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Cerebral AND Edema

Jonathan F McAnulty, Casey Budgeon, Kenneth R Waller
CASE DESCRIPTION: A 6-year-old neutered male mixed-breed dog (dog 1) and 5-year-old neutered male Boston Terrier (dog 2) were evaluated because of lateralized multilobular osteochondrosarcoma (MLO) of the occiput. CLINICAL FINDINGS: Diagnostic imaging revealed proliferative bony occipital masses in both dogs and a nodule in the right caudal lung lobe of dog 1. For both dogs, MRI revealed intact flow through the dorsal sagittal sinus (DSS) into 1 transverse sinus...
April 1, 2019: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
G A D'Aliberti, D Colistra, G Iacopino, M Bramerio, M Cenzato, G Talamonti
BACKGROUND: Gamma-Knife radiosurgery (GKS) can be the treatment of choice for small cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations (AVMs) in eloquent brain areas or, in association with endovascular treatment, for large and complex AVMs. Among the possible delayed complications occurring after radiosurgery of AVMs, de novo formation of a cavernoma has only recently been described. The Authors report a unique case of communicating hydrocephalus with highly proteinaceous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) due to a cavernoma-like lesion of an obliterated cerebral AVM treated by embolizaton and radiosurgery...
March 15, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Johanna Marie Lundesgaard Eidahl, Siri Hauge Opdal, Torleiv Ole Rognum, Arne Stray-Pedersen
INTRODUCTION: Postmortem evaluations of cerebral edema typically involve examinations of macroscopic features such as the presence of pressure signs and compression of the ventricles. Global massive edema is easily detectable in an autopsy, but less-extensive edema may be difficult to diagnose. AIM: The aim of this study was to compare measurements of brain water contents, postmortem CT radiodensity and brain weight to skull size in edematous and nonedematous brains in order to develop an objective method for postmortem evaluations of brain edema...
March 5, 2019: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Ingo Fiss, Abdelhalim Hussein, Alonso Barrantes-Freer, Swetlana Sperling, Silvia Hernandez-Duran, Christina Wolfert, Tobias Pukrop, Milena Ninkovic, Annalen Bleckmann, Veit Rohde, Dorothee Mielke, Bawarjan Schatlo
BACKGROUND: Brain metastases (BMs) are the most frequent malignancy of the central nervous system. Previous research suggested that some metastases show infiltrative behavior rather than sharp demarcation. We hypothesized that three magnetic resonance (MR) imaging parameters-(a) tumor size, (b) extent of peritumoral edema, and (c) presence of multiple BMs-are predictors of cellular invasion beyond the surgically identifiable tumor margins. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis on prospectively collected data of patients with BMs...
March 15, 2019: Acta Neurochirurgica
Mizuho Shimada, Yoshie Hirose, Kazuhiko Shimizu, Daisuke S Yamamoto, Eri H Hayakawa, Hiroyuki Matsuoka
Background: Epigastric pain, vomiting, and other gastrointestinal problems are among the most important symptoms of malaria infection as they suggest the possibility that the condition is serious. Pathophysiologies such as gastric mucosal changes and delayed gastric emptying have been reported in serious cases of malaria infection. However, it is unclear whether or not pathophysiological involvement of the upper gastrointestinal tract occurs in Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA)-infected mice...
2019: Tropical Medicine and Health
Lei Xia, Qiu Han, Xiao-Yu Ni, Bing Chen, Xiu Yang, Quan Chen, Guan-Liang Cheng, Chun-Feng Liu
OBJECTIVE: Efficacy of minimally invasive craniopuncture with the YL-1 puncture needle (hard-channel) and soft drainage tube (soft-channel) in treating hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Totally 150 HICH patients were randomly assigned into three groups, conservative group (n=50), hard-channel group (n=50) and soft-channel group (n=50). Computed tomography, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum and in drainage fluid were examined on day2, 4, 6 post operation...
March 11, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Marc Kent, Eric N Glass, Lindsay Boozer, Rachel B Song, Elyshia J Hankin, Renee M Barber, Simons R Platt, Alexander de Lahunta, Andrew D Miller
Two cats were presented with multifocal neurological signs. One cat's signs progressed over 2 wk; the other cat progressed over 5 days. Examinations were consistent with a process involving the prosencephalon, vestibular system, and general proprioceptive/upper motor neuron systems. MRI of the brain and cervical spinal cord reveal widespread T2 hyperintensity of the white matter. Affected areas included the cerebrum, cerebral peduncles, corticospinal tracts of the pons and medulla, and the cerebellum. T2 hyperintensity was present in all funiculi of the spinal cord...
March 14, 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Verena Rass, Bogdan-Andrei Ianosi, Andreas Wegmann, Max Gaasch, Alois J Schiefecker, Mario Kofler, Anna Lindner, Alberto Addis, Salma S Almashad, Paul Rhomberg, Bettina Pfausler, Ronny Beer, Elke R Gizewski, Claudius Thomé, Raimund Helbok
Background and Purpose- Global cerebral edema occurs in up to 57% of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and is associated with prolonged hospital stay and poor outcome. Recently, admission brain edema was successfully graded using a simplified computed tomography-based semiquantitative score (subarachnoid hemorrhage early brain edema score [SEBES]). Longitudinal evaluation of the SEBES grade may discriminate patients with rapid and delayed edema resolution after SAH. Here, we aimed to describe the resolution of brain edema and to study the relationship between this radiographic biomarker and hospital course and outcome after SAH...
March 14, 2019: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Shu Yang, Hong Jin, Zhi-Gang Zhao
Tight junctions (TJs) serve an important role in maintaining the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), while neurological disorders, including ischemic stroke, induce TJ disruption and increase BBB permeability; results include edema formation and hemorrhage transformation. Cerebral endothelium protection presents a promising approach in ischemic stroke therapy. In the current study, protective effects of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) on ischemia-induced disruption of BBB integrity were examined using an oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model in bEnd3 cells...
March 2019: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Miriam Nuño, Beatrice Ugiliweneza, Renee L Bardini, Arzu Ozturk, Jacob T Stephenson, Julia N Magaña
BACKGROUND: Abusive head trauma (AHT) peaks during early infancy and decreases in toddler years. Infants and toddlers experience different injuries, possibly impacting the risk of mortality. We aimed to evaluate the association of age with mortality METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of AHT hospitalizations in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012 from the Kid's Inpatient Claims Database (KID). An accidental head trauma cohort was included to hypothesize that the association between age and mortality is unique to abuse...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Caressa Y Hui, Soumon Rudra, Sirui Ma, Jian L Campian, Jiayi Huang
PURPOSE: Corticosteroids are commonly used to alleviate symptoms from cerebral vasogenic edema in glioblastoma (GBM) patients. This study evaluated the impact of overall corticosteroid exposure during chemoradiotherapy (CRT) on acute severe lymphopenia (ASL) and survival outcomes of GBM patients. METHODS: GBM patients treated with CRT from 2007 to 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Overall corticosteroid exposure was estimated as the average daily dexamethasone dose during 6 weeks of CRT...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Viniyendra Pamecha, Ankur Vagadiya, Piyush Kumar Sinha, Rommel Sandhyav, P Kumaraswamy, Shridhar Sasturkar, Nihar Mohapatra, Ashok Choudhury, Rakhi Maiwal, Rajeev Khanna, Seema Alam, Chandra Kant Pandey, Shiv Kumar Sarin
In countries where deceased organ donation is sparse, emergency live donor liver transplantation(LDLT) is the only lifesaving option in selectpatients with acute liver failure(ALF). Aim of the current study is live liver donor safety and recipient outcomes following LDLT for ALF. Analysis of consecutive patients undergoing LDLT for ALF from March 2011 to February 2018was done. A total of 410 patients underwent LDLT during the study period, out of which 61 (14.8%) were for ALF. All satisfied Kings College Criteria (KCC)...
March 12, 2019: Liver Transplantation
Fulin Xu, Gang Shen, Zuopeng Su, Zijian He, Lutao Yuan
BACKGROUND: Glibenclamide is a widely used sulfonylurea drug prescribed to treat type II diabetes mellitus. Previous studies have demonstrated that glibenclamide has neuroprotective effects in central nervous system injury. However, the exact mechanism by which glibenclamide acts on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to validate the neuroprotective effects of glibenclamide on ICH and to explore the mechanisms underlying these effects...
March 11, 2019: Brain and Behavior
Yaqi Song, Ying Yang, Ying Cui, Junling Gao, Kaijie Wang, Jianzhong Cui
BACKGROUND Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with inflammation and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Lipoxin A4 methyl ester (LXA4 ME), is a stable synthetic analog of lipoxin with anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to investigate the effects of LXA4 ME in a rat model of ICH. MATERIAL AND METHODS Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=120), between 12-13 weeks of age, were divided into the sham group (sham-operated), the vehicle-treated group (ICH+vehicle), the LXA4 ME-L group (ICH+low-dose LXA4 ME, 10 ng/d), and the LXA4 ME-H group (ICH+high-dose LXA4 ME, 100 ng/d)...
March 11, 2019: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Sinead Culleton, Giacomo Talenti, Marios Kaliakatsos, Suresh Pujar, Felice D'Arco
Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a rare severe epileptic syndrome occurring in previously healthy children and characterized by refractory status epilepticus (SE) following a febrile illness. Brain imaging findings in affected patients have been reported in few case series and some case reports. This article is a comprehensive review of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics in all reported patients with a diagnosis of FIRES, describing the findings in the acute and chronic phases of the disease, and discussing possible pathogenesis and radiologic differential diagnoses...
March 10, 2019: Epilepsia
Tinglin Pu, Wenyan Zou, Weixi Feng, Yanli Zhang, Linmei Wang, Hongxing Wang, Ming Xiao
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating cerebrovascular event that often is followed by permanent brain impairments. It is necessary to explore the pathogenesis of secondary pathological damages in order to find effective interventions for improving the prognosis of SAH. Blockage of brain lymphatic drainage has been shown to worsen cerebral ischemia and edema after acute SAH. However, whether or not there is persistent dysfunction of cerebral lymphatic drainage following SAH remains unclear. In this study, autologous blood was injected into the cisterna magna of mice to establish SAH model...
February 2019: Experimental Neurobiology
Zhiyu Xi, Xibei Hu, Xiao Chen, Yong Yang, Jie Ren, Baofeng Wang, Zhihong Zhong, Yuhao Sun, Guoyuan Yang, Qingfang Sun, Liuguan Bian
Protocatechuic acid (PCA) has been well studied for its neuroprotection value in several diseases, but the effect in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has not been reported. Here we verified the protection of PCA in ICH, and investigated the relative mechanisms. ICH model mice were established by injection of collagenase IV. The mice were treated with PCA once per day for 3 days, starting immediately after operation. The modified neurological severity score (mNSS) of mice at 1st , 3rd and 7th day after operation were recorded...
March 7, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Mingxin Wang, Guoqiang Li, Shouguang Sui, Shaoyan Cao, Xinyu Gai, Jingtong Zhu, Chao Li Chao Li
The paper discuss the surgical techniques and clinical curative effects of CEA (Carotid Endarterectomy, CEA) under a microscope via anterior cervical triangle posterior vena jugularisinterna approach combining with suspended carotid artery on the treatment of high level and complex carotid artery stenosis. Retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical data of 21 cases of patients. The far end of carotid artery stenosis section is located above the lower edge of the second cervical vertebra centrum. The carotid artery stenosis section of three cases is located at the middle lower edge of the first cervical vertebrae...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Suvash Dawadi, Subarna Adhikari
There is little information in the literature on the safety of reascent to high altitude shortly after resolution of severe acute altitude illness, including high altitude pulmonary or cerebral edema. We present a case of a 52-y-old male climber who was diagnosed with high altitude pulmonary edema during the 2018 Everest spring climbing season, descended to low altitude for 9 d, received treatment, and returned to continue climbing with a very rapid ascent rate. Despite a very recent history of high altitude pulmonary edema and not using pharmacologic prophylaxis over a very rapid reascent profile, the climber successfully summited Mt...
March 6, 2019: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Tibor Fülöp, Lajos Zsom, Rafael D Rodríguez, Jorge O Chabrier-Rosello, Mehrdad Hamrahian, Christian A Koch
Cerebral edema and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) are common complications of acute brain injury. Hypertonic solutions are routinely used in acute brain injury as effective osmotic agents to lower ICP by increasing the extracellular fluid tonicity. Acute kidney injury in a patient with traumatic brain injury and elevated ICP requiring renal replacement therapy represents a significant therapeutic challenge due to an increased risk of cerebral edema associated with intermittent conventional hemodialysis...
March 8, 2019: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
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