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Infectious Diseases Guidelines

Sara A Awan, Ayesha Junaid, Shafain Sheikh
Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that all blood transfusion services must screen donated blood for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) one and two, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis. A mandatory screening for malaria is also warranted in malaria endemic areas. Our study aimed at analyzing the prevalence and different diagnostic methods of screening transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) in replacement and voluntary, non-remunerated donors in the blood bank of a tertiary care hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan...
December 28, 2018: Curēus
Grzegorz Marek Brożek, Marcin Nowak, Jan Eugeniusz Zejda, Mateusz Jankowski, Joshua Lawson, Władysław Pierzchała
INTRODUCTION Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common chronic non-infectious diseases. The clinical management is determined by patient assignment to the severity stage of the disease in accordance with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines. OBJECTIVES Our aim was to determine the economic implications of changing GOLD guidelines and their impact on the direct costs of pharmacological treatment of patients diagnosed with COPD. PATIENTS AND METHODS This analysis was based on data provided by a group of 298 of 500 randomly selected primary care physicians in Poland (response rate 59...
March 14, 2019: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
Emmanuel Nene Odjidja, Ghislaine Gatasi, Predrag Duric
BACKGROUND: Tanzania remains among the countries with the highest burden of infectious diseases (notably HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis) during pregnancy. In response, the country adopted World Health Organization's (WHO) latest antenatal care (ANC) guidelines which recommend comprehensive services including diagnostic screening and treatment for pregnant women during antenatal. However, as Tanzania makes efforts to scale up these services under the existing health system resources, it is crucial to understand its capacity to deliver these services in an integrated fashion...
March 11, 2019: BMC Health Services Research
Peter J Tonge
The accurate and precise determination of binding interactions plays a central role in fields such as drug discovery where structure-activity relationships guide the selection and optimization of drug leads. Binding is often assessed by monitoring the response caused by varying one of the binding partners in a functional assay, or by using methods where the concentrations of free and/or bound ligand can be directly determined. In addition, there are also many approaches where binding leads to a change in the properties of the binding partner(s) that can be directly quantified such as an alteration in mass or in a spectroscopic signal...
March 12, 2019: ACS Infectious Diseases
Shmuel Shoham, Edward A Dominguez
These updated AST-IDCOP guidelines review the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of emerging fungi after organ transplantation. Infections due to numerous generally innocuous fungi are increasingly recognized in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, comprising about 7 to10% of fungal infections in this setting. Such infections are collectively referred to as emerging fungal infections and include Mucormycetes, Fusarium, Scedospordium, and dematiaceous fungi among others. The causative organisms are diverse in their pathophysiology, uncommon in the clinical setting, have evolving nomenclature and are often resistant to multiple commonly used antifungal agents...
March 12, 2019: Clinical Transplantation
D H Lee, R A Zuckerman
These updated guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation review the diagnosis, prevention and management of HSV in the pre- and post-transplant period. A majority of transplant recipients are seropositive for HSV-1 or 2. Compared with immunocompetent persons, SOT recipients shed HSV more frequently, have more severe clinical manifestations, and are slower to respond to therapy. Most HSV infection is diagnosed on clinical grounds, but patients may present with atypical lesions and/or other clinical manifestations...
March 12, 2019: Clinical Transplantation
D F Florescu, J M Schaenman
These updated guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation review the diagnosis, prevention, and management of adenovirus infections after solid organ transplantation. Adenovirus is an important cause of infectious complications in both stem cell transplant and SOT patients, causing a range of clinical syndromes including pneumonitis, colitis, and disseminated disease. The current update of the guidelines highlights that adenovirus surveillance testing should not be performed in asymptomatic recipients...
March 12, 2019: Clinical Transplantation
C Arianne Buchan, Camille Nelson Kotton
These updated guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation review recommendations for prevention and management of travel related infection in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients as well as risks associated with transplant tourism. Counseling regarding travel post-transplant should be included during the pre-transplant evaluation and all SOT recipients should be seen by a travel medicine specialist prior to traveling to destinations with higher rates of infection...
March 12, 2019: Clinical Transplantation
Hans H Hirsch, Parmjeet S Randhawa
The present AST-IDCOP guidelines update information on BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) infection, replication and disease, which impact kidney transplantation (KT), but rarely non-kidney solid organ transplantation (SOT). As pre-transplant risk factors in KT-donors and -recipients presently do not translate into clinically validated measures regarding organ allocation, antiviral prophylaxis, or screening, all KT-recipients should be screened for BKPyV-DNAemia monthly until month 9, and then every 3 months until 2 years posttransplant...
March 12, 2019: Clinical Transplantation
O C Smibert, S Abbinga, D W Spelman, A W J Jenney
INTRODUCTION: The confirmation or exclusion of a diagnosis of neurosyphilis has long presented a challenge for infectious diseases clinician's. The authors reviewed the concordance between cerebrospinal fluid analysis and subsequent antibiotic strategy for patients undergoing evaluation of a diagnosis of neurosyphilis. METHODS: All patients with positive serum syphilis serology referred for CSF analysis between January 2009 and May 2016 were included. Indications for CSF analysis were determined by review of hospital electronic medical records...
March 7, 2019: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Manish Pareek, Helen C Eborall, Fatimah Wobi, Kate S Ellis, Evangelos Kontopantelis, Fang Zhang, Rebecca Baggaley, T Deirdre Hollingsworth, Darrin Baines, Hemu Patel, Pranabashis Haldar, Mayur Patel, Iain Stephenson, Ivan Browne, Paramjit Gill, Rajesh Kapur, Azhar Farooqi, Ibrahim Abubakar, Chris Griffiths
BACKGROUND: Migration is a major global driver of population change. Certain migrants may be at increased risk of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis (TB), HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C, and have poorer outcomes. Early diagnosis and management of these infections can reduce morbidity, mortality and onward transmission and is supported by national guidelines. To date, screening initiatives have been sporadic and focused on individual diseases; systematic routine testing of migrant groups for multiple infections is rarely undertaken and its impact is unknown...
March 7, 2019: BMJ Open
R K Avery, M G Michaels
The present AST-IDCOP guidelines update information on strategies for safe living after organ transplantation. While transplantation carries an increased risk for infection from the recipient's environment due to lifelong immunosuppression, the goal is for the recipient to be able to return to their home and live as normal a life as possible with a functioning graft. The current guideline provides updates to prior recommendations including additions on infections from water and food sources, exposures to animals, cannabis use as well as sexual exposures or those encountered with travel...
March 7, 2019: Clinical Transplantation
R Pellett Madan, J Hand
These updated guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation review the diagnosis, prevention and management of HHV-6A, HHV-6B, HHV-7, and HHV-8 in the pre- and post-transplant period. The majority of HHV-6 (A and B) and HHV-7 infections in transplant recipients are asymptomatic; symptomatic disease is reported infrequently across organs. Routine screening for HHV-6 and 7 DNAemia is not recommended in asymptomatic patients, nor are prophylaxis or preemptive therapy...
March 7, 2019: Clinical Transplantation
Saskia J Bogers, Frederike V van Daalen, Sacha D Kuil, Menno D de Jong, Suzanne E Geerlings
The appropriate use of microbiological investigations is an important cornerstone of antibiotic stewardship programmes, but receives relatively limited attention. This study aimed to identify influencing factors in performing microbiological diagnostic tests and to assess the need for a clinical guideline. We performed a qualitative (focus group) and quantitative (online questionnaire survey) study among medical specialists and residents to identify physicians' considerations in performing microbiological diagnostic tests and to assess the need for a diagnostic guideline...
March 7, 2019: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Julie G Burel, Mariana Babor, Mikhail Pomaznoy, Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn, Nabeela Khan, Alessandro Sette, Bjoern Peters
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major infectious disease worldwide, and is associated with several challenges for control and eradication. First, more accurate diagnostic tools that better represent the spectrum of infection states are required; in particular, identify the latent TB infected individuals with high risk of developing active TB. Second, we need to better understand, from a mechanistic point of view, why the immune system is unsuccessful in some cases for control and elimination of the pathogen. Host transcriptomics is a powerful approach to identify both diagnostic and mechanistic immune signatures of diseases...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Kinga A Kocemba-Pilarczyk, Barbara Ostrowska, Paulina Dudzik, Michał J Markiewicz, Débora Sotirios Souza Pegos, Chaewon Lim
Diagnostic molecular biology is a fast developing discipline of laboratory medicine widely used in numerous medical branches such as oncology, hematology, immunology, internal medicine, or infectious diseases, which will certainly have a major impact on clinical medicine in the near future. Nowadays, educational process is forced to face the quickly growing overflow of easily accessible data and properly guide the students not to be lead astray in the information chaos. Hence, in view of the foregoing, it appears obvious that modern medical education should put particular stress on selective acquiring, interpreting, and applying integrated multidisciplinary knowledge rather than on just absorbing and memorizing huge amount of scattered information...
March 5, 2019: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
Micaela Machado Querido, Lívia Aguiar, Paula Neves, Cristiana Costa Pereira, João Paulo Teixeira
According to World Health Organization, every year in the European Union, 4 million patients acquire a healthcare associated infection. Even though some microorganisms represent no threat to healthy people, hospitals harbor different levels of immunocompetent individuals, namely patients receiving immunosuppressors, with previous infections, or those with extremes of age (young children and elderly), requiring the implementation of effective control measures. Public spaces have also been found an important source of infectious disease outbreaks due to poor or none infection control measures applied...
February 16, 2019: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Eddie Grace, Elias B Chahine
OBJECTIVE: To provide a review of the classification, epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile (C. difficile) infection (CDI) with an emphasis on longterm care. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant literature using a combination of the following terms: C. difficile , classification, epidemilogy, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and long-term care. Sources were limited to human data...
January 1, 2019: The Senior care pharmacist
Hamza Mbareche, Lidia Morawska, Caroline Duchaine
Bioaerosols are recognized as one of the main transmission routes for infectious diseases and are responsible for other various types of health effects through inhalation and potential ingestion. Associating exposure to bioaerosol and health problems is challenging and adequate exposure monitoring is a top priority for aerosol scientists. The multiple factors affecting bioaerosol content, the variability in the focus of each bioaerosol exposure study and the variations in experimental design and the standardization of methods make bioaerosol exposure studies very difficult...
March 1, 2019: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Mark E Nunnally, Arpit Patel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sepsis-3 guidelines have implications in a deeper understanding of the biopathology of the disease. Further, the review focuses on timely topics and new literature on fluid resuscitation, the value of steroids in sepsis, and new therapeutic options such as angiotensin II, vitamin C, and thiamine as well as the emerging role of procalcitonin (PCT) in managing antibiotics. RECENT FINDINGS: Traditional therapies such as type of crystalloid fluid administration and steroid therapy for sepsis are currently under re-evaluation...
April 2019: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
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