.
March 2019: Clinical Case Reports
Andrew Chang, Brittany Ricci, Brian Mac Grory, Shawna Cutting, Tina Burton, Katarina Dakay, Mahesh Jayaraman, Alexander Merkler, Michael Reznik, Michael P Lerario, Christopher Song, Hooman Kamel, Mitchell S V Elkind, Karen Furie, Shadi Yaghi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cardiac biomarkers may help identify stroke mechanisms and may aid in improving stroke prevention strategies. There is limited data on the association between these biomarkers and acute ischemic stroke (AIS) caused by large vessel occlusion (LVO). We hypothesized that cardiac biomarkers (cardiac troponin and left atrial diameter [LAD]) would be associated with the presence of LVO. METHODS: Data were abstracted from a single center prospective AIS database over 18 months and included all patients with AIS with CT angiography of the head and neck...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Takamasa Tanaka, Atsunori Okamura, Katsuomi Iwakura, Mutsumi Iwamoto, Hiroyuki Nagai, Tomohiro Yamasaki, Akinori Sumiyoshi, Kota Tanaka, Koichi Inoue, Yasushi Koyama, Tohru Masuyama, Masaharu Ishihara, Kenshi Fujii
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare the procedural outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion between the periods before and after introduction of 3-dimensional (3D) wiring. BACKGROUND: Previously, we reported a 3D wiring method by which the operator can construct real-time mental 3D images from 2 perpendicular angles of X-ray system monitor during percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion. METHODS: A total of 137 chronic total occlusion lesions that could not be passed by tapered soft wires in our hospital between 2012 and 2017 were retrospectively enrolled in the study...
March 25, 2019: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
Tomoyo Sugiyama, Erika Yamamoto, Francesco Fracassi, Hang Lee, Taishi Yonetsu, Tsunekazu Kakuta, Tsunenari Soeda, Yoshihiko Saito, Bryan P Yan, Osamu Kurihara, Masamichi Takano, Giampaolo Niccoli, Filippo Crea, Takumi Higuma, Shigeki Kimura, Yoshiyasu Minami, Junya Ako, Tom Adriaenssens, Niklas F Boeder, Holger M Nef, James G Fujimoto, Valentin Fuster, Aloke V Finn, Erling Falk, Ik-Kyung Jang
OBJECTIVES: This study conducted detailed analysis of calcified culprit plaques in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). BACKGROUND: Calcified plaques as an underlying pathology in patients with ACS have not been systematically studied. METHODS: From 1,241 patients presenting with ACS who had undergone pre-intervention optical coherence tomography imaging, 157 (12.7%) patients were found to have a calcified plaque at the culprit lesion...
March 25, 2019: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
Polyxeni Gkontra, Wahbi K El-Bouri, Kerri-Ann Norton, Andrés Santos, Aleksander S Popel, Stephen J Payne, Alicia G Arroyo
Background Microcirculation is a decisive factor in tissue reperfusion inadequacy following myocardial infarction ( MI ). Nonetheless, experimental assessment of blood flow in microcirculation remains a bottleneck. We sought to model blood flow properties in coronary microcirculation at different time points after MI and to compare them with healthy conditions to obtain insights into alterations in cardiac tissue perfusion. Methods and Results We developed an image-based modeling framework that permitted feeding a continuum flow model with anatomical data previously obtained from the pig coronary microvasculature to calculate physiologically meaningful permeability tensors...
April 2, 2019: Journal of the American Heart Association
Rafaela de Araujo Fernandes Corrêa, Rogério Faustino Ribeiro Júnior, Sara Bianca Oliveira Mendes, Priscila Mendonça Dos Santos, Miracle Vitória Albino da Silva, Daniel Ferron Silva, Igor Peixoto Biral, Priscila Rossi de Batista, Dalton Valentim Vassallo, Athelson Stefanon Bittencourt, Ivanita Stefanon, Aurélia Araújo Fernandes
Testosterone is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. This study evaluated cardiac remodeling 60 days after myocardial infarction (MI) in rats with testosterone deficiency. One week after castration, the animals underwent myocardial infarction. Rats were divided into four groups: orchidectomized (OCT); orchidectomized and infarcted (OCT+MI), MI and control (Sham). The myocyte cross-sectional area and the papillary muscle contractility were evaluated 8 weeks after MI. The coronary bed was perfused with Biodur E20 resin to evaluate the neovascularization after MI...
2019: PloS One
Kimberly Howard-Quijano, Emily Methangkool, Jennifer C Scovotti, Einat Mazor, Tristan R Grogan, Wolf B Kratzert, Aman Mahajan
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) strain is an echocardiographic modality that can characterize left ventricular (LV) function with greater accuracy than ejection fraction. While decreases in global strain have been used to predict outcomes after cardiac surgery, changes in regional 3D longitudinal, circumferential, radial, and area strain have not been well described. The primary aim of this study was to define differential patterns in regional LV dysfunction after cardiac surgery using 3D speckle tracking strain imaging...
March 20, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Y Li, N Zhang, C M Wang, G L He
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the value of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the diagnosis of coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction in forensic identification. METHODS: OCT and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) examination were performed to examine the pathological samples of coronary artery and myocardial infarction in 5 cases of sudden coronary death. The morphological and local measurement indexes were compared. RESULTS: In the OCT images, the layers of coronary artery could be distinguishably featured, and the atheroma plaques had a good morphological correspondence with HE slices...
February 2019: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
Wilson Mathias, Jeane M Tsutsui, Bruno G Tavares, Agostina M Fava, Miguel O D Aguiar, Bruno C Borges, Mucio T Oliveira, Alexandre Soeiro, Jose C Nicolau, Henrique B Ribeiro, Hsu Pochiang, João C N Sbano, Abdulrahman Morad, Andrew Goldsweig, Carlos E Rochitte, Bernardo B C Lopes, José A F Ramirez, Roberto Kalil Filho, Thomas R Porter
BACKGROUND: Pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that high mechanical index (MI) impulses from a diagnostic ultrasound transducer (DUS) during an intravenous microbubble infusion (Sonothrombolysis) can restore epicardial and microvascular flow in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). OBJECTIVE: We tested the clinical effectiveness of sonothrombolysis in patients with STEMI. METHODS: Patients with their first STEMI were prospectively randomized to either DUS-guided high MI impulses during an intravenous ultrasound agent infusion prior to, and following, emergent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), or to a control group that received PCI only (n=50 in each group)...
March 7, 2019: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Victoria Pettemerides, Thomas Jake Turner, Conor Steele, Anita Macnab
INTRODUCTION: The 2016 NICE clinical guideline 95 (CG95) demoted functional imaging to a second line test following computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). Many cardiac CT services in the UK require substantial investment and growth to implement this. Chest pain services like ours are likely to continue to use stress testing for the foreseeable future. We share service evaluation data from our department to show that a negative stress echocardiogram can continue to be used for chest pain assessment...
March 1, 2019: Echo Research and Practice
Lauren M Shepard, Kelsey N Sommer, Erin Angel, Vijay Iyer, Michael F Wilson, Frank J Rybicki, Dimitrios Mitsouras, Sabee Molloi, Ciprian N Ionita
We developed three-dimensionally (3D) printed patient-specific coronary phantoms that are capable of sustaining physiological flow and pressure conditions. We assessed the accuracy of these phantoms from coronary CT acquisition, benchtop experimentation, and CT-FFR software. Five patients with coronary artery disease underwent 320-detector row coronary CT angiography (CCTA) (Aquilion ONE, Canon Medical Systems) and a catheter lab procedure to measure fractional flow reserve (FFR). The aortic root and three main coronary arteries were segmented (Vitrea, Vital Images) and 3D printed (Eden 260V, Stratasys)...
April 2019: Journal of Medical Imaging
Mitchell C Lock, Jack R T Darby, Jia Yin Soo, Doug A Brooks, Sunthara Rajan Perumal, Joseph B Selvanayagam, Mike Seed, Christopher K Macgowan, Enzo R Porrello, Ross L Tellam, Janna L Morrison
Aim: Characterizing the response to myocardial infarction (MI) in the regenerative sheep fetus heart compared to the post-natal non-regenerative adolescent heart may reveal key morphological and molecular differences that equate to the response to MI in humans. We hypothesized that the immediate response to injury in (a) infarct compared with sham, and (b) infarct, border, and remote tissue, in the fetal sheep heart would be fundamentally different to the adolescent, allowing for repair after damage. Methods: We used a sheep model of MI induced by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Camilla Scabbio, Simona Malaspina, Antonella Capozza, Claudio Selvaggi, Roberta Matheoud, Angelo Del Sole, Michela Lecchi
PURPOSE: We have recently demonstrated that iterative reconstruction algorithms with resolution recovery require the adoption of specific normal databases (NDBs) for perfusion SPECT quantification. This work was aimed at investigating the impact of patient low-dose imaging on NDBs and percent summed rest (SR%) and stress (SS%) scores. METHODS: Assuming that count statistics of shorter acquisition time may simulate that of lower patient dose, three simultaneous scans were acquired (BrightView, Philips) with different acquisition-time/projection: 30, 15 and 8 s (from 100% to 25% of the reference)...
March 16, 2019: Physica Medica: PM
Xianglan Liu, Changbin Sun, Jiangtian Tian, Xinxin Liu, Shaohong Fang, Xiangwen Xi, Xia Gu, Yong Sun, Jinwei Tian, Bo Yu
AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the progression and vascular shrinkage of vulnerable plaque lesions with a plaque burden at least 70% among patients with coronary artery disease by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). METHODS: Fifty-six OCT-identified vulnerable plaques from 47 patients were included among coronary angiography-identified nonculprit/nontarget lesions. Serial IVUS images were used to assess plaque progression and vascular shrinkage...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Anum Minhas, Marc Dewey, Andrea L Vavere, Yutaka Tanami, Mohammad R Ostovaneh, Michael Laule, Carlos E Rochitte, Hiroyuki Niinuma, Klaus F Kofoed, Jacob Geleijns, John Hoe, Marcus Y Chen, Kakuya Kitagawa, Cesar Nomura, Melvin E Clouse, Frank J Rybicki, Swee Yaw Tan, Narinder Paul, Matthew Matheson, Christopher Cox, Matthias Rief, Pia Maier, Sarah Feger, Michail Plotkin, Eva Schönenberger
Background Patient preference is pivotal for widespread adoption of tests in clinical practice. Patient preferences for invasive versus other noninvasive tests for coronary artery disease are not known. Purpose To compare patient acceptance and preferences for noninvasive and invasive cardiac imaging in North and South America, Asia, and Europe. Materials and Methods This was a prospective 16-center trial in 381 study participants undergoing coronary CT angiography with stress perfusion, SPECT, and invasive coronary angiography (ICA)...
March 19, 2019: Radiology
Chong-Fu Jia, Jie Zhong, Xin-Yi Meng, Xi-Xia Sun, Zhi-Qiang Yang, Yu-Jie Zou, Xiang-Yue Wang, Shuang Pan, Da Yin, Zhao-Qian Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the image quality (IQ) and diagnostic value of 70 kVp turbo high-pitch coronary CT angiography (THP-CCTA) using automated tube voltage selection (ATVS) and 30 mL of low-concentration contrast agent. METHODS: Patients who underwent 70 kVp THP-CCTA using ATVS with 30 mL of contrast agent (group A) were prospectively enrolled, and those who underwent conventional CCTA (100/120 kVp, prospective sequential mode with 65-75 mL of contrast agent) (group B) were retrospectively selected for study...
March 19, 2019: European Radiology
Guanglei Wang, Xuehong Zhang, Yechen Han, Hongrui Wang, Yan Li
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become a key technique in the diagnosis of coronary artery stenosis, which can identify plaques and vulnerable plaques in the image. Therefore, this technique is of great significance for the diagnosis of coronary heart disease. However, there is still a lack of automatic, multi-region, high-precision segmentation algorithms for coronary OCT images in the current research field. Therefore, this paper proposes a multi-zone, fully automated segmentation algorithm for coronary OCT images based on neutrosophic theory, which achieves high-precision segmentation of fibrous plaques and lipid regions...
February 25, 2019: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
Yuehua Li, Mingyuan Yuan, Mengmeng Yu, Zhigang Lu, Chengxing Shen, Yining Wang, Bin Lu, Jiayin Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence and clinical characteristics of decreased myocardial blood flow (MBF) quantified by dynamic computed tomography (CT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in symptomatic patients without in-stent restenosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven (mean age, 71.3 ± 10 years; age range, 48-88 years; 31 males, 6 females) consecutive symptomatic patients with patent coronary stents and without obstructive de novo lesions were prospectively enrolled to undergo dynamic CT-MPI using a third-generation dual-source CT scanner...
April 2019: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
Jeroen Sonck, Yosuke Miyazaki, Carlos Collet, Yoshinobu Onuma, Taku Asano, Kuniaki Takahashi, Norihiro Kogame, Yuki Katagiri, Rodrigo Modolo, Patrick W Serruys, Antonio L Bartorelli, Daniele Andreini, Torsten Doenst, Juan Pablo Maureira, Andre Plass, Mark La Meir, Giulio Pompillio
OBJECTIVES: Invasive coronary angiography has been the preferred diagnostic method to guide the decision-making process between coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention and plan a surgical revascularization procedure. Guidelines recommend a heart team approach and assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD) complexity, objectively quantified by the anatomical SYNTAX score. Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and CT-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) are emerging technologies in the diagnosis of stable CAD...
March 18, 2019: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
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