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Calyptratae phylogeny

Pierfilippo Cerretti, John O Stireman, Thomas Pape, James E O'Hara, Marco A T Marinho, Knut Rognes, David A Grimaldi
Calyptrate flies include about 22,000 extant species currently classified into Hippoboscoidea (tsetse, louse, and bat flies), the muscoid grade (house flies and relatives) and the Oestroidea (blow flies, bot flies, flesh flies, and relatives). Calyptrates are abundant in nearly all terrestrial ecosystems, often playing key roles as decomposers, parasites, parasitoids, vectors of pathogens, and pollinators. For oestroids, the most diverse group within calyptrates, definitive fossils have been lacking. The first unambiguous fossil of Oestroidea is described based on a specimen discovered in amber from the Dominican Republic...
2017: PloS One
Xian-Hui Liu, Jia-Jia Liu, Xin-Yu Li, Dong Zhang
Scathophaga stercoraria (Linnaeus, 1758) is a well-established insect model species involved in numerous investigations on behavior, biology, phylogeny, genetics and evolution. The antennal sensilla of S. stercoraria are examined via scanning electron microscopy in order to emphasize their importance on taxonomy and phylogeny. On antennal scape and pedicel, both microtrichiae and several sharp-tipped mechanoreceptors are observed, while another two structures, setiferous plaques and pedicellar button, are also detected on antennal pedicel...
January 21, 2016: Zootaxa
Dong Zhang, Liping Yan, Ming Zhang, Hongjun Chu, Jie Cao, Kai Li, Defu Hu, Thomas Pape
The complete mitogenome of the horse stomach bot fly Gasterophilus pecorum (Fabricius) and a near-complete mitogenome of Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) were sequenced. The mitogenomes contain the typical 37 mitogenes found in metazoans, organized in the same order and orientation as in other cyclorrhaphan Diptera. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomes from 38 calyptrate taxa with and without two non-calyptrate outgroups were performed using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Shuangmei Ding, Xuankun Li, Ning Wang, Stephen L Cameron, Meng Mao, Yuyu Wang, Yuqiang Xi, Ding Yang
Muscoidea is a significant dipteran clade that includes house flies (Family Muscidae), latrine flies (F. Fannidae), dung flies (F. Scathophagidae) and root maggot flies (F. Anthomyiidae). It is comprised of approximately 7000 described species. The monophyly of the Muscoidea and the precise relationships of muscoids to the closest superfamily the Oestroidea (blow flies, flesh flies etc) are both unresolved. Until now mitochondrial (mt) genomes were available for only two of the four muscoid families precluding a thorough test of phylogenetic relationships using this data source...
2015: PloS One
Sujatha Narayanan Kutty, Adrian C Pont, Rudolf Meier, Thomas Pape
With about 5000 species in ca. 180 genera, the Muscidae is the most species-rich family in the muscoid grade of Calyptratae (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha), the others being the Fanniidae, Scathophagidae and Anthomyiidae. Muscidae is remarkable for its young age, high species diversity in all biogeographic regions, and an unusually diverse range of feeding habits at the larval stage (e.g., saprophagy, phytophagy, carnivory, endoparasitism, haematophagy). We here review muscid classification and biology and present a molecular phylogeny based on four mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S, COI, CYTB) and three nuclear genes (28S, Ef1a, and CAD) for 84 species from 40 genera...
September 2014: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
M A T Marinho, A M L Azeredo-Espin, N I T Zanchin
The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of the eukaryotic ribosomal DNA (rDNA) cluster plays an essential role in processing of the ribosomal RNA, which is primarily accomplished by the secondary structures acquired by the molecule after transcription. Two possible structural conformation models have been proposed for the ITS2 region, the "ring model" and the "hairpin model," and the former has been widely used in many molecular phylogenetic analyses incorporating structural information available to date. To evaluate the validity of this model, in vitro transcribed ITS2 molecules from species representing the three superfamilies of the Calyptratae clade (Diptera: Schizophora), namely Cochliomyia hominivorax, Musca domestica, and Glossina morsitans, were submitted to enzymatic digestion with single- and double-stranded specific nucleases (RNases I, A, T1, and V1)...
March 2013: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Yuan-jun Shao, Xian-qiong Hu, Guang-da Peng, Rui-xian Wang, Rui-na Gao, Chao Lin, Wei-de Shen, Rui Li, Bing Li
The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Tachinidae Exorista sorbillans (Diptera) is sequenced by PCR-based approach. The circular mitogenome is 14,960 bp long and has the representative mitochondrial gene (mt gene) organization and order of Diptera. All protein-coding sequences are initiated with ATN codon; however, the only exception is Cox I gene, which has a 4-bp ATCG putative start codon. Ten of the thirteen protein-coding genes have a complete termination codon (TAA), but the rest are seated on the H strand with incomplete codons...
December 2012: Molecular Biology Reports
M A T Marinho, A C M Junqueira, D F Paulo, M C Esposito, M H Villet, A M L Azeredo-Espin
The superfamily Oestroidea, comprising ∼15,000 species, is a large and ecologically diverse clade within the order Diptera. Among its six commonly recognized families, Calliphoridae seems to be crucial for understanding evolutionary relationships in the group, as it is recognized as a controversial paraphyletic grouping. To further investigate this matter, the ITS2, 28S, COI and 16S regions were used to infer phylogenetic relationships in Oestroidea with maximum-parsimony (MP), maximum-likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods...
December 2012: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Zhong-kui Song, Xun-zhang Wang, Ge-qiu Liang
The resolution potential of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) at deeper levels remains controversial. In this study, 105 ITS2 sequences of 55 species in Calyptratae were analyzed to examine the phylogenetic utility of the spacer above the subfamily level and to further understand its evolutionary characteristics. We predicted the secondary structure of each sequence using the minimum-energy algorithm and constructed two data matrixes for phylogenetic analysis. The ITS2 regions of Calyptratae display strong A-T bias and slight variation in length...
November 2008: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Sujatha Narayanan Kutty, Thomas Pape, Adrian Pont, Brian M Wiegmann, Rudolf Meier
Approximately 5% of the known species-level diversity of Diptera belongs to the Muscoidea with its approximately 7000 described species. Despite including some of the most abundant and well known flies, the phylogenetic relationships within this superfamily are poorly understood. Previous attempts at reconstructing the relationships based on morphology and relatively small molecular data sets were only moderately successful. Here, we use molecular data for 127 exemplar species of the Muscoidea, two species from the Hippoboscoidea, ten species representing the Oestroidea and seven outgroup species from four acalyptrate superfamilies...
November 2008: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Marcos Túlio Oliveira, Joan Grande Barau, Ana Carolina Martins Junqueira, Pedro Cipriano Feijão, Aline Coelho da Rosa, Cristina Feix Abreu, Ana Maria L Azeredo-Espin, Ana Cláudia Lessinger
We present the first two mitochondrial genomes of Muscidae dipterans for the species Haematobia irritans (the horn fly) and Stomoxys calcitrans (the stable fly). Typical insect mtDNA features are described, such as a high A+T content (79.1% and 78.9%, respectively), the preference for A+T-rich codons, and the evidence of a non-optimal codon usage. The strong A+T enrichment partially masks another nucleotide content bias maintained by A+C mutation pressure in these Muscidae mtDNAs. The analysis of this data provides a model of metazoans tRNA anticodon evolution, based on the selection hypothesis of anticodon versatility...
September 2008: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Katharina Dittmar, Megan L Porter, Susan Murray, Michael F Whiting
Bat flies are a small but diverse group of highly specialized ectoparasitic, obligatory bloodsucking Diptera. For the first time, the phylogenetic relationships of 26 species and five subfamilies were investigated using four genes (18S rDNA, 16S rDNA, COII, and cytB) under three optimality criteria (maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian inference). Tree topology tests of previous hypotheses were conducted under likelihood (Shimodaira-Hasegawa test). Major findings include the non-monophyly of the Streblidae and the recovery of an Old World- and a New World-Clade of bat flies...
January 2006: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Ana Carolina M Junqueira, Ana Cláudia Lessinger, Tatiana Teixeira Torres, Felipe Rodrigues da Silva, André Luiz Vettore, Paulo Arruda, Ana Maria L Azeredo Espin
In view of the medical, sanitary and forensic importance of Chrysomya species, a knowledge of their nucleotide sequences would be useful for the molecular characterization of this genus, and would help in designing primers and in improving the molecular identification of Calliphoridae species. In this work, the mitochondrial genome of the blowfly Chrysomya chloropyga (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was completely sequenced. The entire mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule was 15,837 bp long and was sequenced using the shotgun approach...
September 15, 2004: Gene
D K Yeates, B M Wiegmann
The order Diptera (true flies) is one of the most species-rich and ecologically diverse clades of insects. The order probably arose in the Permian, and the main lineages of flies were present in the Triassic. A novel recent proposal suggests that Strepsiptera are the sister-order to Diptera. Within Diptera, evidence is convincing for the monophyly of Culicomorpha, Blephariceromorpha, and Tipulomorpha but weak for the monophyly of the other basal infraorders and for the relationships among them. The lower Diptera (Nematocera) is paraphyletic with respect to Brachycera, and morphological evidence suggests the sister-group of Brachycera lies in the Psychodomorpha...
1999: Annual Review of Entomology
X Nirmala, V Hypsa, M Zurovec
Sequences for nearly complete 18S rRNA and partial 16S rRNA genes were determined for sixteen species representing twelve calyptrate families. Two unique insertions are present in expansion regions of the 18S rDNA in nycteribiids. Alignments containing other dipteran rRNA genes provided good resolution at higher taxonomic level: monophyly of Calyptratae is well supported. While both 16S and 18S rDNA matrices produce unstable topologies within Calyptratae when analysed separately, their combination results in a tree with several robust and well supported nodes...
October 2001: Insect Molecular Biology
A C Lessinger, A C Martins Junqueira, T A Lemos, E L Kemper, F R da Silva, A L Vettore, P Arruda, A M Azeredo-Espin
The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax was determined. This genome is 16,022 bp in size and corresponds to a typical Brachycera mtDNA. A Serine start codon for COI and incomplete termination codons for COII, NADH 5 and NADH 4 genes were described. The nucleotide composition of C. hominivorax mtDNA is 77% AT-rich, reflected in the predominance of AT-rich codons in protein-coding genes. Non-optimal codon usage was commonly observed in C. hominivorax mitochondrial genes...
October 2000: Insect Molecular Biology
M V Bernasconi, J Pawlowski, C Valsangiacomo, J C Piffaretti, P I Ward
The family Scathophagidae constitutes, together with members of the families Muscidae, Fannidae, and Anthomyiidae, the Muscoidea superfamily. The species Scathophaga stercoraria has been used extensively to investigate questions in animal ecology and evolution, particularly as a model system for studies of sperm competition and life history evolution. However, no phylogenetic studies have ever been performed on the Scathophagidae and the relationships within this family remain unclear. This study represents a molecular approach aimed at uncovering the phylogenetic relationships among 61 species representing 22 genera of Scathophagidae...
August 2000: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
M V Bernasconi, C Valsangiacomo, J C Piffaretti, P I Ward
The utility of a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragment of about 1100 bp (including partial COI and COII sequences and tRNALeu) for evolutionary studies in Muscoidea is discussed. The species investigated are Scathophaga stercoraria, Microprosopa pallidicauda and Trichopalpus fraterna (family Scathophagidae), Musca domestica (Muscidae), Lasiomma seminitidum (Anthomyiidae) and Fannia armata (Fanniidae). Comparisons were made with published mtDNA sequences of Drosophila, Anopheles and three Calliphoridae species...
February 2000: Insect Molecular Biology
D G King
In each of 30 dipteran species, representing 13 acalyptrate and 7 calyptrate families, the cardia is formed from specialized cells at the junction between foregut and midgut. Foregut epithelium forms the stomodeal valve; midgut epithelium envelops the valve to form the cardia's outer wall. Cytological characteristics within these epithelia differ from region to region and from species to species. Since the cardia secretes the peritrophic membrane, cardias with diverse patterns of cellular differentiation may be expected to produce peritrophic membranes with similarly diverse properties...
December 1989: Journal of Morphology
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