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Diabetic retinopathy metformin

Jo-Anne Manski-Nankervis, Sharmala Thuraisingam, Janet K Sluggett, Gary Kilov, John Furler, David O'Neal, Alicia Jenkins
BACKGROUND: Previous studies in general practice and hospital settings have identified that prescribing of non-insulin diabetes medications may be sub-optimal in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and renal impairment. Since these publications, a number of new medications have become available for the management of T2D. Study aims were to, in a cohort of Australians with T2D and renal impairment attending general practice, (1) investigate whether the prescribing of non-insulin diabetes medications is consistent with dosing adjustments recommended within current Australian Diabetes Society (ADS) guidelines; and (2) identify patient socio-demographic and clinical factors associated with at least one prescription of a non-insulin diabetes medication inconsistent with current ADS guidelines for medication doses...
February 18, 2019: BMC Family Practice
Anastasios Tentolouris, Ioanna Eleftheriadou, Evangelia Tzeravini, Dimitrios Tsilingiris, Stavroula A Paschou, Gerasimos Siasos, Nikolaos Tentolouris
Endothelium plays an essential role in human homeostasis by regulating arterial blood pressure, distributing nutrients and hormones as well as providing a smooth surface that modulates coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation. Endothelial dysfunction is present in diabetes mellitus (DM) and contributes to the development and progression of macrovascular disease, while it is also associated with most of the microvascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia are the main factors involved...
January 19, 2019: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Zhila Maghbooli, Solaleh Emamgholipour, Sima Aliakbar, Manouchehr Amini, Sattar Gorgani-Firuzjaee, Arash Hossein-Nezhad
This study investigated the mRNA and protein levels of SIRT1, SIRT3, and SIRT4 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from type 2 diabetes patients with retinopathy (diabetic retinopathy (DR) patients) (n = 86) and those without retinopathy (n = 103). The mRNA expression of SIRT1 and SIRT3 was found to be significantly higher in diabetic patients with retinopathy compared to those without retinopathy. Notably, protein levels of SIRT1, SIRT3, and SIRT4 were higher in patients with DR compared with controls after adjusting for diabetes duration and taking metformin (p = ...
December 20, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Abdulrahman L Al-Malki
This study investigated the impact of Shikimic Acid (SA) obtained from leaves of Artemisia absinthium on protein glycation in the retina of diabetic rats. The GC/MS analysis of A. absinthium showed that the most abundant bioactive compound was SA (C7 H10 O5 ) with a measured retention Index (RI) of 1960 compared to that of the reference sample (1712). Male albino rats were divided into two main groups, Group I (control) and Group II (diabetic); Group II was further divided into four subgroups: Group IIa (diabetic control), Group IIb (diabetic rats were given SA orally [50 mg/kg, body weight (bw)/day], Group IIc diabetic rats were given SA orally [100 mg/kg, bw/day], and Group IId (diabetic rats were given metformin orally [100 mg/kg, bw/day] as positive control)...
September 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yoon Sook Kim, Minjun Kim, Mee Young Choi, Dong Hoon Lee, Gu Seob Roh, Hyun Joon Kim, Sang Soo Kang, Gyeong Jae Cho, Eun-Kyung Hong, Wan Sung Choi
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of diabetic retinopathy. Here, we examined whether α-lipoic acid (α-LA), a natural antioxidant, attenuated retinal injury in diabetic mice. The α-LA was orally administered to control mice or mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. We found that α-LA reduced oxidative stress, decreased and increased retinal 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and glutathione peroxidase, respectively, and inhibited retinal cell death. Concomitantly, α-LA reversed the decreased activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and increased the levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta and sirtuin3 in diabetic mouse retinas, similar to results shown after metformin treatment of retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) exposed to high glucose...
September 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Hideyuki Yoshizumi, Tetsushi Ejima, Tetsuhiko Nagao, Masanori Wakisaka
BACKGROUND Diabetic macular edema (DME) causes serious visual impairments in diabetic patients. The standard treatments of DME are intra-vitreous injections of corticosteroids or anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibodies and pan-photocoagulation. These treatments are unsatisfactory in their effects and impose considerable physical and economic burdens on the patients. CASE REPORT A 63-year-old woman was diagnosed as type 2 diabetes with retinopathy 7 years ago. Before the initiation of an SGLT2 inhibitor, the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin (50 mg daily), and metformin (250 mg dai- ly) were used for her glycemic control...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Jing Han, Yue Li, Xiuli Liu, Tongrong Zhou, Haijing Sun, Paul Edwards, Hua Gao, Fu-Shin Yu, Xiaoxi Qiao
The oral anti-diabetic drug metformin has been found to reduce cardiovascular complications independent of glycemic control in diabetic patients. However, its role in diabetic retinal microvascular complications is not clear. This study is to investigate the effects of metformin on retinal vascular endothelium and its possible mechanisms, regarding two major pathogenic features of diabetic retinopathy: angiogenesis and inflammation. In human retinal vascular endothelial cell culture, metformin inhibited various steps of angiogenesis including endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in a dose-dependent manner...
2018: PloS One
Sanita Maleškić, Jasna Kusturica, Edis Gušić, Maida Rakanović-Todić, Damir Šečić, Lejla Burnazović-Ristić, Aida Kulo
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study the association of the use of an oral antihyperglycemic agent metformin with the presence of ocular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: Medical records were reviewed for 234 patients with diagnosed T2D. 81.2% (n=190) patients were using metformin and 18.8% (n=44) using other oral antihyperglycemic agents. Plasma glucose concentration, glycated haemoglobin, and the presence of ocular complications in patients treated with metformin were compared to those in patients treated with other oral antihyperglycemic agents...
November 2017: Acta Medica Academica
Davood Nasiry, Ali Reza Khalatbary, Hassan Ahmadvand
Objectives: Oxidative stress has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Juglans regia L . (JRL) leaf extract has hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties. This study aimed to determine the ameliorative effects of JRL against diabetic retinopathy. Materials and Methods: The DR rat model was generated by injection of streptozotocin (STZ). A subset of the diabetic rats received JRL or metformin after the onset of hyperglycemia. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry of apoptotic and inflammatory factors were assessed along with biochemical assessments of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Yoon Sook Kim, Minjun Kim, Mee Young Choi, Dong Hoon Lee, Gu Seob Roh, Hyun Joon Kim, Sang Soo Kang, Gyeong Jae Cho, Seong-Jae Kim, Ji-Myong Yoo, Wan Sung Choi
Retinal degeneration is an early feature of diabetic retinopathy, the major cause of blindness in the developed world. Here we investigated how the widely used antidiabetic drug metformin reduces retinal injury in diabetic mice. Metformin was orally administered to control mice or mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Western blot analysis showed that levels of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) and other related proteins such as carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) and thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) were significantly increased, and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were activated in the diabetic retinas or retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells exposed to high glucose compared to controls...
October 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Amy L Hogue, Mark K Huntington
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing in prevalence nationwide and in South Dakota, with an especially high prevalence in its American Indian population. Screening is not recommended for type 1 DM, but is for type 2 DM and pre-diabetes in certain populations. Fasting glucose, two-hour glucose tolerance test, or hemoglobin A1c are appropriate screening options. Treatment can include diabetic self-management education programs and medications. In addition to glycemic control, other cardiovascular risk factors must be reduced in these patients and specific testing and consultations should be performed to detect complications such as nephropathy or retinopathy...
2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
Junhui Du, Rong Li
Metformin is a kind of biguanide hypoglycemic agent that has been widely used in patients with diabetes mellitus. In clinical practice, whether metformin should be stopped before Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) remains largely unclear. Some endocrinologists suggest stop metformin before FFA. However, ophthalmologists do not always adopt this opinion in their practice. This situation may lead to disputes between physicians and patients. This article analyzed contrast-induced nephropathy(CIN) and the related contrast agent, as well as the adverse reactions of fluorescein angiography...
June 10, 2017: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
Anandakumar Amutha, Ranjit Unnikrishnan, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Viswanathan Mohan
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of childhood onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing, but prepubertal T2D is still unusual. METHODS: We report four cases of T2D with onset at or below 10 years of age registered at a tertiary diabetes centre in southern India.T2D was diagnosed based on the absence of ketosis, good beta cell reserve as shown by the C peptide assay, absence of GAD antibodies and pancreatic calculi, and response to oral hypoglycemic agents. RESULTS: All four patients were female, obese and had acanthosis nigricans...
February 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Eberhard Standl, Oliver Schnell, Darren K McGuire, Antonio Ceriello, Lars Rydén
Cardiovascular outcome trials of antihyperglycaemic drugs and non-statin LDL-cholesterol-lowering drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes who have, or who are at high risk of, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease have provided new evidence that has substantially affected the management of cardiovascular risk in these patients. On the basis of proven cardiovascular and renal benefit, the antihyperglycaemic drugs empagliflozin, liraglutide, and semaglutide-the latter being under review for approval by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency-should be preferentially used as second-line treatments in these patient populations, typically in addition to metformin...
May 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Andy Jeesu Kim, Janet Ya-An Chang, Liheng Shi, Richard Cheng-An Chang, Michael Lee Ko, Gladys Yi-Ping Ko
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of metformin on dysfunctional retinas in obesity-induced type 2 diabetic mice. Methods: A high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mouse model (C57BL/6J) was used in this study. After 2 months of the HFD regimen, HFD mice were given daily metformin through oral gavage. Body weights, glucose tolerance, and retinal light responses were monitored regularly. Fluorescein angiography (FA) was used to assess changes in retinal vasculature...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Kunal Maniar, Amal Moideen, Ankur Mittal, Amol Patil, Amitava Chakrabarti, Dibyajyoti Banerjee
The most widely prescribed oral anti-diabetic agent today in the world today is a member of the biguanide class of drugs called metformin. Apart from its use in diabetes, it is currently being investigated for its potential use in many diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer's disease, obesity, comorbidities of diabetes such as retinopathy, nephropathy to name a few. Numerous in-vitro and in-vivo studies as well as clinical trials have been and are being conducted with a vast amount of literature being published every day...
March 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Malika Oubaha, Khalil Miloudi, Agnieszka Dejda, Vera Guber, Gaëlle Mawambo, Marie-Anne Germain, Guillaume Bourdel, Natalija Popovic, Flavio A Rezende, Randal J Kaufman, Frédérick A Mallette, Przemyslaw Sapieha
Pathological angiogenesis is the hallmark of diseases such as cancer and retinopathies. Although tissue hypoxia and inflammation are recognized as central drivers of vessel growth, relatively little is known about the process that bridges the two. In a mouse model of ischemic retinopathy, we found that hypoxic regions of the retina showed only modest rates of apoptosis despite severely compromised metabolic supply. Using transcriptomic analysis and inducible loss-of-function genetics, we demonstrated that ischemic retinal cells instead engage the endoplasmic reticulum stress inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) pathway that, through its endoribonuclease activity, induces a state of senescence in which cells adopt a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)...
October 26, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
Quan-Yong Yi, Gang Deng, Nan Chen, Zhi-Sha Bai, Jian-Shu Yuan, Guo-Hai Wu, Yu-Wen Wang, Shan-Jun Wu
Previous studies have shown that metformin, an AMP-activated protein kinase activator widely prescribed for type 2 diabetes, is especially beneficial in cases of diabetic retinopathy (DR) with undetermined mechanisms. Here, we used a streptozotocin-induced diabetes model in mice to study the effects of metformin on the development of DR. We found that 10 weeks after STZ treatment, DR was induced in STZ-treated mice, regardless treatment of metformin. However, metformin alleviated the DR, seemingly through attenuating the retina neovascularization...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Lin Li, Yan-Lin Li, Yun-Feng Zhou, Zheng-Yan Ge, Li-Li Wang, Zhi-Qiang Li, Yu-Jie Guo, Long Jin, Ye Ren, Jian-Xun Liu, Yang Xu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevention effect of diabetic retinopathy of Jiangtang Xiaozhi Recipe (, JXR) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control group and diabetic group. Rats in the diabetic group were induced by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (50 mg/kg), and subdivided into 5 groups. Rats in the diabetic control group were given saline; four treatment groups were given metformin (300 mg/kg), JXR (2, 4 and 8 g/kg) respectively for 8 weeks, while rats in the normal control group were injected with citrate buffer and given the same volume of vehicle...
June 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Julia Hippisley-Cox, Carol Coupland
OBJECTIVE: To assess the risks of amputation, blindness, severe kidney failure, hyperglycaemia, and hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes associated with prescribed diabetes drugs, particularly newer agents including gliptins or glitazones (thiazolidinediones). DESIGN: Open cohort study in primary care. SETTING: 1243 practices contributing data to the QResearch database in England. PARTICIPANTS: 469,688 patients with type 2 diabetes aged 25-84 years between 1 April 2007 and 31 January 2015...
March 30, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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