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Mental oxide

Sidharth Mehan, Vikramdeep Monga, Manju Rani, Rajesh Dudi, Krishna Ghimire
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the solanesol (SNL)-mediated coenzyme-Q10 restoration to ameliorate 3-nitropropionic (3-NP)-induced behavioral, biochemical, and histological changes which resemble Huntington's disease (HD)-like symptoms in men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Various behavioral and biochemical parameters were carried out to evaluate the activity of SNL on 3-NP-treated rats. To determine the therapeutic significance of SNL on HD, different behavioral tests such as memory task, locomotor activity, grip strength, and beam cross and some biochemical test along with histopathological findings were done...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
A I Fedin, E V Starykh, D V Torshin
This article contains an analysis of clinical and experimental studies in which oxidative stress is considered as a possible mechanism in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Oxidative stress occurs as a result of brain damage after epileptic seizures and may later cause epileptogenesis. Patients with epilepsy showed a high level of lipid peroxidation markers, while the activity of antioxidant defense system was low. The level of oxidative stress was shown to be significantly higher in epileptics with associated mental disorders and in patients with refractory epilepsy...
2019: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Puja K Mehta, Aneesha Thobani, Viola Vaccarino
Symptomatic individuals suspected of having myocardial ischemia often have no obstructive atherosclerotic narrowing of epicardial coronary arteries. Abnormal coronary vascular reactivity, and in particular, coronary artery vasospasm (CAS), may be an explanation in a subset of these patients. Psychological factors play an important role in ischemic heart disease, but their role in CAS is not clear; autonomic dysfunction and increased inflammation are two prevailing pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in abnormal coronary reactivity resulting from mental health conditions...
February 8, 2019: Psychosomatic Medicine
Xiaoling Jiang, Huazhen Liu, Yongxian Shao, Mingzhi Peng, Wen Zhang, Duan Li, Xiuzhen Li, Yanna Cai, Ting Tan, Xinshuo Lu, Jianan Xu, Xueying Su, Yunting Lin, Zongcai Liu, Yonglan Huang, Chunhua Zeng, Ya-Ping Tang, Li Liu
BACKGROUND: GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) deficiency could impair the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin and causes metabolic diseases involving phenylalanine catabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, nitric oxide production and so on. Though improvements could be achieved by tetrahydrobiopterin and neurotransmitter precursor levodopa supplementation, residual motor and mental deficits remain in some patients. An appropriate GTPCH deficiency animal model with clinical symptoms, especially the motor impairments, is still not available for mechanism and therapy studies yet...
February 8, 2019: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Minjie Shen, Feifei Wang, Meng Li, Nirnath Sah, Michael E Stockton, Joseph J Tidei, Yu Gao, Tomer Korabelnikov, Sudharsan Kannan, Jason D Vevea, Edwin R Chapman, Anita Bhattacharyya, Henriette van Praag, Xinyu Zhao
Fragile X syndrome results from a loss of the RNA-binding protein fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). How FMRP regulates neuronal development and function remains unclear. Here we show that FMRP-deficient immature neurons exhibit impaired dendritic maturation, altered expression of mitochondrial genes, fragmented mitochondria, impaired mitochondrial function, and increased oxidative stress. Enhancing mitochondrial fusion partially rescued dendritic abnormalities in FMRP-deficient immature neurons. We show that FMRP deficiency leads to reduced Htt mRNA and protein levels and that HTT mediates FMRP regulation of mitochondrial fusion and dendritic maturation...
February 18, 2019: Nature Neuroscience
Xiaolu Chen, Tao Yu, Rong Luo
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegenerative diseases is a type of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation characterized by excessive iron deposition in specific parts of the brain. The phenotypic spectrum includes classic and atypical PKAN. The clinical presentation may range from speech disorder to severe dystonia, dysphagia, mental retardation and retinal degeneration. It is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a variant in the PANK2 gene, pathogenesis involves mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress damage, lipid metabolism disorders and autophagy disorders...
February 10, 2019: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Yushi Katsuyama, Norihisa Taira, Tatsuya Tsuboi, Masato Yoshioka, Yuri Okano, Hitoshi Masaki
Skin sensitivity is a serious problem for many people, and it can be induced by various factors such as UV irradiation, physical and mental stresses, air pollution, dry air and so on. Skin dryness triggered by UV and dry air is one of the most important causes inducing the development of sensitive skin, and it has been reported that oxidative stress contributes to skin dryness. In this study, we investigated whether treatment with 3-O-laurylglyceryl ascorbate (VC-3LG), which is an amphipathic ascorbic acid derivative, can suppress the development of sensitive skin...
February 2019: Experimental Dermatology
Oliver D Robertson, Nieves G Coronado, Rickinder Sethi, Michael Berk, Seetal Dodd
AIM: Neuropsychiatric disorders including depression, bipolar and schizophrenia frequently exhibit a neuroprogressive course from prodrome to chronicity. There are a range of agents exhibiting capacity to attenuate biological mechanisms associated with neuroprogression. This review will update the evidence for putative neuroprotective agents including clinical efficacy, mechanisms of action and limitations in current assessment tools, and identify novel agents with neuroprotective potential...
January 28, 2019: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Woo Bin Yoon, Hyeon Jun Choi, Ji Eun Kim, Ji Won Park, Mi Ju Kang, Su Ji Bae, Young Ju Lee, You Sang Choi, Kil Soo Kim, Young-Suk Jung, Joon-Yong Cho, Dae Youn Hwang, Hyun Keun Song
Cognitive impairment responses are important research topics in the study of degenerative brain diseases as well as in understanding of human mental activities. To compare response to scopolamine (SPL)-induced cognitive impairment, we measured altered parameters for learning and memory ability, inflammatory response, oxidative stress, cholinergic dysfunction and neuronal cell damages, in Korl:ICR stock and two commercial breeder stocks (A:ICR and B:ICR) after relevant SPL exposure. In the water maze test, Korl:ICR showed no significant difference in SPL-induced learning and memory impairment compared to the two different ICRs, although escape latency was increased after SPL exposure...
December 2018: Laboratory Animal Research
Vahidreza Ostadmohammadi, Mehri Jamilian, Fereshteh Bahmani, Zatollah Asemi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D and probiotic co-administration on mental health, hormonal, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out on 60 subjects, aged 18-40 years old. Subjects were randomly allocated to take either 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks plus 8 × 109  CFU/day probiotic (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) for 12 weeks...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Ovarian Research
Omid Reza Tamtaji, Reza Heidari-Soureshjani, Naghmeh Mirhosseini, Ebrahim Kouchaki, Fereshteh Bahmani, Esmat Aghadavod, Maryam Tajabadi-Ebrahimi, Zatollah Asemi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Combined probiotic and selenium supplementation may improve Alzheimer's disease (AD) by correcting metabolic abnormalities, and attenuating inflammation and oxidative stress. This study aimed to determine the effects of probiotic and selenium co-supplementation on cognitive function and metabolic status among patients with AD. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted among 79 patients with AD. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either selenium (200 μg/day) plus probiotic containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, and Bifidobacterium longum (2 × 109  CFU/day each) (n = 27), selenium (200 μg/day) (n = 26) or placebo (n = 26) for 12 weeks...
December 10, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Michael Müller
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting mostly girls. A seemingly normal initial development is followed by developmental stagnation and regression, leading to severe mental impairment with autistic features, motor dysfunction, irregular breathing and epilepsy. Currently, a cure does not exist. Due to the close association of RTT with mitochondrial alterations, cellular redox-impairment and oxidative stress, compounds stabilizing mitochondrial function, cellular redox-homeostasis, and oxidant detoxification are increasingly considered as treatment concepts...
January 9, 2019: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Miao-Miao Li, Dan Wang, Wen-Peng Bi, Zheng-Er Jiang, Ri-Long Piao, Hai-Ling Yu
N-Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endocannabinoid-like molecule, participates in controlling behaviors associated with mental disorders as an endogenous neuroprotective factor. Based on accumulating evidence and our previous data, we tested our hypothesis that the antidepressant-like effects of PEA observed during chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) are mediated by possible targets in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha) pathway. In this study, rats were subjected to 35 days of CUMS and treated with drugs such as PEA (2...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Jason P Appleton, Lisa J Woodhouse, Daniel Bereczki, Eivind Berge, Hanne K Christensen, Rónán Collins, John Gommans, George Ntaios, Serefnur Ozturk, Szabolcs Szatmari, Joanna M Wardlaw, Nikola Sprigg, Peter M Rothwell, Philip M Bath
Background and Purpose- Increased blood pressure (BP), heart rate, and their derivatives (variability, pulse pressure, rate-pressure product) are associated with poor clinical outcome in acute stroke. We assessed the effects of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) on hemodynamic parameters and these on outcome in participants in the ENOS trial (Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke). Methods- Four thousand and eleven patients with acute stroke and raised BP were randomized within 48 hours of onset to transdermal GTN or no GTN for 7 days...
January 10, 2019: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Muhammad Saeed, Muhammad Naveed, Jannat BiBi, Asghar Ali Kamboh, Lucas Phil, Sun Chao
Coffee is a composite mixture of more than a thousand diverse phytochemicals like alkaloids, phenolic compounds, vitamins, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals and nitrogenous compounds. Coffee has multifunctional properties as a food additive and nutraceutical. As a nutraceutical, coffee has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antidyslipidemic, anti-obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which can serve for the treatment and prevention of metabolic syndrome and associated disorders...
January 7, 2019: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Waleed A Mohamed, Rania M Salama, Mona F Schaalan
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases in which the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB or Akt) pathway is deregulated in response to phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) overexpression. Lactoferrin (LF), a multifunctional iron-binding glycoprotein, is involved in AD pathology; however, direct evidence of its impact upon AD remains unclear. To elucidate LF's role in AD, the possible protective mechanism post-LF administration for 3 months was investigated in AD patients by observing changes in the p-Akt/PTEN pathway...
January 3, 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Nurun Nahar Borna, Yoshihito Kishita, Masakazu Kohda, Sze Chern Lim, Masaru Shimura, Yibo Wu, Kaoru Mogushi, Yukiko Yatsuka, Hiroko Harashima, Yuichiro Hisatomi, Takuya Fushimi, Keiko Ichimoto, Kei Murayama, Akira Ohtake, Yasushi Okazaki
Pentatricopeptide repeat domain proteins are a large family of RNA-binding proteins involved in mitochondrial RNA editing, stability, and translation. Mitochondrial translation machinery defects are an expanding group of genetic diseases in humans. We describe a patient who presented with low birth weight, mental retardation, and optic atrophy. Brain MRI showed abnormal bilateral signals at the basal ganglia and brainstem, and the patient was diagnosed as Leigh syndrome. Exome sequencing revealed two potentially loss-of-function variants [c...
January 3, 2019: Neurogenetics
K Amit Saha, R Brendan Schmidt, Julie Wilhelmy, Vy Nguyen, Abed Abugherir, K Justin Do, Mohsen Nemat-Gorgani, W Ronald Davis, K Anand Ramasubramanian
BACKGROUND: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a poorly understood disease. Amongst others symptoms, the disease is associated with profound fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, sleep abnormalities, and other symptoms that are made worse by physical or mental exertion. While the etiology of the disease is still debated, evidence suggests oxidative damage to immune and hematological systems as one of the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease. Since red blood cells (RBCs) are well-known scavengers of oxidative stress, and are critical in microvascular perfusion and tissue oxygenation, we hypothesized that RBC deformability is adversely affected in ME/CFS...
December 28, 2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Matthew J McAllister, Steven A Basham, Hunter S Waldman, JohnEric W Smith, Matthew B Butawan, Richard J Bloomer
Firefighters and military personnel are exposed to a variety of stressors. The combination of mental and physical stress (i.e., dual stress challenges [DSCs]) results in significant oxidative stress (OS), which may contribute to cardiometabolic dysfunction. Curcumin (CUR) is an exogenous antioxidant that may attenuate such OS. Fourteen trained men participated in a randomized, cross-over design to investigate the impact of CUR on markers of OS resulting from DSC. CUR or placebo was ingested three days prior to, and the morning of, testing...
December 22, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Anke Hoffmann, Dietmar Spengler
Mitochondria play a central role in cellular energy-generating processes and are master regulators of cell life. They provide the energy necessary to reinstate and sustain homeostasis in response to stress, and to launch energy intensive adaptation programs to ensure an organism's survival and future well-being. By this means, mitochondria are particularly apt to mediate brain programming by early-life stress (ELS) and to serve at the same time as subcellular substrate in the programming process. With a focus on mitochondria's integrated role in metabolism, steroidogenesis and oxidative stress, we review current findings on altered mitochondrial function in the brain, the placenta and peripheral blood cells following ELS-dependent programming in rodents and recent insights from humans exposed to early life adversity (ELA)...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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